Pasco is a city in and the county seat of Franklin County, United States. Pasco is one of three cities that make up the Tri-Cities region of the state of Washington, the Tri-Cities is a mid-sized metropolitan area of approximately 279,116 people that includes the cities of Kennewick and Richland in a 2015 estimate. Pascos population was 59,781 at the 2010 census and 70,560 as of the April 1,2016 Washington State Population estimate. On October 16,1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition camped in the Pasco area, the area was frequented by fur trappers and gold traders. In the 1880s, the Northern Pacific Railway was built near the Columbia River, Pasco was officially incorporated on September 3,1891. It was named by Virgil Bogue, an engineer for the Northern Pacific Railway after Cerro de Pasco, a city in the Peruvian Andes. In its early years, it was a railroad town. Due in large part to the presence of the Hanford Site, most of the population influx resided in Richland and Kennewick, as Pasco remained primarily driven by the agricultural industry, and to a lesser degree the NP Pasco rail yards.
Farming continues to be the driver for most of the citys industrial tax base. In the late 1990s, foreseeing another Hanford-related boom period, several developers purchased large farm circles in Pasco for residential and commercial development, recently incorporated land on the West side of the city has exploded into new housing tracts and shopping centers. This area of the city has referred to locally as West Pasco. Pasco is located at 46°14′19″N 119°6′31″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.08 square miles, of which,30.50 square miles is land and 3.58 square miles is water. As Pasco is located in Southeastern Washington, the city lies in the shadow of the Cascade Range. As a result, the area is a desert, receiving little precipitation throughout the year. Hot summers, warm springs, and cold winters provide a stark contrast to areas of the state. The massive Columbia River borders the side of the city, separating it from the neighboring cities of Richland.
As of the census of 2010, there were 59,781 people,17,983 households, the population density was 1,960.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,782 housing units at a density of 615.8 per square mile
Southwestern United States
The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico.
The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Tucson, Chandler, within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona.
In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest region
Portland is a port and the largest city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette, the city covers 145 square miles and had an estimated population of 632,309 in 2015, making it the 26th most populous city in the United States. Approximately 2,389,228 people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area and its Combined Statistical Area ranks 17th with a population of 3,022,178. Roughly 60% of Oregons population resides within the Portland metropolitan area, named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the industry was a major force in the citys early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous cities in the world. After the citys economy experienced a boom during World War II. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its liberal political values, and the city has earned a reputation as a bastion of counterculture.
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center study, Portland ranks as the eighth most popular American city, the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its planning and investment in public transportation. Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool and this climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the City of Roses for over a century. Keep Portland Weird is a slogan for the city. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula and these massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. The Chinook people occupying the land which would become Portland were first documented by Meriwether Lewis, before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast.
Large numbers of settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail. In the early 1840s a new settlement began emerging ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River and this community was initially referred to as Stumptown and The Clearing because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file a land claim. For 25 cents Overton agreed to half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles and other equipment, food processing and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U. S. capital, which is named for George Washington, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State, or, in more formal contexts. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D. C. or, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
Spokane is a city in the state of Washington, in the northwestern United States. It is the seat of Spokane County, and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Greater Spokane Area, the city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport,5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second largest city in Washington and the 102nd largest city in the United States. The first humans to live in the area, the Spokane people, known as the birthplace of Fathers Day, Spokane is officially nicknamed the Lilac City. David Thompson explored the area with the expansion and establishment of the North West Companys Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington, completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area, and that same year it was officially incorporated as a city with the name of Spokan Falls.
In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest, the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed Worlds Fair at Expo 74, many of the older Romanesque Revival-style buildings in the downtown area were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889. The city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, and the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes serves as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, and the private Presbyterian Whitworth University opened three years in north Spokane, in sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Indians in Minor League Baseball, Spokane Empire in arena football, as of 2010, Spokanes only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, has a daily circulation of over 76,000.
The first humans to live in the Spokane area arrived between 13,000 and 8,000 years ago and were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful game. The Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, when asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from up North. Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur. These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, the explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Companys Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs, after establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west.
He sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River in Washington and trade with the local Indians
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho
Coeur dAlene is the largest city and county seat of Kootenai County, United States. It is the city of the Coeur dAlene Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of Coeur dAlene was 44,137, the city is about 30 miles east of the larger Spokane, Washington, of which it is a satellite. The two cities, are the key components of the Spokane-Coeur dAlene Combined Statistical Area, of which Coeur dAlene is the third largest city, Coeur dAlene is the largest city in northern Idaho Panhandle. The city is situated on the shore of Lake Coeur dAlene. Locally, Coeur dAlene is known as the Lake City, or simply called by its initials, the city of Coeur dAlene has grown significantly in recent years, in part because of a substantial increase in tourism, encouraged by several resorts in the area. Broadcaster and media figure Barbara Walters called the city a little slice of Heaven, on November 28,2007, Good Morning America broadcast the citys Christmas lighting ceremony because its display is among the largest in the United States.
The Coeur dAlene Resort takes up a prominent portion of the citys downtown and it is near two major ski resorts, Silver Mountain Resort to the east in Kellogg, and Schweitzer Mountain Ski Resort to the north in Sandpoint. The Coeur dAlene people called themselves by the autonym Schitsuumsh in Coeur dAlene, one of the Salishan languages and this area was extensively explored by David Thompson of the North West Company starting in 1807. The Oregon boundary dispute arose as a result of competing British, the British had trading ties extending from Canada and had started settlements in present-day British Columbia and at Fort Astoria on the Pacific coast near the mouth of the Columbia River. The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended the joint occupation of the area in present-day Idaho when Britain ceded all rights to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States. When General William T. Sherman ordered a fort constructed on the lake in the 1870s, he gave it the name Fort Coeur dAlene, the name of the fort was changed to Fort Sherman to honor the general.
North Idaho College, a community college, now occupies the fort site. The lake was named for the Coeur dAlene. Miners and settlers came to the region after silver deposits were found and it became the second-largest silver mining district in the country, generating both great wealth and extensive environmental contamination and damages. In the 1890s, two significant miners uprisings took place in the Coeur dAlene Mining District, where the workers struggled with high risk and he confessed to dynamiting a $250,000 mill belonging to the Bunker Hill Mining Company near Wardner during another miners uprising in 1899. He returned to Idaho to assassinate former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg in 1905, Coeur dAlene is located at 47°41′34″N 116°46′48″W, at an elevation of 2,180 ft above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 16.08 square miles
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Idaho, as well as the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census was 205,671 and its estimated population in 2013 was 214,237. The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area, known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a population of 664,422. It contains the three largest cities, Boise and Meridian. Boise is the third most populous area in the United States Pacific Northwest region, behind Seattle. Accounts differ about the origin of the name, Bonneville of the U. S. Army as its source. After trekking for weeks through dry and rough terrain, his party reached an overlook with a view of the Boise River Valley. The place where they stood is called Bonneville Point, located on the Oregon Trail east of the city, according to the story, a French-speaking guide, overwhelmed by the sight of the verdant river, yelled Les bois. Les bois. —and the name stuck, the name may instead derive from earlier mountain men, who named the river that flows through it.
In the 1820s, French Canadian fur trappers set trap lines in the vicinity, set in a high-desert area, the tree-lined valley of the Boise River became a distinct landmark, an oasis dominated by cottonwood trees. They called this La rivière boisée, which means the wooded river, the area was called Boise long before the establishment of Fort Boise by the federal government. The original Fort Boise was 40 miles west, near Parma and this private sector defense was erected by the Hudsons Bay Company in the 1830s. It was abandoned in the 1850s, but massacres along the Oregon Trail prompted the U. S. Army to re-establish a fort in the area in 1863 during the U. S. Civil War. The new location was selected because it was near the intersection of the Oregon Trail with a road connecting the Boise Basin. During the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, the original territory was larger than Texas. Mullett, the U. S. Assay Office at 210 Main Street was built in 1871, natives and longtime residents use the pronunciation /ˈbɔɪsiː/, as given on the citys website.
