Beverly is a city in Essex County, a suburb of Boston. The population was 39,502 at the 2010 census. A resort and manufacturing community on the Massachusetts North Shore, Beverly includes Ryal Side, Beverly Farms and Prides Crossing. Beverly is a rival of Marblehead for the title of being the birthplace of the U. S. Navy. Part of Salem and the Naumkeag Territory, the area was first settled by Europeans in 1626 by Roger Conant; because of religious differences with Governor John Endecott, Beverly would be set off and incorporated in 1668, when it was named "Beverley" after Beverley, the county town of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Surviving from the settlement's early history is the Balch House, according to dendrochronological testing performed in 2006, about 1679; the first ship commissioned for the US military, by the US Army, was the armed schooner Hannah. It was outfitted at Glover's Wharf and first sailed from Beverly Harbor on September 5, 1775. For this reason Beverly calls itself the "Birthplace of America's Navy"—a claim disputed by other towns, including nearby Marblehead.
The Hannah can be found on the patch of the city's police department. Beverly has been called the "birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution," as the site of the first cotton mill in America, largest cotton mill of its time; the town is the home of one of the country's first Sunday schools. Beverly was incorporated as a city in 1894. In 1902, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation built a quarter-mile stretch of factory buildings in Beverly; the stretch was an early landmark example of reinforced concrete construction, devised by concrete pioneer Ernest L. Ransome. In 1906 it went into production. Closed in 1987, the complex was bought by Cummings Properties in 1996, developed into a campus of hi-tech companies and medical offices. Parker Brothers, makers of Monopoly and other games, has offices in Beverly; the city is home to the Landmark School, known worldwide for the education it provides for students with learning disabilities. President William Howard Taft rented a house for the summer White House from Mrs. Maria Evans in Beverly.
In the summers of 1909 and 1910, he lived in a house located at what is now the site of the Italian Garden in Lynch Park, the city's principal public park, in 1911 and 1912 he rented a different house a mile away, "Parramatta", from Mrs. Robert Peabody. Beverly Hills, was named in 1907 after Beverly Farms in Beverly because Taft vacationed there. Beverly has a former Nike missile site on L. P. Henderson Road east of the Beverly Municipal Airport; this site was in operation from March 1957 until August 1959, when the Army handed it over to the National Guard. It is now used by Beverly as a storage site and is under the scrutiny of many environmental organizations, as it and the surrounding areas—such as Casco Chemical—have polluted the groundwater, which could be hazardous to the nearby Wenham Lake water supply. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.6 square miles, of which 15.1 square miles is land and 7.5 square miles, or 33.19%, is water. Beverly is located on the North Shore, the name given to communities north of Boston along Massachusetts Bay.
There are many smaller coves, as well as two islands, the Great and Little Misery Islands, which are part of the city. From Woodbury Point westward lies Beverly Harbor, which lies at the mouth of the Danvers River; the Bass River empties into the Danvers River from within the city. Several other small streams lie within the city as well. A large portion of Wenham Lake, as well as several other lakes and ponds lie within the city; the city has its own city reservation land as well. Much of the western half of the city is urbanized, while the eastern part of the city is more rural. Beverly is home to several parks, five beaches, the Beverly Golf & Tennis Club and two yacht clubs, Jubilee Yacht Club in Beverly Harbor and Bass Haven Yacht Club along the Bass River. Besides Massachusetts Bay to the south, Beverly is bordered by Manchester-by-the-Sea to the east, Wenham to the north, Danvers to the west and Salem to the south. Beverly and Salem are separated by the Danvers River and Beverly Harbor, with three bridges, the Veterans Memorial Bridge, the MBTA railroad bridge, the Kernwood Bridge, connecting the two cities.
Beverly's city center lies 2 miles north of Salem's, is 14 miles west-southwest of Gloucester and 17 miles northeast of Boston. Route 128, the chief circumferential highway of the Boston area, crosses Beverly from east to west and connects the city to Interstate 95 and U. S. Route 1 in Danvers. Route 1A passes through Beverly from south along main streets in downtown Beverly; the city is the terminus of four different state routes: Route 22, which heads northeast from Route 1A. Beverly is the site of the split between the separate lines of the Newburyport/Rockport Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail, which provides service to Boston's North Station. South of the junction lies Beverly Depot near downtown, accessible along both lines. Along the Newburyport portion of the line is the North Beverly stop, just south of the Wenham town line. Along the Rockport portion of the line are three stops, Prides Crossing and Beverly Farms. Additionally, MBTA Bus serves the city with Route 451, with service to downtown Beverl
Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U. S. state of Massachusetts, the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described either as a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area; the MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod. While the small footprint of the city of Boston itself only contains an estimated 685,094, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas; some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American industry; the region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region.
Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,732,161 people as of the 2014 US Census estimate, sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,099,575. The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history American literature and the American Revolution. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the Greater Boston region has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.
S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world; the most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council.
The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 towns that are grouped into eight subregions; these include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, 48% of the total population of Massachusetts, in an area of 1,422 square miles, of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space. The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core, MetroWest, North Shore, North Suburban, South Shore, SouthWest, Three Rivers. Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, all of Bristol County. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.
The urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA; the Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions. The Boston and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond to the MAPC area; the total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941. Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division Framingham, MA NECTA Division Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack V
John Foster Furcolo was an American lawyer and Democratic Party politician from Massachusetts. He was the state's 60th governor, represented the state as a member of the United States House of Representatives, he was the first Italian-American governor of the state, an active promoter of community colleges. Born in New Haven and educated at Yale, Furcolo practiced law before serving in the United States Navy during World War II, he first won election to Congress in 1948, served most of two terms, resigning after being appointed Massachusetts Treasurer in 1952 by Governor Paul A. Dever, he won two terms as governor, serving from 1957 to 1961. In addition to supporting community colleges, he furthered the redevelopment of parts of Boston, supporting development of the Prudential Center and Government Center, his administration was overshadowed by corruption scandals, but no charges against him made it to trial. He was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the United States Senate, he was the author of several books, including a novel set amid events surrounding the World War II Katyn massacre.
John Foster Furcolo was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on July 29, 1911. His father, Charles Furcolo, was an Italian immigrant and a doctor, his mother was an Irish immigrant. Furcolo attended public schools in Longmeadow and New Haven, he attended Yale University, where he graduated in 1933, Yale Law School, where he received his LL. B. in 1936. At Yale he played a variety of sports, serving on both the baseball team. According to his brother Charles, he played second base, he was encouraged to turn professional, but chose not to. He engaged in literary pursuits, writing short stories and plays that were produced locally. Furcolo dropped use of his first name. In 1937 Furcolo moved to Springfield, where he opened a law practice, he specialized in criminal and civil trial work, rose in prominence, the quality of his legal preparation and trial work receiving favorable notice from others in the legal community. After a few years he moved his growing family to neighboring Longmeadow, he made his first bid for public office in an unsuccessful run for district attorney.
During World War II he served in U. S. Navy as a lieutenant aboard USS Kershaw, a transport vessel in the Pacific, which participated in the Invasion of Okinawa. In 1946 Furcolo stood for election as a Democratic Party candidate for the 2nd Congressional District seat, running against incumbent Charles R. Clason, he lost by 3,000 votes, a narrow margin, in an election dominated in the state by Republican victories. In 1948, he again ran against Clason, won by a comfortable margin, buoyed by the support of war veterans and organized labor. In 1950, Furcolo was challenged by Polish-American Republican Charles Skibinski, who sought to capitalize on the large number of Polish-Americans in the district in a campaign in which there were no major issues. Furcolo retained his seat. Furcolo served in the House of Representatives from January 3, 1949, until his resignation on September 30, 1952, he drew national attention when he was the first freshman representative to be invited to the White House by President Harry S. Truman to discuss legislative matters.
He innovatively introduced the idea of a "people's council", composed of individuals from a cross-section of his district's interests, which he could consult to gauge opinion on legislative matters. His major legislative proposal, introduced early in his first term, was for a scholarship loan program to help needy high school graduates attend college. In 1951 Furcolo was appointed to a special committee established to investigate reports of mass killings during World War II in the Katyn Forest of eastern Poland; the committee concluded that the killings had been perpetrated by the Soviet secret service, sought to bring a case before the International Court of Justice. Furcolo used what he learned from the committee's investigations to write a novel, Rendezvous At Katyn, set amid those events. On July 5, 1952, Furcolo was appointed by Governor Paul A. Dever to be the Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, to replace John E. Hurley, who had resigned to accept a position as clerk of the Boston Municipal Court.
