Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education. His single encyclopedic work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii is an elaborate didactic allegory written in a mixture of prose and elaborately allusive verse. Martianus presents philosophical views based on Neoplatonism, the Platonic school of philosophy pioneered by Plotinus and his followers. Like his near-contemporary Macrobius, who produced a major work on classical Roman religion, Martianus never directly identifies his own religious affiliation. Much of his work occurs in the form of dialogue, the views of the interlocutors may not represent the author's own. According to Cassiodorus, Martianus was a native of Madaura—which had been the native city of Apuleius—in the Roman province of Africa, he appears to have practiced as a jurist at Roman Carthage. Martianus was active during the 5th century, writing after the sack of Rome by Alaric I in 410, which he mentions, but before the conquest of North Africa by the Vandals in 429.
As early as the middle of the 6th century, Securus Memor Felix, a professor of rhetoric, received the text in Rome, for his personal subscription at the end of Book I records that he was working "from most corrupt exemplars". Gerardus Vossius erroneously took this to mean that Martianus was himself active in the 6th century, giving rise to a long-standing misconception about Martianus's dating; the lunar crater Capella is named after him. This single encyclopedic work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, sometimes called De septem disciplinis or the Satyricon, is an elaborate didactic allegory written in a mixture of prose and elaborately allusive verse, a prosimetrum in the manner of the Menippean satires of Varro; the style is loaded with metaphor and bizarre expressions. The book was of great importance in defining the standard formula of academic learning from the Christianized Roman Empire of the fifth century until the Renaissance of the 12th century; this formula included a medieval love for allegory as a means of presenting knowledge, a structuring of that learning around the seven liberal arts.
The book, embracing in résumé form the narrowed classical culture of his time, was dedicated to his son. Its frame story in the first two books relates the courtship and wedding of Mercury, refused by Wisdom and the Soul, with the maiden Philologia, made immortal under the protection of the gods, the Muses, the Cardinal Virtues and the Graces; the title refers to the allegorical union of the intellectually profitable pursuit of learning by way of the art of letters. Among the wedding gifts are seven maids who will be Philology's servants: they are the seven liberal arts: Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic and Harmony. Frances Yates comments that these images correspond to the rules for the creation of images for artificial memory; as each art is introduced, she gives an exposition of the principles of the science she represents, thereby providing a summary of the seven liberal arts. Two other arts and Medicine, were present at the feast, but since they care for earthly things, they were to keep silent in the company of the celestial deities.
Each book is an abstract or a compilation from earlier authors. The treatment of the subjects belongs to a tradition which goes back to Varro's Disciplinae to Varro's passing allusion to architecture and medicine, which in Martianus Capella's day were mechanics' arts, material for clever slaves but not for senators; the classical Roman curriculum, to pass—largely through Martianus Capella's book—into the early medieval period, was modified but scarcely revolutionized by Christianity. The verse portions, on the whole correct and classically constructed, are in imitation of Varro; the eighth book describes a modified geocentric astronomical model, in which the Earth is at rest in the center of the universe and circled by the moon, the sun, three planets and the stars, while Mercury and Venus circle the Sun. This view was singled out for praise by Copernicus in Book I of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. Martianus Capella can best be understood in terms of the reputation of his book; the work was read and commented upon throughout the early Middle Ages and shaped European education during the early medieval period and the Carolingian renaissance.
As early as the end of the fifth century, another African, composed a work modeled on it. A note found in numerous manuscripts—written by one Securus Memor Felix, intending to produce an edition—indicates that by about 534 the dense and convoluted text of De nuptiis had become hopelessly corrupted by scribal errors. Another sixth-century writer, Gregory of Tours, attests that it had become a school manual. In his 1959 study, C. Leonardi catalogued 241 existing manuscripts of De nuptiis, attesting to its popularity during the Middle Ages, it was commen
Aphrodite is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, pleasure and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, named after the Roman goddess Venus, with whom Aphrodite was extensively syncretized. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, doves and swans; the cult of Aphrodite was derived from that of the Phoenician goddess Astarte, a cognate of the East Semitic goddess Ishtar, whose cult was based on the Sumerian cult of Inanna. Aphrodite's main cult centers were Cythera, Cyprus and Athens, her main festival was the Aphrodisia, celebrated annually in midsummer. In Laconia, Aphrodite was worshipped as a warrior goddess, she was the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of "sacred prostitution", an idea, now seen as erroneous. In Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite is born off the coast of Cythera from the foam produced by Uranus's genitals, which his son Cronus has severed and thrown into the sea. In Homer's Iliad, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione.
