African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
South Side (Pittsburgh)
South Side is an area in Pittsburgh, United States, located along the Monongahela River across from Downtown Pittsburgh. The South Side is divided into two neighborhoods, South Side Flats and South Side Slopes. Both the Flats and the Slopes are represented on Pittsburgh City Council by Bruce Kraus; the business district stretches along East Carson Street, home to many small shops and bars. In 2006, more than 80 bars and pubs operated in the South Side Flats; the neighborhood has an urban fabric with rowhouses. The South Side is well-connected with public transit, its proximity and public transit connections have attracted professionals who work downtown. Pittsburgh Fire Station #24 is located on Mary Street in the neighborhood; the South Side, most of, the village of Birmingham, annexed to the city in 1872, was settled by German later Eastern European immigrants who came to Pittsburgh to work in heavy industry. Dr. Nathaniel Bedford planned a large part of Birmingham and named many streets after his friends and family, thus the predominance of streets named after people such as Jane and Carson.
For many years, much of the South Side was dominated by heavy industry and associated service businesses. The Jones and Laughlin Steel Company was located on the South Side but closed in the 1980s and has since been redeveloped; the Pittsburgh Terminal Properties building is located on the west end of Carson Street, next to the Liberty Bridge. When construction finished in 1906, it was the largest warehouse between New Chicago. Connections to river and road transport made it an ideal facility for merchants who sold goods and needed temporary storage, it has since been redeveloped into River Walk Corporate Centre and houses a mix of office and service businesses including Paper Products Company and City Center Self Storage. In more recent years, the South Side has become home to a larger student population. Many students at Duquesne University, University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University either live in the South Side or spend a portion of their nightlife there. A walk over the South Tenth Street Bridge that crosses the Monongahela River takes students to Duquesne University.
Due to the large number of college students and young professionals, in addition to the thriving bar scene, South Side has developed into a nightlife destination for young people in Pittsburgh. Important streets in South Side are E. Carson Street, Josephine Street, S. 18th street. The business district is located along E. Carson Street; the Birmingham Bridge makes South Side accessible from Oakland, around 2 miles away from South Side. Station Square is about 1.5 miles west of South Side, Mt. Washington is 2.5 miles away. The average South Side family income in 2003 was $41,353. East Carson St. has restaurants and shops that help support the economy of the South Side. The large variety of shopping along E. Carson Street and SouthSide Works is a factor in the South Side's economy. There are a variety of locally owned stores such as Pittsburgh Jeans Co. and widespread stores such as American Eagle, H&M, Nine West. The Urban Redevelopment Authority started the SouthSide Works project hoping to create over 6,000 jobs.
Today, SouthSide Works has over 10 restaurants & bars. The restoration of the business district has improved South Sides economy and house sales have jumped $75,000 in the past 10 years along with vacancy dropping below 10%; the South Side is home to a variety of service businesses and reconverted office buildings. Many businesses locate here; the Pittsburgh Terminal Properties building has been converted into River Walk Corporate Center. Tenants are a mix of light industrial and storage for Pittsburgh businesses and residents. South Side Local Development Company helps the economic development in the neighborhood. Under LDC, the Neighborhood Assistance Program was created; the NAP is partners with PNC bank and able to fund programs to create jobs and housing production with their $2.5 million grant. Since 1982, LDC has created over 250 new businesses, renovated over 200 stores, built over 700 new homes. South Sides redeveloped downtown has increased apartment sales and attracted a lot of nightlife in the neighborhood.
The Flats has one of the largest Victorian main streets in the United States. The entire length of East Carson Street is designated as a historic district. Strict rules dictate; this neighborhood is a prime example of adaptive reuse of historic structures to spur community revitalization. One of the famous steel mills of Pittsburgh, the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company was located on the South Side but closed in the 1980s and today the land is home to the SouthSide Works shopping and entertainment complex. In the 1980s, this neighborhood was declining but historic preservation propelled it to a new and bright future. Today, the South Side is a desirable city neighborhood and is known for its multitude of bars and restaurants; the South Side is a popular destination for Pittsburgh residents. The popularity of the neighborhood has costs. Older, lifelong residents clash with the values of the young urban professionals and students moving in. Parking in the South Side is among the tightest in the city, as narrow streets and high density of buildings leave little empty street space.
