Kotzebue or Kikiktagruk is a city in the Northwest Arctic Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is the borough's seat, by far its largest community and the economic and transportation hub of the subregion of Alaska encompassing the borough; the population of the city was 3,201 as of the 2010 census, up from 3,082 in 2000. There is archaeological evidence that Inupiat people have lived at Kotzebue since at least the 15th century. Owing to its location and relative size, Kotzebue served as a trading and gathering center for the various communities in the region; the Noatak and Kobuk Rivers drain into the Kotzebue Sound near Kotzebue to form a center for transportation to points inland. In addition to people from interior villages, inhabitants of the Russian Far East came to trade at Kotzebue. Furs, seal-oil, rifles and seal skins were some of the items traded. People gathered for competitions like the current World Eskimo Indian Olympics. With the arrival of the whalers, gold seekers, missionaries the trading center expanded.
Kotzebue was known as Qikiqtaġruk, which means "peninsula" in Iñupiatun, the language of the Iñupiat. Kotzebue gets its name from the Kotzebue Sound, named after Otto von Kotzebue, a Baltic German who explored the sound while searching for the Northwest Passage in the service of Russia in 1818. Reindeer herding was introduced in the area in 1897. Although Alaska had caribou, the wild form of reindeer, the domesticated reindeer were brought to Alaska from Asia. A United States post office was established in 1899. Kotzebue was a filming location for the 1991 film Salmonberries. In 1997, three 66-kw wind turbines were installed in Kotzebue, creating the northernmost wind farm in the United States. Today, the wind farm consists of 19 turbines, including two 900 kW EWT turbines; the total installed capacity has reached 3-MW, displacing 250,000 gallons of diesel fuel every year. On September 2, 2015, U. S. President Barack Obama gave a speech on Climate Change, in Kotzebue, becoming the first sitting president to visit a site north of the Arctic Circle.
Kotzebue lies on a gravel spit at the end of the Baldwin Peninsula in the Kotzebue Sound. It is located at 66°53′50″N 162°35′8″W 30 miles from Noatak and other nearby smaller communities, it is 33 miles north of the Arctic Circle on Alaska's western coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.7 square miles, of which 27.0 square miles is land, 1.6 square miles, or 5.76%, is water. Kotzebue is home to the NANA Regional Corporation, one of thirteen Alaska Native Regional Corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 in settlement of Alaska Native land claims. Kotzebue is a gateway to Kobuk Valley National Park and other natural attractions of northern Alaska. A Northwest Arctic Heritage Center is located in the town to acclimate National Park Service travelers. Nearby Selawik National Wildlife Refuge maintains office space in the town. Kotzebue has a dry subarctic climate bordering on the Tundra climate, with long, somewhat snowy, cold winters, short, mild summers.
Monthly daily average temperatures range from −3.5 °F in February to 54.7 °F in July, with an annual mean of 21.8 °F. Days of above 70 °F can be expected an average of five days per summer. Precipitation is both most frequent and greatest during the summer months, averaging 10.1 inches per year. Snowfall falls in light bouts, averaging 39 inches a season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −58 °F to 85 °F, with the latter occurring as as June 19, 2013. Kotzebue first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census under its predecessor unincorporated Inuit village named "Kikiktagamute." It did not appear again until 1910 as Kotzebue. It formally incorporated in 1958; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,082 people, 889 households, 656 families residing in the city. The population density was 114.1 people per square mile. There were 1,007 housing units at an average density of 37.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.19% Native American, 19.47% White, 1.82% Asian, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 6.36% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population. There were 889 households out of which 50.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.40 and the average family size was 3.93. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 39.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 4.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $57,163, the median income for a family was $58,068. Males had a median income of $42,604 versus $36,453 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,289.