Dever made the appointment in part to break up what was seen as Irish-American domination of the government. Congress was in recess at the time of the appointment, so Furcolo did not formally resign his Congressional seat until September. In November 1952, Furcolo was elected in his own right to the Treasurer's office despite Dever's loss of the governor's seat. In 1954 Furcolo ran for the U. S. Senate, but was narrowly defeated by incumbent Republican Leverett A. Saltonstall; the election exposed a personal dispute between fellow Democrat John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Furcolo and Kennedy had served together in Congress, the two had not gotten along. In the 1954 campaign Kennedy refused to make a public endorsement of Furcolo, Saltonstall recounted in his memoir that Kennedy's campaign staff worked with his in opposition to Furcolo, that Saltonstall announced legislation he and Kennedy had cosponsored. Furcolo ran for Governor of Massachusetts in 1956 winning the Democratic party nomination and primary.
The campaign against Republican Lieutenant Governor Sumner G. Whittier was vitriolic, with each accusing the other of distorting his legislative record. Furcolo was further characterized by Republicans as a part of the Dever politic
Nordstrom Inc. is an American chain of luxury department stores operating in Canada and headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1901 by Swedish American John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin, the company began as a shoe retailer and expanded its inventory to include clothing, handbags, jewelry and fragrances. Select Nordstrom stores include wedding and home furnishings departments; the company has in-house cafes and espresso bars. Nordstrom, Inc.'s common stock is publicly traded on the NYSE under the symbol JWN. Nordstrom has 379 stores operating in 40 US states, Puerto Rico and Canada, a number which includes 122 full-line stores and 244 Nordstrom Rack stores, two clearance stores, six Trunk Club clubhouses, three Jeffrey boutiques and three Nordstrom Local stores. Nordstrom serves customers through nordstrom.com, nordstromrack.com, its online private sale site, HauteLook. In 1887, John W. Nordstrom immigrated to the United States at the age of 16, he was born in the village of Alvik, close to the city of Luleå in Northern Sweden.
His name at birth was Johan Nordström, which he anglicized to John Nordstrom. After landing in New York, he first began working in Michigan and was able to save enough money to purchase a 20-acre potato farm in Arlington, Washington. In 1897, he joined the Klondike Gold Rush in Canada's Yukon Territory. After two years of prospecting, he struck gold, but sold his disputed claim for $13,000. Returning to Seattle with his newfound wealth, he married Hilda Carlson and looked for a business venture settling on a shoe store that opened in 1901, called Wallin & Nordstrom. Carl F. Wallin, the co-founder of the store, was the owner of the adjacent shoe repair shop. John and Hilda had five children, three of whom would follow him into the family business, Everett W. Elmer J. and Lloyd N. Nordstrom. In 1928, John W. Nordstrom retired and sold his shares to two of his sons and Elmer. In 1929, Wallin retired and sold his shares to them; the 1930 grand opening of the remodeled Second Avenue store marked the change of name to Nordstrom.
Lloyd Nordstrom subsequently joined the company in 1933, the three brothers ran the business together for forty years. By 1958, Nordstrom still sold only shoes, their expansion was based on deep product offerings and full size ranges. Apparel came with its purchase of Best Apparel of Seattle in 1963, the company's name was changed to Nordstrom's Best. In 1971, the company was taken public on NASDAQ, it was moved to the New York Stock Exchange in 1999 under the ticker symbol JWN after John W. Nordstrom, its founder. By 1975, Nordstrom expanded into Alaska by purchasing Northern Commercial Company and opened its first Nordstrom Rack clearance store in Seattle. A strong northwest regional retailer with sales approaching $250 million making it the third-largest specialty retailer in the United States, the company opened its first Southern California store at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa in 1978. By the early 1990s, it had opened 26 stores plus Racks in California. Subsequent expansion relied on creating a decentralized regional structure, beginning with the Northeast in the Tysons Corner Center in Virginia, the Midwest in the Oakbrook Center in Illinois, the Southeast in Atlanta, the Southwest in Dallas.
In a new region, the initial store was used as a base for training and recruitment for subsequent expansion, was backed by its own distribution center. From 1978 to 1995, Nordstrom opened a total of 46 full-line department stores. In 1976, Nordstrom opened a series of stores called Place Two to sell a more limited selection of apparel in smaller markets. By 1983, there were ten Place Two stores, but the cost of upgrading the smaller stores from a systems perspective, outweighed the benefit, the division was discontinued; the company expanded into direct sales in 1993, beginning with a catalog division led by John N.'s son Dan, followed by an e-commerce business. Nordstrom.com's fulfillment and contact centers are located in Iowa. It has distribution centers in Ontario, California. Nordstrom FSB, a wholly owned subsidiary of Nordstrom, Inc. is a federally chartered savings bank doing business as Nordstrom Bank. It was formed in 1991 in Scottsdale, with its customer contact center in Centennial, Colorado.