Nuisance crime has been a growing issue, but in mid-2018, city leaders announced that crime in the South Si
Strip District, Pittsburgh
The Strip District is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is a one-half square mile area of land northeast of the central business district bordered to the north by the Allegheny River and to the south by portions of the Hill District; the Strip District runs between 11th and 33rd Streets and includes three main thoroughfares — Smallman St. Penn Ave. and Liberty Ave. — as well as various side streets. In the early 19th century, the Strip District was home to many mills and factories as its location along the Allegheny River made for easy transportation of goods and shipping of raw materials, it was the home of the Fort Pitt Foundry, source of large cannons before and during the American Civil War, including a 20-inch bore Rodman Gun. Early industrial tenants of the Strip District included U. S. Steel, The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, The H. J. Heinz Company, famous ketchup and condiment manufacturer; the shipping infrastructure built around the manufacturing companies attracted other types of merchants to set up shop in the Strip.
By the early 20th century, the Strip District became a vibrant network of wholesalers—mostly fresh produce and poultry dealers. Soon, auction houses rose around the wholesale warehouses. Many restaurants and grocery stores opened to feed hungry shift workers at any hour of the day. By the 1920s, the Strip District was the economic center of Pittsburgh. By the mid-to-late 20th century, fewer of the Strip's products were being shipped by rail and boat, causing many produce sellers and wholesalers to leave the area for other space with easier access to highways, or where there was more land available for expansion. In the early 21st century, there are still several wholesalers and produce dealers in the Strip District, but some estimates say more than 80% of the produce industry left the area, preceded by the manufacturing plants and mills in the mid to late 20th century restructuring of industry. Today, many of the abandoned warehouses have been renovated as small specialty shops, restaurants and bars.
The historic St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, an 1891 landmark built in the ornate Polish Cathedral style, lies in the heart of the Strip District and served early generations of Polish immigrants. Since the late 20th century, the area has developed into a historic market district with many ethnic food purveyors, some art studios, antique dealers, unique boutiques, other businesses setting up shop where trains once delivered produce by the ton; the lack of weekday activity is in someways compensated by retail and leisure facilities which are used on weekends. In the summer months, there are open-air farmers' markets, a range of street vendors and facilities to enjoy open air drinks. Residential developers have begun to convert old factory and warehouse buildings into apartments and lofts. Examples include the Armstrong Cork Factory, Brake House Lofts, the Otto Milk Building. A mixed-use tower is planned for the Ayoob Fruit Warehouse site. More the area has attracted a number of technology companies and become a hotbed for autonomous vehicle and robotics technology.
The area is home to Uber's Advanced Technology Group, which leads the company's vehicular automation efforts, as well Argo AI and Aurora Innovation. Other technology companies with offices in the strip district include Apple, Robert Bosch GmbH, Target Corporation, Wombat Security, JazzHR, BossaNova Robotics; the Strip District has five land borders, including Downtown to the southwest, Crawford-Roberts, Bedford Dwellings and Polish Hill to the south, Lower Lawrenceville to the northeast. Across the Allegheny River, the Strip runs adjacent with the North Shore and Troy Hill with direct links to both neighborhoods via 16th Street and 31st Street Bridges, respectively. Wholey's Pittsburgh Public Market Enrico Biscotti Company Simcoach Games Heinz History Center Primanti Brothers Washington Post article Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Kadushin, Raphael. "15222: Come Hungry". National Geographic. Pp. 114–122. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
The U. S. city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was home to a "small, but busy" Chinatown, located at the intersection of Grant Street and Boulevard of the Allies in Downtown Pittsburgh where only two Chinese restaurants remain. The On Leong Society was located there. According to the article, "... the first Chinese community in Pittsburgh developed around Wylie Avenue above Court Place," according to a 1942 newsletter of the American Service Institute of Allegheny County. The Chinatown spread to Grant Street, "... to Water Street and spread out to Second and Third avenues." The Chinatown grew from waves of Chinese immigrants who came east from California after the 1849 Gold Rush and the transcontinental railroads. The immigrants came from the area around Canton in China. According to the article, the Chinatown was centered on Second Avenue with merchant names such as "Wing Hong Chinese Co. 519 Second Ave" and "Quong Chong Shing, 511 Second Ave", all of whom have been driven out when the Boulevard of the Allies was built forcing demolition of all buildings on Second Avenue, sometime by the 1950s.
