Paul Biya is a Cameroonian politician serving as the President of Cameroon since 6 November 1982. A native of Cameroon's south, Biya rose as a bureaucrat under President Ahmadou Ahidjo in the 1960s, serving as Secretary-General of the Presidency from 1968 to 1975 and as Prime Minister of Cameroon from 1975 to 1982, he succeeded Ahidjo as president upon the latter's surprise resignation in 1982 and consolidated power in a 1983–1984 staged attempted coup in which he eliminated all his rivals. Biya introduced political reforms within the context of a one-party system in the 1980s. Under serious pressure, he accepted the introduction of multiparty politics in the early 1990s, he won the 1992 presidential election with 40% of the plural, single-ballot vote and was re-elected by large margins in 1997, 2004, 2011 and 2018. Opposition politicians and Western governments have alleged voting irregularities and fraud on each of these occasions. Many independent sources have proved that he did not win the elections in 1992, the subsequent elections were a rampant fraud.
Biya is the longest-ruling non-royal leader in the world and the oldest ruler in Sub-Saharan Africa after Robert Mugabe stepped down during the 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état. Biya has maintained Cameroon's close relationship with France, one of Cameroon's former colonial ruler besides the United Kingdom. Paul Biya was born in the village of Mvomeka'a in the South Region of Cameroon, he studied at the Lycée General Leclerc, Yaoundé and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and went on to the Institut des hautes études d'Outre-Mer where he graduated in 1961 with a Higher Education Diploma in Public Law. He married Jeanne-Irène Biya, who did not have any children, though she adopted Franck Biya, born from a relationship of Paul Biya with another woman. After Jeanne-Irène Biya died on 29 July 1992, Paul Biya married Chantal Biya on 23 April 1994, had two more children with her. Biya is a good friend of the former Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos; as an official in post-independence 1960s Cameroon, Biya rose to prominence under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
After becoming Director of the Cabinet of the Minister of National Education in January 1964 and Secretary-General of the Ministry of National Education in July 1965, he was named Director of the Civil Cabinet of the President in December 1967 and Secretary-General of the Presidency in January 1968. He gained the rank of Minister in August 1968 and the rank of Minister of State in June 1970, while remaining Secretary-General of the Presidency. Following the creation of a unitary state in 1972, he became Prime Minister of Cameroon on 30 June 1975. In June 1979, a law designated the Prime Minister as the President's constitutional successor. Ahidjo unexpectedly announced his resignation on 4 November 1982, Biya accordingly succeeded him as President of Cameroon on 6 November; because Biya is a Christian from the South Region of Cameroon, it was considered surprising that he was chosen by Ahidjo, a Muslim from the north, as his successor. His father, a catechist wanted him to be in the clergy but at the age of 16 while in Catholic school, he raped a 6 years old girl and was banned from Catholic school.
After Biya became President, Ahidjo remained head of the ruling Cameroon National Union. Biya was brought into the CNU Central Committee and Political Bureau and was elected as the Vice-President of the CNU. On 11 December 1982, he was placed in charge of managing party affairs in Ahidjo's absence. During the first months after Biya's succession, he continued to show loyalty to Ahidjo, Ahidjo continued to show support for Biya, but in 1983 a deep rift developed between the two. Ahidjo went into exile in France, from there he publicly accused Biya of abuse of power and paranoia about plots against him; the two could not be reconciled despite efforts by several foreign leaders. After Ahidjo resigned as CNU leader, Biya took the helm of the party at an "extraordinary session" of the CNU party held on 14 September 1983. In November 1983, Biya announced that the next presidential election would be held on 14 January 1984, he won 99.98 % of the vote. In February 1984, Ahidjo was put on trial in absentia for alleged involvement in a 1983 coup plot, along with two others.