Plato, in his Symposium 180e, asserts that these two origins belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos. Aphrodite had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult, thus she was known as Cytherea and Cypris, due to the fact that both locations claimed to be the place of her birth. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite was married to the god of blacksmiths and metalworking. Despite this, Aphrodite was unfaithful to him and had many lovers. In the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, she seduces the mortal shepherd Anchises. Aphrodite was the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, killed by a wild boar. Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad. Aphrodite has been featured in western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of western literature.
She is a major deity in modern Neopagan religions, including the Church of Aphrodite and Hellenismos. Hesiod derives Aphrodite from aphrós "sea-foam", interpreting the name as "risen from the foam", but most modern scholars regard this as a spurious folk etymology. Early modern scholars of classical mythology attempted to argue that Aphrodite's name was of Greek or Indo-European origin, but these efforts have now been abandoned. Aphrodite's name is accepted to be of non-Greek Semitic, but its exact derivation cannot be determined. Scholars in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, accepting Hesiod's "foam" etymology as genuine, analyzed the second part of Aphrodite's name as *-odítē "wanderer" or *-dítē "bright". Michael Janda accepting Hesiod's etymology, has argued in favor of the latter of these interpretations and claims the story of a birth from the foam as an Indo-European mytheme. Witczak proposes an Indo-European compound *abʰor- "very" and *dʰei- "to shine" referring to Eos.
Other scholars have argued that these hypotheses are unlikely since Aphrodite's attributes are different from those of both Eos and the Vedic deity Ushas. A number of improbable non-Greek etymologies have been suggested. One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a female demon that appears in Middle Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts. Hammarström looks to Etruscan, comparing prϑni "lord", an Etruscan honorific loaned into Greek as πρύτανις; this would make the theonym in origin an honorific, "the lady". Most scholars reject this etymology as implausible since Aphrodite appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru; the medieval Etymologicum Magnum offers a contrived etymology, deriving Aphrodite from the compound habrodíaitos, "she who lives delicately", from habrós and díaita. The alteration from b to ph is explained as a "familiar" characteristic of Greek "obvious from the Macedonians"; the cult of Aphrodite in Greece was imported from, or at least influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia, which, in turn, was influenced by the cult of the Mesopotamian goddess known as "Ishtar" to the East Semitic peoples and as "Inanna" to the Sumerians.
Pausanias states that the first to establish a cult of Aphrodite were the Assyrians, after the Assyrians, the Paphians of Cyprus, the Phoenicians at Ascalon. The Phoenicians, in turn, taught her worship to the people of Cythera. Aphrodite took on Inanna-Ishtar's associations with procreation. Furthermore, she was known as Ourania, which means "heavenly", a title corresponding to Inanna's role as the Queen of Heaven. Early artistic and literary portrayals of Aphrodite are similar on Inanna-Ishtar. Like Inanna-Ishtar, Aphrodite was a warrior goddess, he mentions that Aphrodite's most ancient cult statues in Sparta and on Cythera showed her bearing arms. Modern scholars note that Aphrodite's warrior-goddess aspects appear in the oldest strata of her worship and see it as an indication of her Near Eastern origins. Nineteenth century classical scholars had a general aversion to the idea that ancient Greek religion was at all influenced by the cultures of the Near East, but Friedrich Got
Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, felicitously daring in his choice of words."Horace crafted elegant hexameter verses and caustic iambic poetry. The hexameters are amusing yet serious works, friendly in tone, leading the ancient satirist Persius to comment: "as his friend laughs, Horace slyly puts his finger on his every fault, his career coincided with Rome's momentous change from a republic to an empire. An officer in the republican army defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he was befriended by Octavian's right-hand man in civil affairs and became a spokesman for the new regime. For some commentators, his association with the regime was a delicate balance in which he maintained a strong measure of independence but for others he was, in John Dryden's phrase, "a well-mannered court slave".