By the 1930s, "... the Chinatown was vanishing." Pittsburgh's Chinatown in the 1920s to 1930s could be described as a dangerous place as there were frequent skirmishes between the two warring Chinese gangs, otherwise known as the "Tong Wars", covered by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Press. "On Second Avenue there stands the temple, pagoda style, lifting itself three stories, its tiled roof and leaded windows giving it an air of Oriental distinction. Inside is the splendor of embroidery and hangings and mother of pearl, red lacquer and gilt carvings, a carved stone altar for worship, a long table for meetings of the On Leong Merchants Association." Pittsburgh's Chinatown and how it disappeared - The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
California-Kirkbride is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. The neighborhood consists of a wedge of land between the railroad tracks at the northern edge of Manchester and a steep hill at the southern edges of Brightwood and Perry Hilltop. Put differently, the neighborhood is bounded by Allegheny Avenues on the West. A former rail yard, now home to a United States Postal Service sorting facility, occupies most of the southern border, Oliver High School, a high school in the Pittsburgh Public Schools system, is located just north of the neighborhood's northern border at Island Avenue. Most of the neighborhood is located on the flat river plain that comprises the majority of old Allegheny City; the neighborhood developed along with Manchester and, according to a 1974 profile by Pittsburgh's Department of Planning, would be considered part of Manchester but for the railroad tracks that form a border between Manchester and California-Kirkbride. That profile states that: "Historically, this area had been part of Manchester but due to the barrier imposed by the railroad, it did not receive the industrial uses typical of Manchester except on its borders.
However, it was effected by the racial shift in population which increased from about 3% Black in 1960 to about 35% in the 1970 census." The neighborhood was developed exclusively between 1870 and 1900. During this period, industries including tanneries and the local rail yard were flourishing in Allegheny City, the men working in these industries needed housing for themselves and their families. To meet this need, several businessmen - the owners of the businesses whose workers needed housing - bought land in California-Kirkbride and built rowhouses on it; the neighborhood thus consists entirely of rowhouses that were built for industrial workers and their families. A significant portion of the neighborhood's rowhouses were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, as the Old Allegheny Rows Historic District; as the petition nominating the district for National Register status explained, these rowhouses, while intended for industrial workers of modest means, were designed to be beautiful and to offer the workers some amenities: "The various styles and designs of row houses in the proposed Old Allegheny Rows Historic District represent the local evolution of row housing between 1870-1900.
The growth of industry and manufacturing and improvements in transportation, a growing urban working class, increased the demand for housing in what had been a remote corner of the City of Allegheny. This era saw a change in the nature and appearance of city dwellings in the district from simple brick boxes intended to house the workers of a particular local industry, to an ornate polychromed speculative development with modern conveniences designed to appeal to the independent urban wage earner." The neighborhood began to depopulate after the Great Depression. The neighborhood's demographics shifted after 1960: the African-American population increased from 3% of the neighborhood in 1960 to 33% in 1970, to 80% in 2000. Since 1970, a significant portion of the neighborhood's building stock has been owned by absentee landlords who rent to subsidized tenants through Section 8 and similar programs. Critics of these landlords allege that they listed the neighborhood as a historic district as a ruse to obtain federal funding to buy and rent the properties, while at the same time neglecting upkeep and demolishing some of these neglected structures.
The landlords dispute these criticisms and claim that they are working to improve the neighborhood. Over time, some of the neighborhood's structures have been demolished, so that there are now significant gaps in the rows of houses, which are now vacant lots; some current residents see these changes as improvements which will encourage new residents to maintain and preserve the remaining structures. California-Kirkbride has four borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Perry South from the north to the east, Central North Side from the east to the south, Manchester to the west, Marshall-Shadeland to the northwest. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map California Kirkbride - The Fall of a National Historic District Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Fineview is a neighborhood on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has zip codes of both 15212 and 15214, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6 and District 1. Fineview was known to older generations as Nunnery Hill, its modern name derives from the expansive views of downtown Pittsburgh. The most famous of these views is from the Fineview Overlook at the corner of Catoma and Meadville streets. For older generations, this neighborhood was well known for its locally famous streetcar line, for its incline, known as the Nunnery Hill Incline; this incline was one of two in the city. The incline started at the present-day intersection of Federal Street; the curve was located in the area of Jay Street. The incline ended along Meadville Street; the old retaining wall, built for the incline can still be seen running up the side of Henderson Street. This route ran from 1908 to April 30, 1966. Fineview has four borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Perry South to the north and west, Central Northside to the southwest, East Allegheny to the south and Spring Hill–City View to the east.
List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Media related to Fineview at Wikimedia Commons