Nordstrom FSB was known as Nordstrom National Credit Bank and changed its name to Nordstrom FSB in March 2000. The bank offers various banking and credit products, such as Nordstrom Signature VISA, Nordstrom retail credit and debit cards, interest-bearing checking accounts, check cards, certificates of deposits, it offers Nordstrom customers cards under Nordstrom Rewards – its customer loyalty program – where customers earn points when making purchases with the card at Nordstrom and other retailers. Other rewards include Nordstrom Notes which are redeemed or used like cash in stores for new purchases and the Nordstrom Signature VISA card has an optional travel/leisure rewards feature; the Nordstrom Rewards program features 4 levels of status depending on annual spending and offers various promotional times throughout the year to earn double and ten-times points. Beginning in 1995, the fourth generation of brothers and cousins served as co-presidents for a time. After John Whitacre served as the first non-Nordstrom CEO in 1997, In 1998, Nordstrom replaced its downtown Seattle store with a new flagship location in the form
Peabody is a city in Essex County, United States. The population was 51,251 at the 2010 census, in 2016 the estimated population was 52,491. Peabody is located in the North Shore region of Massachusetts, is known for its rich industrial history. Known as the Northfields, Salem Farms, Brooksby, the area was settled in 1626 by a small group of English colonists from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant. In 1752, the area was set off from Salem, incorporated as a district of Danvers, it was referred to as "the South Parish", associated with a church located in present-day Peabody Square. In 1855, the community broke away from Danvers, was incorporated as the independent town of South Danvers; the name was changed to Peabody on April 30, 1868, in honor of George Peabody, noted philanthropist born in present-day Peabody regarded as the "father of modern philanthropy". It was granted city status in 1916; the western, less densely populated area of town is separately, yet unofficially, referred to as West Peabody.
Peabody started off as a farming community, but its rivers and streams attracted mills which operated by water power. In particular, Peabody was a major center of New England's leather industry, which attracted immigrants from all around the world. By 1915, a third of the population was born outside the United States. In addition to becoming home to large Irish and Russian populations, Peabody developed a large community of laborers hailing from the Ottoman Empire Turkish and Kurdish speakers from the region of Harput, now known as Elazığ; the population was situated on Walnut Street, where they filled boarding houses and coffee houses to such an extent that it became known as "Ottoman Street," and, more pejoratively and less "Peabody's Barbary Coast", as the United States was at war with the Ottoman Empire during World War I. One visitor noted that signs in town were written in both English and Ottoman Turkish. On the morning of October 28, 1915, twenty-one young girls were killed in the St. Johns School fire in the downtown area on Chestnut Street.
The cause of the fire is believed to have been arson. Their bodies were found after the fire subsided, huddled together and burnt beyond recognition, near the entrance just steps away from survival; as a result, Peabody became the first city in the United States to establish a law that all entrances or exits in public buildings be push-open, rather than by handle or knob. The tanneries that lined Peabody's "Ottoman Street" remained a linchpin of the city's economy into the second half of the 20th century; the tanneries have since closed or been relocated elsewhere, but the city remains known locally as the Leather City or Tanner City. The mascot of Peabody Veterans Memorial High School is named the Tanners; the loss of the tanneries was a huge blow to Peabody's economy, but the city has made up for the erosion of its industrial base, at least in part, through other forms of economic development. Early in the 20th century, Peabody joined the automobile revolution, hosting the pioneer Brass Era company, Corwin Manufacturing.
The Northshore Mall known as the Northshore Shopping Center, is one of the region's largest shopping malls. The mall opened in September 1958 as an outdoor shopping center, was built on farm land owned by Elias Hasket Derby, one of America's first millionaires. Centennial Park, an industrial park in the center of the city, has attracted several medical and technology companies. West Peabody, farm land until the 1950s, has been developed into a middle-to-upper class residential area. Brooksby Farm, a 275-acre working farm and conservation area has been one of the city's most popular destinations for decades. Peabody is the location of the Salem Country Club, a privately-owned country club with a professional golf course, which hosted the U. S. Senior Open in 2001 and 2017, the U. S. Women's Open in 1954 and 1984. Peabody is located at 42°32′3″N 70°57′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.8 square miles, of which 16.2 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles or 3.46%, is water.