Horace can be regarded as the world's first autobiographer – In his writings, he tells us far more about himself, his character, his development, his way of life than any other great poet in antiquity. Some of the biographical writings contained in his writings can be supplemented from the short but valuable "Life of Horace" by Suetonius, he was born on 8 December 65 BC in the Samnite south of Italy. His home town, lay on a trade route in the border region between Apulia and Lucania. Various Italic dialects were spoken in the area and this enriched his feeling for language, he could have been familiar with Greek words as a young boy and he poked fun at the jargon of mixed Greek and Oscan spoken in neighbouring Canusium. One of the works he studied in school was the Odyssia of Livius Andronicus, taught by teachers like the'Orbilius' mentioned in one of his poems. Army veterans could have been settled there at the expense of local families uprooted by Rome as punishment for their part in the Social War.
Such state-sponsored migration must have added still more linguistic variety to the area. According to a local tradition reported by Horace, a colony of Romans or Latins had been installed in Venusia after the Samnites had been driven out early in the third century. In that case, young Horace could have felt himself to be a Roman though there are indications that he regarded himself as a Samnite or Sabellus by birth. Italians in modern and ancient times have always been devoted to their home towns after success in the wider world, Horace was no different. Images of his childhood setting and references to it are found throughout his poems. Horace's father was a Venutian taken captive by Romans in the Social War, or he was descended from a Sabine captured in the Samnite Wars. Either way, he was a slave for at least part of his life, he was evidently a man of strong abilities however and managed to gain his freedom and improve his social position. Thus Horace claimed to be the free-born son of a prosperous'coactor'.
The term'coactor' could denote various roles, such as tax collector, but its use by Horace was explained by scholia as a reference to'coactor argentareus' i.e. an auctioneer with some of the functions of a banker, paying the seller out of his own funds and recovering the sum with interest from the buyer. The father spent a small fortune on his son's education accompanying him to Rome to oversee his schooling and moral development; the poet paid tribute to him in a poem that one modern scholar considers the best memorial by any son to his father. The poem includes this passage: If my character is flawed by a few minor faults, but is otherwise decent and moral, if you can point out only a few scattered blemishes on an otherwise immaculate surface, if no one can accuse me of greed, or of prurience, or of profligacy, if I live a virtuous life, free of defilement, if I am to my friends a good friend, my father deserves all the credit... As it is now, he deserves from me unstinting praise. I could never be ashamed of such a father, nor do I feel any need, as many people do, to apologize for being a freedman's son.
Satires 1.6.65–92 He never mentioned his mother in his verses and he might not have known much about her. She had been a slave. Horace left Rome after his father's death, continued his formal education in Athens, a great centre of learning in the ancient world, where he arrived at nineteen years of age, enrolling in The Academy. Founded by Plato, The Academy was now dominated by Epicureans and Stoics, whose theories and practises made a deep impression on the young man from Venusia. Meanwhile, he mixed and lounged about with the elite of Roman youth, such as Marcus, the idle son of Cicero, the Pompeius to whom he addressed a poem, it was in Athens too that he acquired deep familiarity with the ancient tradition of Greek lyric poetry, at that time the preserve of grammarians and academic specialists. Rome's troubles following the assassination of Julius Caesar were soon to catch up with him. Marcus Junius Brutus came to Athens seeking support for the republican cause. Brutus was fêted around town in grand receptions and he made a point of attending academic lectures, all the while recruiting supporter
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the most important temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill. It had a cathedral-like position in the official religion of Rome, was surrounded by the Area Capitolina, a precinct where certain assemblies met, numerous shrines, altars and victory trophies were displayed; the first building was the oldest large temple in Rome, can be considered as Etruscan architecture. It was traditionally dedicated in 509 BC, but in 83 BC it was destroyed by fire, a replacement in Greek style completed in 69 BC. For the first temple Etruscan specialists were brought in for various aspects of the building, including making and painting the extensive terracotta elements of the Temple of Zeus or upper parts, such as antefixes, but for the second building they were summoned from Greece, the building was essentially Greek in style, though like other Roman temples it retained many elements of Etruscan form. The two further buildings were evidently of contemporary Roman style.