Biya survived a military coup attempt on 6 April 1984, following his decision on the previous day to disband the Republican Guard and disperse its members across the military. Estimates of the death toll ranged from 71 to about 1,000. Northern Muslims were the primary participants in this coup attempt, seen by many as an attempt to restore that group's supremacy. Ahidjo was believed to have orchestrated the coup attempt, Biya is thought to have learned of the plot in advance and to have disbanded the Republican Guard as a reaction, forcing the coup plotters to act earlier than they had planned, which may have been a crucial factor in the coup's failure. In 1985, the CNU was transformed into the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement, in Bamenda the capital city of the Southern Cameroon and Biya was unlawfully elected as its president, he was re-elected as President of Cameroon on 24 April 1988. Biya took some steps to open up the regime, culminating in the decision to legalize opposition parties in 1990.
According to official results, Biya won the
Nkambe is a city in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. It is the headquarters of the Donga-Mantung department. Nkambe Central is the name of one of the five communes in Donga-Mantung. Nkambe lies at the north edge of the Bamenda Grassfields, on the northeast arc of the Ring Road, farthest from Bamenda; the Nigerian border is only 25 or 40 km away, but roads toward the border are undeveloped jungle tracks. Most of the people in Nkambe Central commune are Wimbum - the three clans which speak the Limbum language. Nkambe Central contains the northwest part of Wimbum-land, including the villages of Kungi, Binshua, Saah, Nwangri, Kup, Bongom, Tabenken, Binka and Nkambe-town. Ndu Commune contains the southeast part of Wimbum-land. Most Wimbum are farmers, raising maize, njama-njama, Irish potatoes, plantains, etc. Scattered Fulani live in the district, grazing cattle on the grasslands; the population of Nkambe Central was estimated around 170,000 in 2011. Nkambe-town, long an administrative center, has attracted a more cosmopolitan mix than the surrounding villages, including Hausa traders, students from around Donga-Mantung, civil servants from other parts of Cameroon.
The town has a daily market, a government hospital, various schools, churches, a mosque, gas pumps, a gendarmerie, administrative offices. As mentioned above, Nkambe lies in the Bamenda Grassfields, in the chain of highlands that runs from São Tomé up into Nigeria; the land varies from cool grassy highlands like the 2200m Mount Binka, to lower warmer places like Chup at 1500m. Parts of Nkambe commune lie in the Cameroonian Highlands forests eco-region. Bird species include the Western green tinkerbird, the Yellow-spotted barbet, the Cameroon greenbul, the Yellow-breasted boubou, the African hill babbler, the Green longtail, the Fernando Po Oliveback, Bannerman's weaver, Bannerman's turaco; the Wimbum arrived in this area between the 1700s and the mid-1800s. In the 1800s, the Nkambe area saw some trade in elephant ivory, but the area was bypassed by the major long-distance trade routes north through Fonfuka and east through Ntem. Lack of economic power and lack of unified leadership made it somewhat vulnerable to external attack, the area suffered from slave raids more than larger, centralized kingdoms like Nso and Bamum.
German administration of the Grassfields began around 1901. Fulani herders began to arrive in the area around 1910. Britain took over in 1916 and in 1922 re-instituted some native law under the policy of indirect rule. In 1949 Nkambe-town became the head of one of the three administrative units in Bamenda Province, alongside Bamenda and Wum. Nkambe-town's administrative role has continued since independence in 1961. Map of Cameroon - Nkambe - NB-32-XVII. Yaounde: National Geographic Centre. 1983. "Ndu". United Councils and Cities of Cameroon. Retrieved 2016-11-17. "Nkambe". United Councils and Cities of Cameroon. Retrieved 2016-11-16. Nkwi, Paul Nchoji. Elements for a History of the Western Grassfields. Yaounde: Department of Sociology - University of Yaounde. "Village Dictionary of Donga-Mantung". Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, United Republic of Cameroon. March 1973. Retrieved 2016-11-23. Christopher M. Awambeng and Growth of Urban Centres in the North-West Province: Case Studies, Berlin: P. Lang, 1991
The Adamawa Region is a constituent region of the Republic of Cameroon. It borders the Centre and East regions to the south, the Northwest and West regions to the southwest, Nigeria to the west, the Central African Republic to the east, the North Region to the north; this mountainous area forms the barrier between Cameroon's forested savanna north. At 64,000 km² in land area, the Adamawa is the third largest of Cameroon's ten regions; the land is sparsely populated, however, as most is devoted to the rearing of cattle. The Muslim Fulbe form the major ethnic group, though Tikar and other peoples are present in lesser numbers; the Adamawa's oldest populations were various Paleo-Sudanese peoples. These were displaced or absorbed by invading Sudanese groups in the 8th or 9th century; these included the Mbum, Kutin, Laka-Mbere, Doayo, Fali and Tupuri. The Kanem-Bornu Empire of Lake Chad had relations with these tribes, they called the area Mabina. The Kanem-Bornu introduced Islam to the region between 1349 and 1385 by way of the Islamic centre at Kano in present-day Nigeria.