The northwestern border of Peabody lies along the Ipswich River, with brooks feeding it, the Waters River, a tributary of the Danvers River, drains the northeast part of town. Several other ponds and a portion of Suntaug Lake lie within town; the largest protected portion of the city is the Brooksby Farm, whose land includes the Nathaniel Felton Houses. The city is wedge-shaped, with the city center located in the wider southeast end; the neighborhood of South Peabody lies south of it, the more suburban neighborhood of West Peabody lies to the northwest of the city center, separated by the highways and the Proctor neighborhood. Peabody's center is 2 miles from the center of Salem, is 15 miles northeast of Boston, 18 miles west-southwest of Gloucester, 18 miles southeast of Lawrence. Peabody is bordered by Middleton to the northwest, Danvers to the north, Salem to the east, Lynn to the south and Lynnfield to the southwest; as of the census of 2010, there were 51,251 people residing in the city and a total of 22,220 housing units.
The racial makeup of the city was 90.4% White, 2.4% African American, 6.3% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 1.9% Asian, 3.8% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. There were 21,313 households, of which 26.8% included children under the age of 18, 48.4% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.3% had s
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Office Depot, Inc. is an American office supply retailing company headquartered in Boca Raton, United States. The company has combined annual sales of $11 billion, employs about 38,000 associates with businesses in the United States; the company operates 1,400 retail stores, e-commerce sites and a business-to-business sales organization. The company's portfolio of brands includes Office Depot, OfficeMax, Grand & Toy, Ativa, TUL, Realspace, DiVOGA. Office Depot was founded in October 1986 by F. Patrick Sher, Stephen Doughtery, Jack Kopkin, who became the company's chairman and chief executive officer, the president, executive vice president respectively. All three were associated with Mr. HOW Warehouse, a home improvement company that Sher sold to Service Merchandise in 1983; the first store, located at the Lakes Mall in Lauderdale Lakes, opened in October 1986. The company announced its initial public offering of stock, went public in December 1988. In April 1991, it merged with Office Club. Office Depot entered the European and Australian direct mail market, after acquiring Viking Direct in May 1998.
In December 2001, Viking Direct expanded to Central America with new retail stores in El Salvador and Costa Rica through a joint licensing agreement. Office Depot sold Office Depot Europe to an investment firm in September 2017. On February 20, 2013, it was announced that Office Depot and OfficeMax would combine in an all stock deal, pending regulatory approval and stockholder approval; the merger was completed on November 5, 2013. In May 2014, Office Depot announced the closure of four hundred stores, due to declining sales and customer migration to e retailers. On February 4, 2015, it was announced that rival Staples had agreed to purchase Office Depot, in a cash and stock deal worth $6.3 billion. However, the Federal Trade Commission voted to block the merger in December 2015; the United States District Court for the District of Columbia granted the FTC a preliminary injunction against the merger on May 10, 2016, resulting in the proposed merger's termination. In January 2017, Gerry Smith was named as the company's new CEO, effective February 27.
Smith was the chief operating officer at Lenovo Group. Office Depot built a LEED Gold certified retail store in Austin, Texas, in April 2008; the Boca Raton headquarters was awarded LEED Gold certification in September 2010. In January 2005, Office Depot became a partner of NASCAR, with the title “Official Office Products Partner of NASCAR”. In the same year, the company signed on as the primary sponsor of the #99 Ford Fusion, owned by Roush Fenway Racing and driven by Carl Edwards, they sponsored Edwards until the end of the 2008 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season. In December 2008, Office Depot announced that it would become the co primary sponsor for Tony Stewart and the No. 14 Chevrolet at Stewart-Haas Racing in 2009. In September 2012, Office Depot announced it would not renew sponsorship with Tony Stewart or Stewart-Haas Racing. In November 2012, Office Depot partnered with the Born This Way Foundation to sell limited edition office supplies and give 25% of earnings to the organization. In March 2019, Office Depot and Support.com, Inc. a California-based tech support software provider, agreed to pay a total of $35 million to settle Federal Trade Commission allegations that the companies tricked customers into buying millions of dollars' worth of computer repair and technical services by deceptively claiming their software had found malware symptoms on the customers' computers.
Staples Inc. OfficeMax Official website