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Northrop N-3PB

The Northrop N-3PB Nomad was a single-engined American floatplane of the 1940s. Northrop developed the N-3PB as an export model based on the earlier Northrop A-17 design. A total of 24 were purchased by Norway, but were not delivered until after the Fall of Norway during the Second World War. Exiled Norwegian forces used them from 1941, operating from Iceland, for convoy escort, anti-submarine patrols, training purposes from "Little Norway" in Canada. Within two years of delivery, the design was obsolete in its combat role, the remaining N-3PBs were replaced by larger aircraft in 1943. Following increased international tension surrounding the German annexation of the Sudetenland in 1938, the Norwegian parliament granted extraordinary appropriations to modernize the Norwegian Armed Forces; the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service and the Norwegian Army Air Service were prioritized for funds from the 50,000,000 kr Norwegian Neutrality Fund. The RNNAS' share of the funds were designated to buy 12 Heinkel He 115 torpedo bombers and 24 reconnaissance aircraft, as well as several new naval air stations.

The Dornier Do 22, Northrop 8-A, Northrop 2GP and Vultee V-11 GB were considered and proposals retrieved. The commission decided the Vultee V-11 GB was the best aircraft to satisfy both air services' needs. On the part of the Royal Norwegian Air Service, the requirements were for a reconnaissance aircraft with a range of 1,500 kilometres, a top speed of no less than 320 kilometres per hour and a payload of a 900 kilograms torpedo or the equivalent in bombs. On 30 December 1939, Norway sent a purchasing commission to the United States, consisting of a Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service contingent headed by Cmdr. Kristian Østby, a Norwegian Army Air Service contingent led by Birger Fredrik Motzfeldt; the goal of the commission was to inspect the Vultee V-11, which would serve as a new common reconnaissance bomber for the two air services. Amongst the requirements the commission hoped to fill was replacing the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service's M. F.11 biplane patrol aircraft. Once in the US, the commission found that Vultee would not be able to deliver the V-11 within a reasonable amount of time so another aircraft had to be found.

Motzfeldt found that the Douglas 8A-5N would satisfy the NOAAS' requirements. As the Douglas 8A-5N could not be fitted with floats, Østby continued to look for an aircraft suitable for the RNNAS. After visits to many of the aviation companies in February 1940, Østby determined that only one manufacturer had both a design and available production capacity, Northrop Aircraft Incorporated; the commission ordered 24 floatplanes based on the Model 8-A, renamed the N-3PB, "off the drawing board" from Northrop on 8 March 1940, at a total cost of 6,550,000 kr to meet this requirement. Half the amount was paid shortly before the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940; the Model 8-A, the export model of the Northrop Attack Bomber series was never intended to serve as the basis of a floatplane and had to be redesigned to meet the requirements of the Norwegian order. The new N-3PB was the first product of Northrop Aircraft, which had reformed in 1939, was a low-winged cantilever monoplane fitted with twin floats.

First intended for a lower powered engine, the N-3PB was powered by a Wright Cyclone radial engine, of the same type specified for the Douglas 8A-5N bombers and Curtiss Hawk 75A-8s ordered by Norway at the same time, simplifying the eventual maintenance and operation requirements for the entire Norwegian military aircraft fleets. With the Norwegian operation requirements drawn up for a coastal reconnaissance floatplane, a series of modifications were requested to the original design; the changes included a redesign of the float structure to accommodate either a torpedo or bomb load carried under the center fuselage to supplement five underwing bomb racks. Additional armament changes led to a combination of six machine guns replacing the four machine gun /one cannon arrangement, in the initial design. Provision for a rear under-fuselage gun was made. Further equipment requirements including fitting a rear fuselage-mounted camera as well as changes to instrumentation and radio equipment. Before Northrop could complete any aircraft, Norway was invaded by Germany.