The first version is the largest Etruscan temple recorded, much larger than other Roman temples for centuries after. However, its size remains disputed by specialists. Whatever its size, its influence on other early Roman temples was long-lasting. Reconstructions show wide eaves, a wide colonnade stretching down the sides, though not round the back wall as it would have done in a Greek temple. A crude image on a coin of 78 BC shows only four columns, a busy roofline. With two further fires, the third temple only lasted five years, to 80 AD, but the fourth survived until the fall of the empire. Remains of the last temple survived to be pillaged for spolia in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, but now only elements of the foundations and podium or base survive. Much about the various buildings remains uncertain. Much of what is known of the first Temple of Jupiter is from Roman tradition. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus vowed this temple while battling with the Sabines and, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, began the terracing necessary to support the foundations of the temple.
Modern coring on the Capitoline has confirmed the extensive work needed just to create a level building site. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy, the foundations and most of the superstructure of the temple were completed by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome. Livy records that before the temple's construction shrines to other gods occupied the site; when the augurs carried out the rites seeking permission to remove them, only Terminus and Juventas were believed to have refused. Their shrines were therefore incorporated into the new structure; because he was the god of boundaries, Terminus's refusal to be moved was interpreted as a favorable omen for the future of the Roman state. A second portent was the appearance of the head of a man to workmen digging the foundations of the temple; this was said by the augurs to mean. Traditionally the Temple was dedicated on September 13, the founding year of the Roman Republic, 509 BC according to Livy. According to Dionysius, it was consecrated two years in 507 BC.
It was sacred to the Capitoline Triad consisting of Jupiter and his companion deities and Minerva. The man to perform the dedication of the temple was chosen by lot; the duty fell to one of the consuls in that year. Livy records that in 495 BC the Latins, as a mark of gratitude to the Romans for the release of 6,000 Latin prisoners, delivered a crown of gold to the temple; the original temple may have measured 60 m × 60 m, though this estimate is hotly disputed by some specialists. It was considered the most important religious temple of the whole state of Rome; each deity of the Triad had a separate cella, with Juno Regina on the left, Minerva on the right, Jupiter Optimus Maximus in the middle. The first temple was decorated with many terra cotta sculptures; the most famous of these was of Jupiter driving a quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, on top of the roof as an acroterion. This sculpture, as well as the cult statue of Jupiter in the main cella, was said to have been the work of Etruscan artisan Vulca of Veii.
An image of Summanus, a thunder god, was among the pedimental statues. The original temple decoration was discovered in 2014; the findings allowed the archaeologists to reconstruct for the first time the real appearance of the temple in the earliest phase. The wooden elements of the roof and lintels were lined with terracotta revetment plaques and other elements of exceptional size and richly decorated with painted reliefs, following the so-called Second Phase model, that had its first expression with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus; the temple, which rose to fame, established a new model for sacred architecture, adopted in the terracotta decorations of many temples in Italy up to the 2nd century BC. The original elements were replaced with other elements in different style in the early 4th century BC and anew at the end of 3rd – beginning 2nd cent
Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology. In Ovid's first-century AD telling of the myth, he was conceived after Aphrodite cursed his mother Myrrha to lust after her own father, King Cinyras of Cyprus. Myrrha had sex with her father in complete darkness for nine nights, but he discovered her identity and chased her with a sword; the gods transformed her into a myrrh tree and, in the form of a tree, she gave birth to Adonis. Aphrodite gave him to be raised by Persephone, the queen of the Underworld. Adonis grew into an astonishingly handsome young man, causing Aphrodite and Persephone to feud over him, with Zeus decreeing that Adonis would spend one third of the year in the Underworld with Persephone, one third of the year with Aphrodite, the final third of the year with whomever he chose. Adonis chose to spend his final third of the year with Aphrodite. One day, Adonis was gored by a wild boar during a hunting trip and died in Aphrodite's arms as she wept, his blood became the anemone flower.
