National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
The Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge is located in Morris County, New Jersey. Established in 1960, it is one of more than 550 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System; the refuge was declared a National Natural Landmark in May 1966. The eastern half of the refuge was designated as wilderness by Congress in 1968, making it the first wilderness area within the Department of the Interior; the refuge is managed by the federal United States Fish and Wildlife Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior. Refuge lands lie within the townships of Chatham and Long Hill; the Great Swamp is the remnant of the bottom of the once-mighty Glacial Lake Passaic that about 15,000 to 11,000 years ago stretched 30 by 10 miles miles in what is presently northern New Jersey. The lake was formed by the melting waters of the retreating Wisconsin Glacier at the end of the last Ice Age; the glacier had pushed a moraine ahead of its advance, a rubble of soil and rocks that plugged the existing outlet for the waters that drained into the area.
As the retreating glacier melted, the waters rose to create the lake before a new outlet began to allow the water to exit at a much higher elevation. The plug altered the course of the Passaic River. A range of mountains to the west of Morristown formed the western boundary of the new lake and the most easterly line of the Watchung Mountains became the eastern boundary; the tops of some of the Watchung range became islands in the great lake. Water that had vented through the Watchung range, or to its south, found a new path that altered the old drainage paths; when the plug collapsed, the river still was forced to travel north through the range before finding a new outlet near present-day Paterson where it could manage the eastern turn toward the sea. Some ten thousand years ago, Amerindians arrived in the area and established settlements shortly after the retreat of the glacier, hunting and farming. In 1614, Dutch colonists claimed part of the area as New Netherlands, traded with the natives.
British settlers came, establishing dominion over what they called the Province of New Jersey. Today, the refuge includes about one-quarter of the Great Swamp 55-square-mile watershed that gives rise to the Passaic River; the watershed touches ten modern communities, many of which were settled by European colonists long before the American Revolution. The land that would become the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was established by an Act of Congress on November 3, 1960, after a year-long legal battle that pitted local residents against Port Authority of New York and New Jersey officials wishing to turn the Great Swamp into a major regional airport to supplement Newark Airport's ability to accommodate large jet aircraft; the Jersey Jetport Site Association was the first to form in opposition. Their efforts to prevent the development of an airport in the swamp became public knowledge on December 3, 1959 when four of its members were expelled from a meeting at the Essex House in Newark, organized to generate support for its construction.
The JJSA activity was followed by an influential sister organization when the North American Wildlife Foundation established its specially designated, Great Swamp Committee, in 1960. Between the two organizations and, in less than a year, enough property in the core of the swamp was purchased and donated to the federal government to qualify for perpetual protection as a National Wildlife Refuge; as the representative from Arizona, Stewart Udall championed the efforts of these residents, whom he described as having mounted the greatest effort made by residents in America to protect a natural habitat, on May 29, 1964 as the Secretary of the Interior, he oversaw its dedication as a refuge. The initial donation was 2,600 acres, which assured its protection as a refuge and the acquisition of additional lands continued. In 1960, Representative Peter Frelinghuysen, Jr. whose estate was in the area targeted for development joined the effort. By the end of 2010, the extent of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge had grown to nearly 7,800 acres or more than 12 square miles of varied habitats.
It lies within the Northeastern coastal forests ecoregion. When the remainder of the area donated was dedicated on September 9, 1968, it was the first refuge to receive wilderness designation; the Great Swamp is a migration-resting and feeding area or permanent habitat for more than 244 species of birds. The major routes of birds migrating along the eastern portion of the United States follow the corridor that includes the Great Swamp as an important stopping place for rest and nutrition. Many species of birds reside permanently in the watershed. Deer, fox, muskrat, snakes, turtles, as well as many insects and a wide variety of wildflowers and plants call the refuge "home"; some of the animals hunted by the prehistoric native inhabitants and colonists, such as bear and beaver, are encountered occasionally. Its role in draining the region and absorbing flood water for gradual release can be critical during extreme weather conditions; the refuge plays an important role in improving water quality by acting as a natural ecological filter trapping sediments and contaminants.
Numerous nonprofit organizations have arisen from the communities within the Great Swamp watershed and work in partnership with the refuge. The Great Swamp Watershed Association, founded in 1981, works to protect the entire 55-square-mile watershed that surrounds the swamp. Wit
Edison State Park
The Edison State Park is located in the Menlo Park section of Edison, New Jersey. It is located on Christie Street, the first street in the world to be lit up by lightbulb, just off Lincoln Highway, near the Metropark Train Station, it covers a total area of 37 acres. The park commemorates the site where the famous inventor Thomas Alva Edison had his Menlo Park laboratory. In his laboratory, Edison invented over 600 inventions such as the incandescent electric light and the phonograph, the latter being the first object to record and play sound; the research and development laboratory in Menlo Park was the first of its kind in the world. On October 22, 1879, Thomas Edison tested a bamboo filament which lasted over 30 hours, used to create the first successful incandescent light bulb; this accomplishment followed Edison's testing of over a thousand filaments in six months. 3 years earlier, Thomas Edison tested his wax and tinfoil phonograph by recording and playing "Mary Had a Little Lamb." Thomas Edison improved Alexander Graham Bell's telephone using carbon.