The invasion and occupation of Norway necessitated that the armament of the N-3PB to be installed in Norway, had to be changed. Initial specifications listed one Oerlikon 20 mm cannon in each wing, as well as two 7.9 mm Fabrique Nationale machine guns each in both fuselage and rear gunner stations. Owing to the lack of availability of the specified armament, Norwegian-manufactured Colt heavy machine guns were substituted with four Colt MG53A.50 cal. machine guns in the wings and two.30 cal. Colt MG40s mounted in ventral positions of the gunner's rear cockpit. Northrop's Chief Test Pilot Vance Breese flew the first N-3PB on 22 December 1940 from Lake Elsinore, California; the flight test and customer acceptance trials were completed using the first production aircraft. Due to the use of the more powerful Cyclone engine, all performance estimates were exceeded and flight characteristics including maneuverability were considered "excellent." All 24 aircraft were delivered to the exiled Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service by the end of March 1941.

In late February 1941, six production N-3PBs were flown to RCAF Station Patricia Bay, Vancouver Island in Canada, one of the Canadian winter bases of the Flyvåpnenes Treningsleir Norwegian training bases known as "Little Norway". The N-3PB's service as an advanced tra

Leucoblepsis renifera

Leucoblepsis renifera is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It was described by Warren in 1900, it is found on Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. The wingspan is about 28 mm; the forewings are white, with a large oblique, kidney-shaped blotch of ochreous and grey scales just before the middle of the inner margin, reaching to the upper margin of the cell and extending beyond it between veins 4 and 6, its origin represented by a small grey spot on the costa at about one-third, followed between veins 2 and 4 by a clear hyaline patch. The outer line from the costa before two-thirds, oblique outwards and ochreous as far as vein 5 lunulate inwards and grey, parallel to the hindmargin, the lunule between veins 4 and 5 filled up with black; the submarginal line is white, lunulate-dentate and preceded and followed by ochreous-grey bands, more or less broken up into patches by the paler veins and not extending beyond vein 6, the apical area remaining pure white and the outer band shaded with brown and fulvous scales between veins 6 and 3.

The hindwings have an obscure curved grey cloud near the base. The centre of the wing is occupied by a hyaline space in which the silvery discocellular is conspicuous and there is a submarginal undulating white line with a grey band preceding and following it; the marginal dots are as in the forewings

Merv Wallace

Walter Mervyn Wallace, known as Merv Wallace, was a New Zealand cricketer and former Test match captain. Former New Zealand captain John Reid called him "the most under-rated cricketer to have worn the silver fern." He was nicknamed "Flip" by his teammates, because, the strongest expletive they heard him say. Wallace was born in Auckland, he left school aged 13, was coached at Eden Park by Ted Bowley and Jim Parks. He played cricket with his brother, George Wallace, with the Point Chevalier Cricket Club, the Auckland under-20 side, he made his first-class debut for Auckland in the Plunket Shield in December 1933. He toured to England in 1937, in a team weakened by a policy of refusing to select professional cricketers, he scored two half-centuries at Lord's. He headed the tour batting averages, scoring 1,641 runs at an average of 41.02. The peak years of his cricketing career were lost to the Second World War, he did not play Test cricket again until March 1946, he scored 211, his highest first-class score, against Canterbury in January 1940, making his runs in 292 minutes.

He joined the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, but was invalided out due to stomach muscle problems caused by an appendix operation. He played in New Zealand's first Test against Australia, in Wellington in March 1946, which Australia won by an innings within two days, he played against the English tourists in 1947. He joined the four-Test tour to England in 1949 as vice-captain to Walter Hadlee, he scored 1,722 first-class runs at an average of 49.20, including centuries against Yorkshire, Leicester, Cambridge University and Glamorgan. He scored 910 runs before the end of May, narrowly failing to join Donald Bradman and Glenn Turner as the only touring batsmen to pass 1,000 runs before the end of May, he was less successful in the Tests. He made his Test best score of 66 against England at Christchurch in 1951, played his last two Tests as captain against the touring South Africans in 1953. Short but quick, he was able to score all round the wicket, with a notable cover drive, his Test batting average of 20.90 was considered to fail to reflect his batting abilities.