Aphrodite declared the Adonia festival commemorating his tragic death, celebrated by women every year in midsummer. During this festival, Greek women would plant "gardens of Adonis", small pots containing fast-growing plants, which they would set on top of their houses in the hot sun; the plants would sprout, but soon die. The women would mourn the death of Adonis, tearing their clothes and beating their breasts in a public display of grief; the Greeks considered Adonis's cult to be of Oriental origin. Adonis's name comes from a Canaanite word meaning "lord" and modern scholars consider the story of Aphrodite and Adonis to be derived from the earlier Mesopotamian myth of Inanna and Dumuzid. In late nineteenth and early twentieth century scholarship of religion, Adonis was seen as a prime example of the archetypal dying-and-rising god, but the existence of the "dying-and-rising god" archetype has been rejected by modern scholars and its application to Adonis is undermined by the fact that no pre-Christian text describes Adonis as rising from the dead and the only possible references to his resurrection are late, ambiguous allusions made by Christian writers.
His name is applied in modern times to handsome youths, of whom he is the archetype. The myth of Aphrodite and Adonis is derived from the ancient Sumerian legend of Inanna and Dumuzid; the Greek name Ἄδωνις, Greek pronunciation: ) is derived from the Canaanite word ʼadōn, meaning "lord". This word is related to Adonai, one of the titles used to refer to the God of the Hebrew Bible and still used in Judaism to the present day; the Syrian name for Adonis is Gaus. The cult of Inanna and Dumuzid may have been introduced to the Kingdom of Judah during the reign of King Manasseh. Ezekiel 8:14 mentions Adonis under his earlier East Semitic name Tammuz and describes a group of women mourning Tammuz's death while sitting near the north gate of the Temple in Jerusalem; the earliest known Greek reference to Adonis comes from a fragment of a poem by the Lesbian poetess Sappho, in which a chorus of young girls asks Aphrodite what they can do to mourn Adonis's death. Aphrodite replies that they must tear their tunics.
The cult of Adonis has been described as corresponding to the cult of the Phoenician god Baal. As Walter Burkert explains: Women sit by the gate weeping for Tammuz, or they offer incense to Baal on roof-tops and plant pleasant plants; these are the features of the Adonis legend:, celebrated on flat roof-tops on which sherds sown with germinating green salading are placed, Adonis gardens... the climax is loud lamentation for the dead god. The exact date when the legend of Adonis became integrated into Greek culture is still disputed. Walter Burkert questions whether Adonis had not from the beginning come to Greece with Aphrodite. "In Greece," Burkert concludes, "the special function of the Adonis legend is as an opportunity for the unbridled expression of emotion in the circumscribed life of women, in contrast to the rigid order of polis and family with the official women's festivals in honour of Demeter." Both Greek and Near Eastern scholars have questioned this connection. While Sappho does not describe the myth of Adonis sources flesh out the details.
According to the retelling of the story found in the poem Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid, Adonis was the son of Myrrha, cursed by Aphrodite with insatiable lust for her own father, King Cinyras of Cyprus, after Myrrha's mother bragged that her daughter was more beautiful than the goddess. Driven out after becoming pregnant, Myrrha was changed into a myrrh tree, but still gave birth to Adonis. According to classicist William F. Hansen, the story of how Adonis was conceived falls in line with the conventional ideas about sex and gender that were prevalent in the classical world, since the Greeks and Romans believed that women, such as Adonis's mother Myrrha, were less capable of controlling their primal wants and passions than men. Aphrodite found the baby, took him to the underworld to be fostered by Persephone, she returned for him once he was discovered him to be strikingly handsome. Persephone wanted to keep Adonis. Adonis chose Aphrodite, they remained together. One day while Adonis was out hunting, he was wounded by a wild boar, bled to death in Aphrodite's arms.