However, no more than a few rulers, nobles or merchants converted. Many more tribes entered the territory from the region of Chad between the 17th centuries; these included the Semi-Bantu tribes, such as the Bamileke, Kom, Tikar and Wimbam. The Bantu came as well, examples being Maka and Njem. Other groups who came were the Gbaya, from the present CAR, the Vute, from the Lake Chad region; the Vute were region's first iron workers, they founded the towns of Mbamnyang and Tibaré. The Semi-Bantu peoples moved south before settling near the headwaters of the Mbam River sometime between the 17th and 19th centuries; the Bantu settled east of them, south of the Adamawa Plateau. One or all of these populations founded Banyo and Ngaoundéré. Meanwhile, the Bantu and Semi-Bantu invasions drove the longer-established Sudanese peoples north; the Mbum, Ndoro and Laka-Mbere moved to the present-day province's northern reaches, while the other Sudanese migrated farther. This period marked the highest population for the Adamawa territory until modern times.
However, one event had drastic consequences for the region: the arrival of the Fulbe. Early Fulbe settlers entered the Adamawa from present-day Nigeria or northern Cameroon as early as the 13th century; these settlers and nomads were never numerous and they held subservient status to other tribes. Over time, the steady stream of Fulbe immigrants allowed Fulbe communities to spring up in many areas; these early Fulbe converted to Islam sometime in the 17th century, beginning with the settled, or town, Fulbe. In 1804, Fulbe in the territory and beyond were growing disenchanted with submission to pagan tribes, they were hungry for larger territories that they could use for cattle grazing. The Fulbe leader Usman dan Fodio called a jihad. Usman named his lieutenant Modima Adam Al-Hasan, or Modibo Adama, lamido of Fumbina, Adama raised an army in the territory. Adama's forces proved all but unstoppable, he conquered major Vute centres at Tibaré in 1835, which he renamed Banyo and Tibati. At Adama's death in 1847, Fulbe horsemen controlled territory from the Niger River to the west and the Logone to the east and from the Sahara to the north and the Sanaga River to the south to form the Sokoto Caliphate.
Adama's emirate was divided into districts under governors. Fighting against native peoples continued for many years. Around 1830, the Fulbe conquered the Mbum village of Delbé, which they renamed Ngaoundéré, after a nearby hill. Many Mbum remained, though many others migrated north; the town became the seat of the lamidat of Ardo Ndjobdi. Beginning around 1835, Fulbe immigrants streamed into the newly conquered territories in large numbers. By 1850, the Fulbe were entrenched in northern Cameroon. Native populations were placed under the rule of the local lamidos. Native populations were forced to face enslavement, or flee. Fulbe merchants accepted salt and horses from North Africa in exchange for slaves for sale in the Muslim empires to the north. A smaller number of slaves went south for the trans-Atlantic market; those groups who resisted had no choice but to flee to the unforgiving mountains or else to the jungle south. Those groups who were immediate neighbours to the warring Fulbe, such as the Vute and Gbaya, dislodged others who lay in their path, such as Cameroon's Bantu peoples.