Wallace began coaching in his early twenties, when he was employed by the Auckland sporting gods store Wisemans to coach in schools. He continued to coach at club level for most of his life. During the 1949 tour of England he acted as unofficial team coach. Wallace was the official coach of New Zealand's first victorious Test team, against the West Indies at Eden Park in 1956, he was retained for the series against the Australian team in 1956-57. Afterwards, his coaching prowess was overlooked by the New Zealand administrators. John Reid, the captain of the unsuccessful touring team to England in 1958, said it was a mistake not to include Wallace as player-coach in the team: "Our 1958 team was short of experience and technical expertise. In those circumstances, Merv would have been a priceless asset." Wallace ran a sports shop in Auckland with tennis player Bill Webb from 1947 to 1982. The Wallace & Webb Ltd shop included a tea room, so the many sportsmen who dropped in could stay for advice or a chat and could bring their wives or children.

It became a popular meeting place for sporting people. In the 2004 Queen's Birthday Honours, Wallace was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to cricket, he was awarded the Bert Sutcliffe Medal in 2005. Merv Wallace married Yvonne Page in Auckland on 10 March 1948 – a Wednesday, so that their friends, most of whom were cricketers and busy on Saturdays, could attend, his brother, George Wallace, son, Gregory Wallace, both played first-class cricket for Auckland. His daughter, married rugby union player Grant Fox. A biography, Merv Wallace: A Cricket Master by Joseph Romanos, was published in 2000. Wallace suffered from diabetes in life, becoming blind and losing several toes, he died in Auckland on Good Friday in 2008. As a mark of respect, the New Zealand team playing England in the Third Test at McLean Park in Napier wore black armbands on Saturday 22 March. Merv Wallace at ESPNcricinfo "Former New Zealand captain Wallace dies", Cricinfo, 22 March 2008 "Former New Zealand cricket captain Merv Wallace dead at 91", International Herald Tribune, 22 March 2008 The New Zealand Herald, 23 March 2008 Obituary, The Daily Telegraph, 24 March 2008

Benito Stefanelli

Benito Stefanelli was an Italian film actor and weapons master who made over 60 appearances in film between 1955 and 1991. Stefanelli is best known in world cinema for his roles as henchmen in several of Sergio Leone's Spaghetti Western films, portraying gang members in the trilogy of films A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, he played the town drunk in Wanted starring Serge Marquand. In his career, Stefanelli appeared in countless other western films and he worked as a stunt coordinator on the films that he performed in including those of Sergio Leone. A fluent English speaker, he reportedly served as Clint Eastwood's interpreter together with Bill Thompkins on the set of A Fistful of Dollars. Benito Stefanelli on IMDb

Mary Augustine Barber

Jerusha Booth Barber, in religion, Sister Mary Augustine was a 19th-century American educator and Visitation sister. She entered the Georgetown Visitation Convent in 1818, with her husband entering the Jesuits, she founded a convent of visitation in Kaskaskia, Illinois, in 1836, remaining there till 1844. She taught in a convent in St. Louis, from 1844 till 1848, in Mobile, until the time of her death, her only son, became a Jesuit, her four daughters entered the convent. Barber was born in Newton, Connecticut, in 1789, her parents were strict members of their church. She married Virgil Horace Barber on September 20, 1807, when she was 19 and he was about 25; the husband and wife did not precipitately embrace the Catholic religion, but the husband thought Protestantism too superficial, too recent, too worldly and too inconsistent. He had been an Episcopalian principal of their academy in Fairfield, New York, he determined to become a Roman Catholic and moved to New York where his mentor, Benedict Joseph Fenwick, received his family into the Catholic Church in 1816.