In different versions of the story, the boar was either sent by Ares, jealous that Aphrodite was spe
Bronze mirrors preceded the glass mirrors of today. This type of mirror incorrectly termed a copper mirror, has been found by archaeologists among elite assemblages from various cultures, from Etruscan Italy to China. Polished bronze mirrors were made by the Egyptians from 2900 BCE onwards. In the Indus valley civilization, manufacture of bronze mirrors goes back to the time between 2800 and 2500 BCE. Bronze mirror are circular. Bronze mirrors were produced in China from neolithic times until the Qing Dynasty, when western glass mirrors were brought to China. Bronze mirrors were circular, with one side polished bright, to give a reflection, the reverse side with designs, they had a knob in the center so that they could be attached to clothing. Some of the earliest examples of Chinese bronze mirrors belonged to the Neolithic Qijia culture from around 2000 BCE. However, until Warring States times, bronze mirrors were not common with only twenty having been discovered. During the Warring States period, mirrors became popular.
It was during the Han Dynasty, the introduction of the TLV mirror, that mirrors started to be mass-produced. Both Han and Tang mirrors are considered to be the most technically advanced. Bronze mirrors continued to remain popular up through the Song Dynasty, but gradually lost their popularity and ceased to be produced after the arrival of Western mirrors during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain were produced up until the Roman conquest. Shinju-kyo Aranmula kannadi Speculum metal Chinese magic mirror B. Schweig: “Mirrors”, Vol. 15, pp. 257–268 Glenys Lloyd-Morgan'Mirrors in Roman Britain', in J. Munby and M. Henig, Roman Life and Art in Britain, BAR Brit Ser 41, 231-52 Glenys Lloyd-Morgan'The antecedents and development of the Roman hand mirror', in H. M. Blake, T. W. Potter and D. B.
Whitehouse, Papers in Italian Archaeology I: the Lancaster Seminar. Recent Research in Prehistoric and Medieval Archaeology, BAR Supplementary Series 41, 227-35. Glenys Lloyd-Morgan'The Roman mirror and its origins', in N. T. de Grummond, A Guide to Etruscan Mirrors, 39-48. Chinese Bronze Mirrors - Australian Museum
In Greek mythology, Meleager was a hero venerated in his temenos at Calydon in Aetolia. He was famed as the host of the Calydonian boar hunt in the epic tradition, reworked by Homer. Meleager is mentioned as one of the Argonauts. Meleager was a Calydonian prince as the son of Althaea and the vintner King Oeneus or according to some, of the god Ares, he was the brother of Deianeira, Clymenus, Agelaus, Gorge and Melanippe. Meleager was the father of Parthenopeus by Atalanta but he married Cleopatra, daughter of Idas and Marpessa, they had a daughter, who became the bride of Protesilaus, who left her bed on their wedding-night to join the expedition to Troy. When Meleager was born, the Moirai predicted he would only live until a piece of wood, burning in the family hearth, was consumed by fire. Overhearing them, Althaea doused and hid it. Oeneus sent Meleager to gather up heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian Boar, terrorizing the area and rooting up the vines, as Oeneus had omitted Artemis at a festival in which he honored the other gods.
In addition to the heroes he required, he chose a fierce huntress, whom he loved. According to one account of the hunt, when Hylaeus and Rhaecus, two centaurs, tried to rape Atalanta, Meleager killed them. Atalanta wounded the boar and Meleager killed it, he awarded her the hide. Meleager's uncles Toxeus, the "archer", Plexippus grew enraged that the prize was given to a woman. Meleager killed them in the following argument, he killed Iphicles and Eurypylus for insulting Atalanta. When Althaea found out that Meleager had killed her brother and one of her sons, Althaea placed the piece of wood that she had stolen from the Fates upon the fire, thus fulfilling the prophecy and killing Meleager, her own son; the women who mourned his death were turned into guineafowl. In Hades, his is the only shade. In Bacchylides' Ode V, Meleager is still in his shining armor, so formidable, in Bacchylides' account, that Heracles reaches for his bow to defend himself. Heracles is moved to tears by Meleager's account.
Among the Romans, the heroes assembled by Meleager for the Calydonian hunt provided a theme of multiple nudes in striking action, to be portrayed frieze-like on sarcophagi. Meleager's story has similarities with the Scandinavian Norna-Gests þáttr. Meleager in art Bacchylides Fr 5.93 Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica I, 190–201. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca I, viii, 1-3. Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII, 269–525. Media related to Meleager at Wikimedia Commons