About 9.2% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Kotzebue's Ralph Wien Memorial Airport is the one airport in the Northwest Arctic Borough with scheduled large commercial passenger aircraft service to and fro
Chukchi Sea, sometimes referred to as the Chukotsk Sea or the Sea of Chukotsk, is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is bounded on the west by the Long Strait, off Wrangel Island, in the east by Point Barrow, beyond which lies the Beaufort Sea; the Bering Strait forms its southernmost limit and connects it to the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The principal port on the Chukchi Sea is Uelen in Russia; the International Date Line crosses the Chukchi Sea from northwest to southeast. It is displaced eastwards to avoid Wrangel Island as well as the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug on the Russian mainland; the sea is only navigable about four months of the year. The main geological feature of the Chukchi Sea bottom is the 700-kilometre-long Hope Basin, bound to the northeast by the Herald Arch. Depths less than 50 meters occupy 56% of the total area; the Chukchi Sea has few islands compared to other seas of the Arctic. Wrangel Island lies at the northwestern limit of the sea, Herald Island is located near its northern limit, a few small islands lie along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts.
The sea is named after the Chukchi people, who reside on the Chukotka Peninsula. The coastal Chukchi traditionally engaged in fishing and the hunting of walrus in this cold sea. In Siberia places along the coast are: Cape Billings, Cape Schmidt, Amguyema River, Cape Vankarem, the large Kolyuchinskaya Bay, Neskynpil'gyn Lagoon, Cape Serdtse-Kamen, Chegitun River, Inchoun and Cape Dezhnev. In Alaska, the rivers flowing into the Chukchi Sea are the Kivalina, the Kobuk, the Kokolik, the Kukpowruk, the Kukpuk, the Noatak, the Utukok, the Pitmegea, the Wulik, among others. Of rivers flowing in from its Siberian side, the Amguyema and the Chegitun are the most important; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Chuckchi Sea" as follows: On the West. The Eastern limit of East Siberian Sea. On the North. A line from Point Barrow, Alaska to the Northernmost point of Wrangel Island. On the South; the Arctic Circle between Siberia and Alaska. Common usage is that the southern extent is further south, at the narrowest part of the Bering Strait, on the 66th parallel north.
The Chukchi Sea Shelf is the westernmost part of the continental shelf of the United States and the easternmost part of the continental shelf of Russia. Within this shelf, the 50-mile Chukchi Corridor acts as a passageway for one of the largest marine mammal migrations in the world. Species that have been documented migrating through this corridor include the bowhead whale, beluga whale, Pacific walrus, bearded seals In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov sailed from the Kolyma River on the Arctic to the Anadyr River on the Pacific, but his route was not practical and was not used for the next 200 years. In 1728, Vitus Bering and in 1779, Captain James Cook entered the sea from the Pacific. On 28 September 1878, during Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld's expedition that made the whole length of the Northeast passage for the first time in history, the steamship Vega got stuck in fast ice in the Chukchi Sea. Since further progress for that year was impossible, the ship was secured in winter quarters. So, members of the expedition and the crew were aware only a few miles of ice-blocked sea lay between them and the open waters.
The following year, two days after Vega was released, she passed the Bering Strait and steamed towards the Pacific Ocean. In 1913, abandoned by expedition leader Vilhjalmur Stefansson, drifted in the ice along the northern expanses of the Chukchi Sea and sank, crushed by ice near Herald Island; the survivors made it to Wrangel Island. Captain Robert Bartlett walked hundreds of kilometers with Kataktovik, an Inuit man, on the ice of the Chukchi Sea in order to look for help, they reached Cape Vankarem on the Chukotka coast, on April 15, 1914. Twelve survivors of the ill-fated expedition were found on Wrangel island nine months by the King & Winge, a newly built Arctic fishing schooner. In 1933, the steamer Chelyuskin sailed from Murmansk, east bound to attempt a transit of the Northern Sea Route to the Pacific, in order to demonstrate such a transit could be achieved in one season; the vessel became beset in heavy ice in the Chukchi Sea, after drifting with the ice for over two months, was crushed and sank on 13 February 1934 near Kolyuchin Island.