In addition, he invented an electric train and tested it on a track built around his laboratory, now coinciding with modern day Christie Street and Route 27. In 1887, when Thomas Edison needed a bigger laboratory closer to New York City, he moved his research laboratory to West Orange, New Jersey. Most of the buildings either burned down or collapsed, the two surviving buildings, the glass shed and the Sarah Jordan Boarding House were moved by Henry Ford in 1929 to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, now part of The Henry Ford museum; the remaining structures from the other buildings was used by Henry Ford to rebuild them in Greenfield Village, where they are still open today. Despite the fact that Edison's laboratory had been relocated, on May 16, 1925, John Leib, vice president of the New York Edison Company, dedicated a stone tablet and memorial at the intersection of Christie Street and Route 27, a gift from the State of New Jersey, with Edison, his wife Edison, Governor George S. Silzer attending the event.
On May 17th, 1937, construction began on a new monument to the Edison Tower. On February 11, 1938, 7 years after Edison's death, a 131 feet tall Art Deco tower was dedicated in honor of the Wizard of Menlo Park. There is a small, two room museum with a collection of Edison memorabilia such as historic light bulbs, phonographs and portions of Edison's electric train test track. Tours are available for free but the Edison Tower Memorial Corporation recommends visitors to donate at least $5.00 per person. Souvenirs are available at the museum. After it was put on the list of New Jersey's most endangered historic sites in 1997, the Edison Township Memorial Corporation started a $3.875 million renovation. On October 24th, 2015, the end of the restoration was marked by a rededication ceremony which included the relighting of the tower. In the future, there are plans to build a new, larger museum featuring many hands-on activities, exhibits with artifacts. Surrounding the two historic acres is a small forest with a couple of trails.
The forest contains a small pond, a meadow, several ravines which are visible from the trail. On Christie Street, the world's first street lit by electric lights, there are several informative boards describing Menlo Park in the Edison Era. Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum Thomas Edison National Historical Park http://www.menloparkmuseum.org/thomas-edison-and-menlo-park. Thomas Edison and Menlo Park, July 1, 2013. Http://www.thehenryford.org/village/historicdistricts.aspx. Edison at Work, July 1, 2013. Https://web.archive.org/web/20130531034607/http://www.menloparkmuseum.org/new-museum. New Museum, July 3, 2013. Https://web.archive.org/web/20160201032330/http://www.preservationnj.org/site/ExpEng/index.php?%2Ften_most_12%2Farchive_by_city_detail%2F1997%2FThomas_Edison_Memorial_Tower. Thomas Edison Memorial Tower, July 3, 2013. Https://web.archive.org/web/20131007102132/http://menloparkmuseum.org/rejuvenated-edison-state-park. Rejuvenated Edison State Park, July 4, 2013 Carlson, Laurie.
Thomas Edison: His Life and Ideas. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, Incorporated, 2006. Makin, Bob. "Edison Memorial Tower Rededicated." MY CENTRAL JERSEY. MyCentralJersey.com, 25 Oct. 2015. Web. 11 Oct. 2016
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area, smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover large areas of land or water, contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species; the biodiversity of flora and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains constant, within an acceptable range of variation. Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa. Ecoregions reflect the best compromise for as many taxa as possible. Secondly, ecoregion boundaries form abrupt edges. Thirdly, most ecoregions contain habitats. Biogeographic provinces may originate due to various barriers.
Some physical, some climatic and some ocean chemical related. The history of the term is somewhat vague, it had been used in many contexts: forest classifications, biome classifications, biogeographic classifications, etc; the concept of ecoregion of Bailey gives more importance to ecological criteria, while the WWF concept gives more importance to biogeography, that is, distribution of distinct biotas. An ecoregion is a "recurring pattern of ecosystems associated with characteristic combinations of soil and landform that characterise that region". Omernik elaborates on this by defining ecoregions as: "areas within which there is spatial coincidence in characteristics of geographical phenomena associated with differences in the quality and integrity of ecosystems". "Characteristics of geographical phenomena" may include geology, vegetation, hydrology and aquatic fauna, soils, may or may not include the impacts of human activity. There is significant, but not absolute, spatial correlation among these characteristics, making the delineation of ecoregions an imperfect science.
Another complication is that environmental conditions across an ecoregion boundary may change gradually, e.g. the prairie-forest transition in the midwestern United States, making it difficult to identify an exact dividing boundary. Such transition zones are called ecotones. Ecoregions can be categorized using an algorithmic approach or a holistic, "weight-of-evidence" approach where the importance of various factors may vary. An example of the algorithmic approach is Robert Bailey's work for the U. S. Forest Service, which uses a hierarchical classification that first divides land areas into large regions based on climatic factors, subdivides these regions, based first on dominant potential vegetation, by geomorphology and soil characteristics; the weight-of-evidence approach is exemplified by James Omernik's work for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, subsequently adopted for North America by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. The intended purpose of ecoregion delineation may affect the method used.