The Fulbe jihads thus served as the single most important event in the peopling of southern Cameroon. The jihad only served to depopulate Cameroon's north, however; the Fulbe invaders did not set up new settlements. Rather, they used their conquered lands as pasture for their cattle. Many of these groups were still migrating when they came into contact with Cameroon's new colonisers: The Germans. British explorers were the first Europeans to enter Adamawa territory when they came in 1822; the German Dr. Gustav Nachtigal was the first Westerner to explore the region extensively, which he did between 1869 and 1873. Nachtigal kept a keen eye out to notice what groups lived in the region, what their relations were like with their neighbours, what resources could be exploited from the area; the British Eduard E. Flegel followed Nachtigal i
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Southwest Region (Cameroon)
The Southwest Region or South-West Region is a region in Cameroon. Its capital is Buea; as of 1987, its population was 838,042. Along with the Northwest Region, it is one of the two anglophone regions of Cameroon, The region is divided into six divisions or departments: Fako, Koupé-Manengouba, Manyu and Ndian; these are in turn broken down into subdivisions. Presidentially appointed senior divisional officers and subdivisional officers govern each respectively; the region was notable for having the first English-speaking university in Cameroon. Towns include the capital Buea, Tiko and Mamfe. Limbe in particular is a popular tourist resort notable for its fine beaches. Korup National Park is a major attraction. Buea itself, sits at the foot of Mount Cameroon, possesses an temperate climate markedly different from the rest of the province
West Region (Cameroon)
The West Region is 14,000 km² of territory located in the central-western portion of the Republic of Cameroon. It borders the Northwest Region to the northwest, the Adamawa Region to the northeast, the Centre Region to the southeast, the Littoral Region to the southwest, the Southwest Region to the west; the West Region is the smallest of Cameroon's ten regions in area, yet it has the highest population density. As home to the enterprising Bamileke tribes, the West is an economic bright spot and one of Cameroon's more developed regions; this progressive development is tempered by the strong traditional culture that persists among the Bamileke and the province's other major ethnic group, the Bamum. The West sits at the geolog crossroads of Cameron; the land along the Noun River and at the Bamendjing Reservoir, for example, is a evolved blend of various raw minerals. The province's western half, on the other hand, is a haphazard mixture of raw minerals, ferrallitic patches of red dirt, other types.
The soil of the eastern portions away from the reservoir is ferrallitic. Rocks in the area range from the volcanic along the reservoir and Noun to Precambrian deposits of crystalline rocks such as granite and gneiss under a cover of basaltic rock in the northwest. Metamorphic rocks like gneiss and mica dominate the rest of the territory; the soil throughout is red in color due to high iron content, though that of the northwest is black or brown basalt. The province's soils are most productive in Cameroon; the West's mountainous terrain and active tectonics create many fast-moving rivers with picturesque falls and isolated crater lakes. These rivers follow a Cameroon regime, experiencing a period of high waters during the wet season and a period of low waters in the dry period; the rivers all form part of the Atlantic basin. The Mbam River runs along the border with the Southeast Provinces; the Nkam is the name for the headwaters of the Wouri River, which flow from the West's Bamboutos Mountains.
The eastern branch through the area rises northwest of Bangangté, the western branch forms the border with the Littoral Province southwest of Bafang. These headwaters are subject to seasonal flooding; the Noun River, a tributary of the Sanaga, flows from the Centre Province, around Bafoussam, to the Bamendjing Reservoir. This man-made lake is created by a dam on the Noun River, which helps regulate the Sanaga at Edéa in the Littoral Province and is thus an important component in Cameroon's supply of hydroelectric power. Falls are common, such as the Balatchi, Metché, Tsugning Falls. Most of the West's lakes are crater lakes formed from collapsed volcanoes; such lakes exist at Balent, Banéfo, Doupé, near Foumban. Many of these still have active volcanoes at their bottoms in the northwest on the Western High Plateau. One example is Lake Baleng, northeast of Bafoussam, the twin lakes of Foumbot; these volcanoes can cause deposits of gas to build up at the lakebed until poisonous gases bubble to the surface.