Apart from one fatality, her entire complement of 104 was able to establish a camp on the sea ice. The Soviet government organised an impressive aerial evacuation. Captain Vladimir Voronin and expedition leader Otto Schmidt became heroes. Following several unsuccessful attempts, the wreck was located on the bed of the Chukchi Sea by a Russian expedition, Chelyuskin-70, in mid-September 2006. Two small components of the ship's superstructure were recovered by divers and were sent to the ship's builders, Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen, for identification. In July 2009, a large mass of organic material was found floating in the sea off the northwest Alaskan coast. Analysis by the U. S. Coast Guard has identified it as a large body of algal bloom. On 15 October 2010, Russian scientists opened a floating polar research station in the Chukchi Sea at the margin of the Arctic Ocean; the name of the station was Severny Polyus-38 and it was home to 15 researchers for a year. They conducted polar studies and gat
Buckland is a city in Northwest Arctic Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 416, up from 406 in 2000. Buckland is located at 65°59′5″N 161°7′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles, of which, 1.2 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Buckland first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village. Around 1950, residents relocated temporarily to Elephant Point on Eschscholtz Bay, Buckland did not report a population for the 1950 census. Residents soon returned to Buckland, it has reported in every successive census since 1960 and formally incorporated in 1966; as of the census of 2000, there were 406 people, 84 households, 75 families residing in the city. The population density was 332.3 people per square mile. There were 89 housing units at an average density of 72.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.20% White, 95.81% Native American, 0.99% from two or more races.
1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 84 households out of which 66.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.5% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.7% were non-families. 8.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.83 and the average family size was 5.19. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 51.2% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 10.1% from 45 to 64, 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 18 years. For every 100 females, there were. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,333, the median income for a family was $40,000. Males had a median income of $31,563 versus $27,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,624. About 7.9% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
The Buckland School, operated by the Northwest Arctic Borough School District, serves the community. As of 2017 it had 168 students, with Alaska Natives making up 96% of the student body; the current school building opened in 2002
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Kivalina is a city and village in Northwest Arctic Borough, United States. The population was 377 at the 2000 census and 374 as of the 2010 census; the island on which the village lies is threatened by coastal erosion. As of 2013, it is predicted that the island will be inundated by 2025. Kivalina is an Inupiat community first reported as "Kivualinagmut" in 1847 by Lt. Lavrenty Zagoskin of the Imperial Russian Navy, it has long been a stopping place for travelers between Arctic coastal areas and Kotzebue Sound communities. Three bodies and artifacts were found in 2009 representing the Ipiutak culture, a pre-Thule, non-whaling civilization that disappeared over a millennium ago, it is the only village in the region. The original village was relocated. In about 1900, reindeer were brought to the area and some people were trained as reindeer herders. An airstrip was built at Kivalina in 1960. Kivalina incorporated as a second-class city in 1969. During the 1970s, a new school and an electric system were constructed in the city.
On December 5, 2014 the only general store in Kivalina burned down. In July 2015, a newer store was opened after months of rebuilding to make the store more convenient and safe. Kivalina is on the southern tip of a 12 km long barrier island located between the Chukchi Sea and a lagoon at the mouth of the Kivalina River, it lies 130 km northwest of Kotzebue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 3.9 square miles, of which, 1.9 square miles of it is land and 2.0 square miles of it is water. Kivalina first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1969. As of the census of 2000, there were 377 people, 78 households, 64 families residing in the village; the population density was 202.1 people per square mile. There were 80 housing units at an average density of 42.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.55 % Native American. There were 78 households out of which 61.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.9% were non-families.