For example, the WWF ecoregions were developed to aid in biodiversity conservation planning, place a greater emphasis than the Omernik or Bailey systems on floral and faunal differences between regions. The WWF classification defines an ecoregion as: A large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities that: Share a large majority of their species and ecological dynamics. According to WWF, the boundaries of an ecoregion approximate the original extent of the natural communities prior to any major recent disruptions or changes. WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions, 450 freshwater ecoregions across the Earth; the use of the term ecoregion is an outgrowth of a surge of interest in ecosystems and their functioning. In particular, there is awareness of issues relating to spatial scale in the study and management of landscapes, it is recognized that interlinked ecosystems combine to form a whole, "greater than the sum of its parts". There are many attempts to respond to ecosystems in an integrated way to achieve "multi-functional" landscapes, various interest groups from agricultural researchers to conservationists are using the "ecoregion" as a unit of analysis.
The "Global 200" is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF as priorities for conservation. Ecologically based movements like bioregionalism maintain that ecoregions, rather than arbitrarily defined political boundaries, provide a better foundation for the formation and governance of human communities, have proposed ecoregions and watersheds as the basis for bioregional democracy initiatives. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from marine ecoregions. In this context, terrestrial is used to mean "of land", rather than the more general sense "of Earth". WWF ecologists divide the land surface of the Earth into 8 major ecozones containing 867 smaller terrestrial ecoregions; the WWF effort is a synthesis of
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail known as the Appalachian Trail or the A. T. is a marked hiking trail in the Eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted; the Appalachian Trail Conservancy describes the Appalachian Trail as the longest hiking-only trail in the world. More than 2 million people are said to take a hike on part of the trail at least once each year; the idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921. The trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue, it is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the nonprofit Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Most of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms, it passes through 14 states: Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine.
Thru-hikers attempt to hike the trail in its entirety in a single season. The number of thru-hikes per year has increased with 715 northbound and 133 southbound thru-hikes reported for 2017. Many books, documentaries and fan organizations are dedicated to the pursuit; some hike from one end to the other turn around and thru-hike the trail the other way, known as a "yo-yo". An extension known as the International Appalachian Trail continues northeast, crossing Maine and cutting through Canada to Newfoundland, with sections continuing in Greenland, through Europe, into Morocco. Other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail; the Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called "An Appalachian Trail, A Project in Regional Planning"—shortly after the death of his wife in 1921.
MacKaye's idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. In 1922, at the suggestion of Major William A. Welch, director of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, his idea was publicized by Raymond H. Torrey with a story in the New York Evening Post under a full-page banner headline reading "A Great Trail from Maine to Georgia!" The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7, 1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, New York, was opened. MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C; this meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference. A retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. In 1929, a member of the Connecticut Forest and Park Association and its Blue Blazed Trails committee, found Ned Anderson, a farmer in Sherman, who took on the task of mapping and blazing the Connecticut leg of the trail.
It ran from Dog Tail Corners in Webatuck, New York, which borders Kent, Connecticut, at Ashley Falls, 50 miles through the northwest corner of the state, up to Bear Mountain at the Massachusetts border. Anderson's efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, Avery was able to bring other states on board. Upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail, he and MacKaye clashed over the ATC's response to a major commercial development along the trail's path. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952. Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATC shifted its focus toward protecting the trail lands and mapping the trail for hikers. Many of the trail's present highlights were not part of the trail in 1937: Roan Mountain, North Carolina and Tennessee. Except for places where the Civilian Conservation Corps was brought in, the original trail climbed straight up and down mountains, creating rough hiking conditions and a treadway prone to severe erosion.
The ATC's trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. In 1936, a 121-day Maine to Georgia veteran's group funded and supported thru-hike was reported to have been completed, with all but three miles of the new trail cleared and blazed, by six Boy Scouts from New York City and their guides; the completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association. In 1938, the trail sustained major damage from a hurricane; this happened right before the start of World War II
National Recreation Area
A National Recreation Area is a designation for a protected area in the United States. Early National Recreation Areas were established by interagency memoranda of agreement between the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation and the National Park Service; the first National Recreation Area was the Boulder Dam Recreation Area renamed Lake Mead National Recreation Area. In 1963, the President's Recreation Advisory Committee issued an Executive Branch policy that established criteria for establishing National Recreation Areas; the policy called for all future National Recreation Areas to be established by acts of the United States Congress. In 1964, Congress made Lake Mead National Recreation Area to first such area to be established by statute. In 1965 Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area became the first NRA under the administration of the U. S. Forest Service. In 1972 Congress created Gateway National Recreation Area under the management of the National Park Service, thereby becoming the first "urban national park".
One NRA, the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, was redesignated Cuyahoga Valley National Park in October 2000. Areas with this designation are managed by different federal agencies, most of which operate within the Department of the Interior or the Department of Agriculture; some national recreation areas are under the National Park Service, one under the Bureau of Land Management, others are managed by the U. S. Forest Service. National Recreation Areas of the United States Protected areas of the United States Recreation.gov: Locator for all U. S. outdoor recreational areas, parks and historic sites — "Search engine with the largest inventory of federal land in America"