Newtown River is a large natural inland harbour located on the Isle of Wight's northwestern coast, named after the nearby village of Newtown. It is sometimes referred to as Newtown Creek. Newtown Harbour is the name given by Natural England to the River and surrounding land, this area is the only national nature reserve on the island, it is managed by the National Trust. Newtown River consists of a number of estuaries of small rivers, has the form of several finger-like indentations in the coastline; the narrow entrance to Newtown River is 3/4 of a mile east of Hamstead Point, in the centre of Newtown Bay. The entrance needs navigating with care as there is a bar across the entrance, strong cross tides and a fair flow of water in and out of the entrance channel at mid-tide. Although a lot of mud is exposed in the harbour at low water there are a number of moorings in the deeper parts of the creeks and lakes and the anchorage can become crowded at weekends during the main sailing season. Scouts from nearby Corf Camp make use of the Estuary for expeditions from the jetty on the shore.
The harbour is loved for its unspoilt tranquility. The River and adjoining land are regarded as one of the best examples of an undisturbed natural harbour on the south coast of England with its varied habitats ranging from woodland, ancient meadows and marshland, it supports a number of rare species, but its primary importance is as a wintering ground for seabirds. The River is part of the Isle of Wight’s Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, is part of the Hamstead Heritage Coast; the area is part of a 619.3 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It was notified in 1951; the villages of Newtown and Shalfleet lie close to its shore. Information on Newtown River from a poor sailor Natural England entry Isle of Wight Council entry IOW AONB map English Nature SSSI citation sheet
Sandown is a seaside resort and civil parish on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, with the town of Shanklin to the south and the settlement of Lake in between. Sandown is the northernmost town of Sandown Bay, known for its long stretches of accessible, sandy beach; the outer Bay is used as a sheltered anchorage, with ships requiring salvage periodically towed there. The wreck of a salvage tug could be seen until at low tide under Culver Cliff, assisting the stricken tanker Pacific Glory in the 1970s. Together with Shanklin, Sandown forms a built-up area of 21,374 inhabitants. Sandown is a Victorian seaside resort surrounded by a wealth of natural features. To the north is Culver Down, a chalk down accessible to the public owned and managed by the National Trust, it supports typical chalk downland wildlife, along with seabirds and birds of prey which nest on the adjoining cliffs. Nearby are Sandown Levels in the flood plain of the River Yar, one of the few freshwater wetlands on the Isle of Wight, where Alverstone Mead Local Nature Reserve is a popular spot for birdwatching.
Further inland the woodland of Borthwood provides delightful woodland walks, bluebells aplenty in the spring. The area's most significant wildlife designation is the Special Area of Conservation which covers the marine sub-littoral zone, including the reefs and seabed. At extreme low tide, a petrified forest is revealed in the northern part of the Bay, fragments of petrified wood are washed up on the beach; until the 19th century, Sandown was on the map chiefly for its military significance, with the beaches of the Bay feared to offer easy landing spots for invaders from the continent. It is the site of the lost Sandown Castle. While undergoing construction in 1545, the castle was attacked by a French force which had fought its way over Culver Down from Whitecliff Bay, resulting in the French being repelled, it was built too far into the sea and suffered erosion, until now reduced to a pile of rocks. Forts in the town include the Diamond Fort, built inshore to replace the castle and which fought off a minor attack from privateers in 1788, the present "Granite Fort" at Yaverland, now the zoo.
One of the first non-military buildings was "Villakin", a holiday home leased by the radical politician and one-time Mayor of London John Wilkes in the final years of the 18th century. The arrival of the railway in 1864 saw Sandown grow in size, with the town's safe bathing becoming popular. In the summer of 1874, the Crown Prince and Princess of Germany and their children rented several properties in the town and took regular dips in the Bay. Sandown's pier was built in the same decade, opening in May 1878; the town laid further claim to becoming a fashionable English resort when the Ocean Hotel opened in 1899. However, Sandown's destiny in the 20th century was to be a favourite bucket-and-spade destination for all classes; the Canoe Lake opened in 1929, followed by Brown's Golf Course in 1932 offering'Golf for Everybody'. The golf course and its ice cream factory were adapted in the 1940s to disguise pumping apparatus for Pipe Line Under the Ocean designed to pump oil to the D-Day beaches; the Art Deco Grand Hotel, now closed and awaiting demolition, was built next to Brown's in the late 1930s.