16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.83 and the average family size was 5.50. In the village the population was spread out with 44.0% under the age of 18, 13.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 15.9% from 45 to 64, 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $30,833, the median income for a family was $30,179. Males had a median income of $31,875 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the village was $8,360. About 25.4% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under age 18 and 30.0% of those age 65 or over. Due to severe sea wave erosion during storms, the city hopes to relocate again to a new site 12 km from the present site. According to the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers, the estimated cost of relocation runs between $95 and $125 million, whereas the Government Accountability Office estimates it to be between $100 and $400 million. In 2011, Haymarket Books published _Kivalina: A Climate Change Story_ by Christine Shearer; the city of Kivalina and a federally recognized tribe, the Alaska Native Village of Kivalina, sued Exxon Mobil Corporation, eight other oil companies, 14 power companies and one coal company in a lawsuit filed in federal court in San Francisco on February 26, 2008, claiming that the large amounts of greenhouse gases they emit contribute to global warming that threatens the community's existence. The lawsuit estimates the cost of relocation at $400 million; the suit was dismissed by the United States district court on September 30, 2009, on the grounds that regulating greenhouse emissions was a political rather than a legal issue and one that needed to be resolved by Congress and the Administration rather than by courts.
Kivalina has sued Canadian mining company Teck Cominco for polluting its water source. On August 4, 2011, it was reported that residents of the city of Kivalina had seen a strange orange goo wash up on the shores. According to the Associated Press, "Tests have been conducted on the substance on the surface of the water in Kivalina. City Administrator Janet Mitchell told the Associated Press that the substance has shown up in some residents' rain buckets." On August 8, 2011, Associated Press reported that the substance consisted of millions of microscopic eggs. Officials of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration confirmed that the orange colored materials were some kind of crustacean eggs or embryos, but subsequent examination resulted in a declaration that the substance consisted of spores from a undescribed species of rust fungus revealed to be Chrysomyxa ledicola. Kivalina's environmental issues were prominently featured in The 2015 Weather Channel documentary "Alaska: State of Emergency" hosted by Dave Malkoff.
Kivalina was one of the two towns featured in the Al Jazeera English Fault Lines documentary, When the Water Took the Land. The community, who were nomadic, were given an ultimatum that they would have to settle in the permanent community or their children would be taken from them; the village's plight was exami
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge
The Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge is a 3,500,000-acre conservation area in Alaska. It lies within the floodplain of the Koyukuk River, in a basin that extends from the Yukon River to the Purcell Mountains and the foothills of the Brooks Range; this region of wetlands is home to fish, waterfowl and Alaskan moose, wooded lowlands where two species of fox, wolf packs, Canadian lynx and marten prowl. The 750,000-acre Northern Unit of the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge known as Kaiyuh Flats, is managed as part of the Koyukuk/Nowitna Refuge Complex. Rich in wetlands, the Northern Innoko is an productive breeding area for migratory waterfowl and fish; the streams and rivers of the refuge complex support three species of salmon, Arctic grayling and many other fish species. Northern pike those that winter in the shallow lakes of the Northern Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, sometimes grow to record size. In the Koyukuk's wetlands, breeding waterfowl feast upon water plants and abundant protein-rich invertebrates.
Young birds grow in the short, lush summer, prepare for the fall migration. As many as 100,000 ducks are raised on refuge lands during a single nesting season. Migratory songbirds and raptors depend on the rich resources of the Koyukuk Refuge for breeding and raising young. Koyukuk Refuge's Three-Day Slough area, part of the 400,000-acre Koyukuk Wilderness, has some of the most productive moose habitat in Alaska; this region has, at times, supported more than 10 moose per square mile. Recent counts indicate that some areas still contain densities of five moose or more per square mile; as with much of the refuge big game work, these moose counts are cooperative efforts between the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Caribou from the migratory Western Arctic Herd, which numbers more than 450,000 move into the northernmost reaches of the refuge in winter months in search of lichens that lie beneath the snow; the Koyukuk supports a resident non-migratory caribou population, the Galena Mountain Herd, which numbers about 300.
Wolf packs, Canadian lynx and other furbearers, as well as black and grizzly bears, are found on the refuge year around. List of largest National Wildlife Refuges Refuge profile Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service