The pronunciation is used as a shibboleth, as outsiders tend to pronounce the citys name as /ˈbɔɪziː/. Boise is located in southwestern Idaho, about 41 miles east of the Oregon border, the downtown areas elevation is 2,704 feet above sea level
Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U. S. State of Washington, and the largest suburb of Portland, Oregon. Incorporated in 1857, it is the fourth largest city in the state, Vancouver is the county seat of Clark County and forms part of the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area, the 23rd largest metropolitan area in the United States. Originally established in 1825 around Fort Vancouver, a fur trading outpost, in 2005, Money magazine named it No.91 on its list of best places in America to live. In 2016, WalletHub ranks Vancouver the 39th best place to live for families in the US, Vancouver shares its name with the larger city of Vancouver in southern British Columbia, approximately 300 mi to the north. Both cities were named after sea captain George Vancouver, but the American city is older, City officials have periodically suggested changing the U. S. citys name to Fort Vancouver to reduce confusion with its larger and better-known northern neighbor. Many Pacific Northwest residents distinguish between the two cities by referring to the Canadian city as Vancouver, B. C.
and the United States city as Vancouver, Washington, or Vancouver, local nicknames include and The Couv. In 2013, the nickname Vansterdam surfaced as a result of the legalization of marijuana in the state of Washington and this nickname has long been used to refer to Vancouver, B. C. as well. This name is a reference to the cannabis-legal city of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The Vancouver, area was inhabited by a variety of Native American tribes, most recently the Chinook and Klickitat nations, the Chinookan and Klickitat names for the area were reportedly Skit-so-to-ho and Ala-si-kas, meaning land of the mud-turtles. First European contact was made in 1775, with half of the indigenous population dead from smallpox before the Lewis. Meriwether Lewis wrote that the Vancouver area was the only desired situation for settlement west of the Rocky Mountains, the first permanent European settlement did not occur until 1824, when Fort Vancouver was established as a fur trading post of the Hudsons Bay Company.
From that time on, the area was settled by both the US and Britain under a joint occupation agreement. Joint occupation led to the Oregon boundary dispute and ended on June 15,1846, with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, in 1850, Amos Short traced over the claim of Williamson and named the town Columbia City. It changed to Vancouver in 1855, the City of Vancouver was incorporated on January 23,1857. U. S. Army Captain Ulysses S. Grant was quartermaster at what was known as Columbia Barracks for 15 months beginning in September 1852. Soon after leaving Vancouver, he resigned from the army and did not serve again until the outbreak of the American Civil War, other notable generals to have served in Vancouver include George B. McClellan, Philip Sheridan, Oliver O. Howard and 1953 Nobel Peace Prize recipient George Marshall, Vancouver became the end point for two ultra-long flights from Moscow, USSR over the North Pole. The first of these flights was performed by Valery Chkalov in 1937 on a Tupolev ANT-25RD airplane, Chkalov was originally scheduled to land at an airstrip in nearby Portland, but redirected at the last minute to Vancouvers Pearson Airfield
Wyoming /waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the tenth largest by area, the least populous, Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. Cheyenne is the capital and the most populous city in Wyoming, the state population was estimated at 586,107 in 2015, which is less than the population of 31 of the largest U. S. cities. The Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone were some of the inhabitants of the region. Southwestern Wyoming was included in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War. The region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to Congress in 1865 to provide a government for the territory of Wyoming. The territory was named after the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, with the name ultimately being derived from the Munsee word xwé, wamənk, the mineral extraction industry—especially coal, natural gas, and trona—along with the travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyomings economy.
Agriculture has historically been an important component of the economy with the main commodities being livestock, sugar beets, grain. The climate is generally semi-arid and continental, being drier and windier in comparison to the rest of the United States, except for the 1964 election, Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican party winning every presidential election. Wyoming is one of three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, from the north border to the south border it is 276 miles, and from the east to the west border is 365 miles at its south end and 342 miles at the north end. The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming, the state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges.
Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River valley in the states northeast corner, at 3,125 feet. In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River, in the north central are the Big Horn Mountains, in the northeast, the Black Hills, and in the southern region the Laramie and Sierra Madre ranges. The Snowy Range in the central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13,000 ft tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains
The region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies, some geographers include some territory of northern Mexico in the Plains, but many stop at the Rio Grande. The term Great Plains is used in the United States to describe a sub-section of the even more vast Interior Plains physiographic division and it has currency as a region of human geography, referring to the Plains Indians or the Plains States. There is no region referred to as the Great Plains in The Atlas of Canada, in terms of human geography, the term prairie is more commonly used in Canada, and the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or simply the Prairies. The region is about 500 mi east to west and 2,000 mi north to south, much of the region was home to American bison herds until they were hunted to near extinction during the mid/late 19th century. It has an area of approximately 500,000 sq mi, current thinking regarding the geographic boundaries of the Great Plains is shown by this map at the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
The term Great Plains, for the region west of about the 96th or 98th meridian, nevin Fennemans 1916 study, Physiographic Subdivision of the United States, brought the term Great Plains into more widespread usage. Before that the region was almost invariably called the High Plains, today the term High Plains is used for a subregion of the Great Plains. The Great Plains are the westernmost portion of the vast North American Interior Plains, during the Cretaceous Period, the Great Plains were covered by a shallow inland sea called the Western Interior Seaway. However, during the Late Cretaceous to the Paleocene, the seaway had begun to recede, leaving thick marine deposits. During the Cenozoic era, specifically about 25 million years ago during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, existing forest biomes declined and grasslands became much more widespread. The grasslands provided a new niche for mammals, including many ungulates and glires, the spread of grasslands and the development of grazers have been strongly linked.
The vast majority of animals became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene. In general, the Great Plains have a variety of weather through the year, with very cold and harsh winters and very hot. Wind speeds are very high, especially in winter. Grasslands are among the least protected biomes, humans have converted much of the prairies for agricultural purposes or to create pastures. The Great Plains have dust storms mostly every year or so, the 100th meridian roughly corresponds with the line that divides the Great Plains into an area that receive 20 in or more of rainfall per year and an area that receives less than 20 in. The region is subjected to extended periods of drought, high winds in the region may generate devastating dust storms
Great Lakes region
The region borders the Great Lakes and forms a distinctive historical and cultural identity. A portion of the region encompasses most of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The Commissions authorities are confirmed by the Canadian and American federal governments, the states and provinces are represented in the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers. To the east, the rivers of St. Lawrence, Hudson, beyond the region, North American claims remained disputed among Britain, France and Russia. During the American Revolution, the region was contested between Britain and rebellious American colonies, which may have entertained ambitions to repossess the area if America failed to govern it, retained control over its forts and licensed fur trade for fifteen years. During the Confederacy Period of 1781–1789, the Continental Congress passed three ordinances whose authority was unclear regarding the regions governance on the American side, the Land Ordinance of 1784 established the broad outlines of future governance.
The territory would be divided into six states, which would be given powers of constitutional instituting. The Land Ordinance of 1785 specified the manner in which land would be distributed in the Territory, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 defined the political protocols by which American states south of the lakes would enter the union as political equals with the original thirteen colonies. The ordinance prohibited the establishment of religion and established civic rights that foreshadowed the United States Bill of Rights. Civil rights included freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, trial by jury, States were authorized to organize constitutional conventions and petition for admission as states equal to the original thirteen. Five states evolved from its provisions, Indiana, Illinois, the northeastern section of Minnesota, from the Mississippi to St. Croix River, fell under ordinance jurisdiction and extended the constitution and culture of the Old Northwest to the Dakotas. The surge of settlement generated tension culminating in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, the region on both sides of the border became a vast research and design laboratory for agricultural machinery and techniques.
Owner-operator family farms transformed both demographics and ecology into a vast terrain of farmlands, producing wheat and corn. In western New York and northeast Ohio, the St. Mining, primarily soft metals of copper and lead, the regions alliance of antislavery with free soil movements contributed troops and agricultural goods that proved critical in the Unions victory. The Homestead and Morrill Acts, donating land to extend the agrarian economic franchise. Like the provisions of the ordinance, Ontario prohibited slavery, made provisions for land distribution to farmers who owned their own land, Industrial production and technology have made the region among the worlds most productive manufacturing centers. The region hosted the worlds greatest concentrations of production for oil, steel, synthetic rubber, agricultural machinery, agronomy industrialized as well, in meat processing, packaged cereal products, and processed dairy products. State universities, professional work, and unemployment and workers compensation were some of the regions permanent contributions to American social policy