Today, Sandown esplanade has a mixture of Victorian and Edwardian hotels and their modern counterparts overlooking the beach and the Bay. Sandown Pier hosts an amusement centre with arcade games, children's play areas and places to eat and drink; the pier is used for sea fishing, with designated areas for anglers. Further north is the Isle of Wight Zoo. Nearby is the Dinosaur Isle geological museum and Sandham Grounds, offering a skate park, children's play park, crazy golf and bowls. Commissioned and built by the Local Government Board in 1869, Sandown's Grade-2 listed former Town Hall is situated in Grafton Street; the present-day Sandown Town Council no longer use the building and moved to new headquarters in 2018. The town's summer carnival has been entertaining visitors since 1889. Today's organisers put on a series of events including the popular Children's Carnival and Illuminated Carnival, as well as November Celebrations in the year with entertainment and fireworks. Since 2017, a further Sandown event called Hullabaloo has been held over two days in May, organised by Shademakers UK Carnival Club in collaboration with local businesses and charities.
Sandown offers an assortment of restaurants. The pubs range from the more traditional offering a selection of local ales and ciders, to more family-friendly'gastro-pubs' with a wider menu. Restaurants in the town offer a varied cuisine and there are a variety of traditional tea rooms on High Street. A full listing of places to eat and drink in Sandown is now available online. Sandown railway station is on the Island's one remaining public railway line from Ryde Pier Head to Shanklin; as well as the Island Line Railway, Sandown is served by regular buses run by Southern Vectis on routes 2, 3 and 8. Destinations which can be directly reached include Bembridge, Ryde and Ventnor. Night buses are run on Fridays and Saturdays, along route 3. Local bus services run by Wightbus have now been re-absorbed by Southern Vectis. Sandown is on the Isle between Niton and Ryde; the TV series Tiger Island chronicles the lives of the more than twenty tigers living at Isle of Wight Zoo. Sandown is twinned with the town of Tonnay-Charente, in the western French département of Charente-Maritime.
Its American twin town is St. Pete Beach
Grade I listed buildings on the Isle of Wight
There are over 9,300 Grade I listed buildings in England. This page is a list of these buildings in the county of Isle of Wight. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance. Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. Grade II* listed buildings on the Isle of Wight Media related to Grade I listed buildings on the Isle of Wight at Wikimedia Commons English Heritage Images of England
Wootton Creek is a tidal estuary that flows into the Solent on the north coast of the Isle of Wight. The estuary has been known in the past as "Fishbourne Creek", "Wootton River" and "Wootton Haven". At the mouth of the estuary is the Wightlink car ferry terminal for connections to Portsmouth. On the west bank of the creek is the village of Wootton, whilst on the east bank is the village of Fishbourne; the estuary is bridged by the main Ryde to Newport road. The estuary is not navigable south of the bridge, tide controls means that water is retained south of the bridge most of the time, in the old mill pond. To the south of the bridge, on the east side of the mill pond, is a Forestry Commission woodland called "Firestone Copse", about 30 acres in size. Since 1993 Wootton Creek and the adjacent Ryde Sands have been designated as SSSIs due to their wide range of intertidal sand flats. "Natural England citation sheet". Information on estuaries from the Isle of Wight Council View Nautical Charts of Wootton Creek and Approaches
The Solent is the strait that separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland of England. It is about 20 miles long and varies in width between 2 1⁄2 and 5 mi, although the Hurst Spit which projects 1 1⁄2 mi into the Solent narrows the sea crossing between Hurst Castle and Colwell Bay to just over 1 mi; the Solent is a major shipping lane for passenger and military vessels. It is an important recreational area for water sports yachting, hosting the Cowes Week sailing event annually, it is sheltered by the Isle of Wight and has a complex tidal pattern, which has benefited Southampton's success as a port, providing a "double high tide" that extends the tidal window during which deep-draught ships can be handled. Portsmouth lies on its shores. Spithead, an area off Gilkicker Point near Gosport, is known as the place where the Royal Navy is traditionally reviewed by the monarch of the day; the area is of great ecological and landscape importance because of the coastal and estuarine habitats along its edge.
Much of its coastline is designated as a Special Area of Conservation. It is bordered by and forms a part of the character of a number of nationally important protected landscapes including the New Forest National Park, the Isle of Wight AONB; the word first appears in Saxon records as Solentan, but pre-dates the Saxon languages and is first recorded as Soluente in 731. This original spelling suggests a possible derivation from the Brittonic element -uente, which has endured throughout the history of Hampshire, as in the Roman city of Venta Belgarum, the post-Roman kingdom of Y Went, the modern name of Winchester. A pre-Celtic and Semitic root meaning "free-standing rock" has been suggested as a possible description of the cliffs marking western approach of the strait; this Semitic origin may be a relic of the Phoenician traders who sailed to Britain from the Mediterranean as part of the ancient tin trade. Another suggestion is. A river valley, the Solent has widened and deepened over many thousands of years.