Such an eruption at Lake Monoun killed 37 villagers near Foumbot on 15 and 16 August 1984. The Bamboutos Mountains are the West's primary land feature. Elevations dip as low as 500 metres in the Noun and Nkam valleys; the highest point is a dormant volcano west of Mbouda, at 2,740 metres. These mountains lie along the Cameroon Fault, dating from the Cretaceous, which runs parallel to the border with the Northwest Province and through the capital of Bafoussam. West of the Cameroon Mountains lies the Western High Plateau, with elevations of 1,000-2,500 metres. South of the fault, the land descends in steps until levelling off at the South Cameroon Plateau. Here, terrain is gentler, with large hills separated by deep valleys. High elevations and moderate to high humidity give the West one of Cameroon's more pleasant climates. Temperatures average a cool 22˙, rainfall is moderate. Except for the southeasternmost portions, the West experiences two major seasons in lieu of the traditional four: the year begins in a long, dry period of little rain, which runs until May the rains begin in May or June and last until October or November.
Though the transition is gradual, the southeastern reaches of the province are part of the South Cameroon Plateau and thus have four seasons: the long dry season from December to March, the short rainy season from March to June, the short dry season from June to August, the long rainy season from September to December. The climate is equatorial of the Cameroon sub-variety in the northwestern third and equatorial of the Guinea type in the southeastern two-thirds. Rainfall, moderated by the mountains, averages 1,000-2,000 mm per year throughout, though it is highest at the area of the Bamendjing Reservoir. Little of the West's original flora or fauna survives, since most land has been cleared by human farmers; this is evident on the Western High Plateau, where poor soil and less rainfall have exacerbated the effects of deforestation, turning the area into grassland. The Melap Reserve near Foumban is one wooded area, but it is more of a city park than an actual reserve. East of the Noun River, the terrain is covered in woodland savanna of the Sahel type, which forms a transitional zone to the lowly vegetated northern provinces.
West of that river, this savanna is of the Sudan type, is interspersed among open, dry forest. A few small patches of rain forest persist to the west of the Mbam River in the Noun division; as elevation increases, forests thin out, until they are replaced by ferns and bamboos at 1,800 metres
The Tikar is a blanket term used for several ethnic groups in Cameroon. It has been used for different peoples and their culture. There is a single ethnic group called the Tikar, they speak. Their population is 25,000; the Bedzan pygmies share their language. The main Tikar towns are Bankim, Ngambe Tikar, Magba; the Tikar have elements of patrilineal descent. Their folk belief states that during pregnancy the blood that the woman would release during menstruation forms parts of the fetus; this blood is said to form the skin, blood and most of the organs. The bones, brain and teeth are believed to be formed from the father's sperm. In the case of a son, the masculinity comes from this; the Tikar are noted as mask-makers. Quite different from these Tikar are many groups in the northwestern part of the country, in the Northwest Region near the Nigerian border whose royal families trace links to the Tikar royal family. Examples are the Nso' and the Wimbum from the North West as well as the Bamoun whose languages are different from Tikar.
Although it is common to see statements such as the "Nso' are Tikar" or the Wimbum came from Tikari, that should not be taken to be a statement about the culture, languages etc. of most of the people of that ethnicity. On the 2006 PBS television program African American Lives, the musician Quincy Jones had his DNA tested. In the PBS television program Finding Your Roots, former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice learned she shared maternal heritage with the Tikar. Fowler and David Zeitlyn.. "Introductory Essay: the Grassfields and the Tikar". In African Crossroads: intersections of history and anthropology in Cameroon. I. Fowler and D. Zeitlyn, eds. pp. 1–16. Oxford: Berghahn. Jeffreys, M. D. W. "Who are the Tikar?".. African Studies 23 no. 3/4: pp. 141–153. Price, David. "Who are the Tikar now?".. Paideuma 25: pp. 89–98. Zeitlyn, David.. "Eldridge Mohammadou on Tikar Origins". Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 26 no. 1: pp. 99–104. Tikar entry at Ethnologue site Article about Bamenda and Tikar