Jerusha was 28 and they had five children: Mary. For support they opened a school, but after eight months both determined to join the religious life and, under Fenwick's direction, moved to Georgetown in Washington, D. C. In Washington, D. C. the couple went through the process of separation. Jerusha and her children were placed in a convent while the husband went to Rome to study towards ordination. In 1818 Jerusha entered the Visitation convent of Georgetown which housed her three eldest daughters, while the baby, was placed in the home of Fenwick's mother; when she thought she was pregnant, she left the community for a short period, but soon returned. On February 23, 1820, husband and wife took she as Sister Mary Augustine. Mary was a woman of superior education, the convent and school progressed during her residence. In 1836 she founded a visitation convent in Kaskaskia, where she remained until 1844, she was successful in training the younger sisters to be accomplished teachers, was engaged in this occupation in the convent of St. Louis from 1844 till 1848, in Mobile up to the time of her death.

She died in Summerville, near Mobile, in 1860. Their only son, became a Jesuit, their four daughters entered the Ursuline convent; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Louis De. Catholic Memoirs of Vermont and New Hampshire: With Sketches of the Lives of Rev. Wm. Henry Hoyt, Fanny Allen. With Accounts Heretofore Unpublished of the Lives of Rev. Daniel Barber, Rev. Horace Barber, S. J. and Jerusha Barber, Named in Religion Sister Mary Augustin. With Many of Their Letters. Press of R. S. Styles; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles George. The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine and History of the Catholic Church. Encyclopedia Press. P. 287. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Kingsbury, Frederick John. A Narrative and Documentary History of St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church of Waterbury, Connecticut: With Some Notice of St. Paul's Church, Christ Church, Watertown, St. Michael's Church, Naugatuck, a Church in Middlebury, All Saint's Church, Wolcott, St. Paul's Church, Trinity Church, Waterbury.

Price, Lee & Adkins Company. P. 31. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Camillus Paul; the Life of Rev. Charles Nerinckx: With a Chapter on the Early Catholic Missions of Kentucky. P. 427. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Willard, Frances Elizabeth. A Woman of the Century: Fourteen Hundred-seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of Leading American Women in All Walks of Life. Moulton. P. 353. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: James Grant. Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. D. Appleton. P. 162. McGuinness, Margaret M.. Called to Serve: A History of Nuns in America. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9557-6. Mary Augustine Barber at WikiSource

Aleksandr Sukhovo-Kobylin

Aleksandr Vasilyevich Sukhovo-Kobylin, was a Russian playwright, chiefly known for his satirical plays criticizing Russian imperial bureaucracy. His sister Evgenia Tur was a popular novelist and journalist and his sister Sofia was a painter of some note. A rich aristocrat who travelled, Sukhovo-Kobylin was arrested and tried for seven years in Russia for the murder of his French mistress Louise-Simone Dimanche, a crime of which he is nowadays believed to have been innocent, he only managed to achieve acquittal by means of giving enormous bribes to court officials and by using all of his contacts in the Russian elite. According to his own version as well as the accepted view today, he was targeted because he had the financial capabilities to give such bribes. Based on his personal experiences, Sukhovo-Kobylin wrote a trilogy of satirical plays about the prevalence of bribery and other corrupt practices in the Russian judicial system of the time – Krechinsky's Wedding, The Trial, Tarelkin's Death.

The first work had immediate success and became one of Russia's most performed plays. It is considered Sukhovo-Kobylin's best; the trilogy in its entirety was published in 1869 under the title Scenes from the Past. Attempts to stage the last two plays ran into difficulties with censorship. While popular, the two sequels failed to achieve the same success as the first play. Krechinsky's Wedding: A Comedy in Three Acts, University of Michigan Press. Translated by Robert Magidoff; the Trilogy of Alexander Sukhovo-Kobylin, Dutton, 1969.. Translated by Harold B. Segel. Гроссман Л. П. Театр Сухово-Кобылина. — Москва. Рудницкий К. Л. А. В. Сухово-Кобылин: Очерк жизни и творчества. — Москва, 1974. Старосельская Н. Д. Сухово-Кобылин. — Москва: Молодая гвардия, 2003. — 336 с. — ISBN 5-235-02566-0 Works by Aleksandr Sukhovo-Kobylin at Project Gutenberg Sukhovo-Kobylin's compositions online