The River Frome was the source of the River Solent, with four other rivers — the Rivers Avon, Hamble and Test — being tributaries of it. Seismic sounding has shown that, when the sea level was lower, the River Solent incised its bed to a depth of at least 46 metres below current Ordnance Datum. Link to map showing former course of Solent River The Purbeck Ball Clay contains kaolinite and mica, showing that in the Lutetian stage of the Eocene water from a granite area Dartmoor, flowed into the River Solent. Seabed survey shows that when the sea level was lower in the Ice Age the River Solent continued the line of the eastern Solent to a point due east of the east end of the Isle of Wight and due south of a point about 3 kilometres west of Selsey Bill, south-south-west for about 30 kilometres, south for about 14 kilometres, joined the main river flowing down the dry bed of the English Channel. During the Ice Age, meanders of the Solent's tributaries became incised: for example, an incised meander of the River Test is buried under reclaimed land under the Westquay shopping centre, near Southampton docks.
Since the retreat of the most recent glaciation the South East of England, like the Netherlands, has been slowly sinking through historic time due to forebulge sinking. A new theory – that the Solent was a lagoon – was reported in the Southern Daily Echo by Garry Momber from the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology; the Isle of Wight was contiguous with the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset — the Needles on Wight and Old Harry Rocks on Purbeck are the last remnant of this connection. Ten thousand years ago a band of resistant Chalk rock, part of the Southern England Chalk Formation, ran from the Isle of Purbeck area of south Dorset to the eastern end of Isle of Wight, parallel to the South Downs. Inland behind the Chalk were less resistant sands and gravels. Through these weak soils and rocks ran many rivers, from the Dorset Frome in the west and including the Stour, Beaulieu River, Test and Hamble, which created a large estuary flowing west to east and into the English Channel at the eastern end of the present Solent.
This great estuary is now referred to as the Solent River. When glaciers covering more northern latitudes melted at the end of the last ice age, two things happened to create the Solent. Firstly, a great amount of flood water ran into the Solent River and its tributaries, carving the estuary deeper. Secondly, post-glacial rebound after the removal of the weight of ice over Scotland caused the island of Great Britain to tilt about an east-west axis, because isostatic rebound in Scotland and Scandinavia is pulling mantle rock out from under the Netherlands and south England: this is forebulge sinking. Over thousands of years, the land sank in the south to submerge many valleys creating today's characteristic rias, such as Southampton Water and Poole Harbour, as well as submerging the Solent; the estuary of the Solent River was flooded, the Isle of Wight became separated from the mainland as the chalk ridge between The Needles on the island and Old Harry Rocks on the mainland was eroded. This is thought to have happened about 7,500 years ago.
The process of coastal change is still continuing, with the soft cliffs on some parts of the Solent, such as Fort Victoria eroding, whilst other parts, such as
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
Isle of Wight Council
The Isle of Wight Council is a unitary authority covering the Isle of Wight near the South coast of England. It is made up of 40 seats. Since the 2017 election, the Conservatives have held a majority of 25 and appointed Cllr Dave Stewart as leader of the council; the council was formed on 1 April 1995, replacing the Isle of Wight County Council and Medina and South Wight Borough Councils. Prior to 1998, the Liberals and Liberal Democrats had dominated the Council. Between 1998 and 2005, it was under no overall control, ruled by a coalition of LibDems and Independents. Elections held in June 2005 led to significant change as the Conservatives took over from the Liberal Democrats as the largest group, winning seats from the Lib Dems and Independents who had worked together. In the 2009 elections the Conservatives managed to retain their majority by securing 24 of the revised 40 seats. In 2013, the Island Independents gained 20 seats, one short of a majority, with the Conservatives only winning 15.
As of January 2015, the Island Independents have lost four councillors through defections, the Conservatives one. Leader Cllr. Ian Stephens stood down in January 2015, the next day announcing he was to stand to be the local MP. Cllr. Jonathan Bacon, representing Bembridge, Brading and St. Helens, was elected unopposed as the new Leader, he stood down, along with deputy leader Cllr Steve Stubbings, in January 2017 citing'the unwillingness of government to lift a finger to help and the preference for too many elected members to act negatively rather than try to help.'Following the resignations of the leader and deputy leader in January 2017, Conservative members assumed control of the administration, with Cllr Dave Stewart appointed as leader. A new ruling executive was formed, made up of five Conservatives, one UKIP member and three non-aligned members; the Coat of arms of the Isle of Wight was first granted to the County Council in 1938. On its abolition in 1995, they transferred to the new Isle of Wight Council.
The shield shows an image of Carisbrooke Castle, the historic seat of many island governors. At the bottom is the island's motto "All this beauty is of God". Isle of Wight Council official website