Labor Day in the United States of America is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity and well-being of the country, it is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend. It is recognized as a federal holiday. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty states in the United States celebrated Labor Day. Canada's Labour Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day.
Lastly, several countries have chosen neither date for their Labour Day. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, different groups of trade unionists chose a variety of days on which to celebrate labor. In the United States, a September holiday called. Alternate stories of the event's origination exist. According to one early history of Labor Day, the event originated in connection with a General Assembly of the Knights of Labor convened in New York City in September 1882. In connection with this clandestine Knights assembly, a public parade of various labor organizations was held on September 5 under the auspices of the Central Labor Union of New York. Secretary of the CLU Matthew Maguire is credited for first proposing that a national Labor Day holiday subsequently be held on the first Monday of each September in the aftermath of this successful public demonstration. An alternative thesis maintains that the idea of Labor Day was the brainchild of Peter J. McGuire, a vice president of the American Federation of Labor, who put forward the initial proposal in the spring of 1882.
According to McGuire, on May 8, 1882, he made a proposition to the fledgling Central Labor Union in New York City that a day be set aside for a "general holiday for the laboring classes". According to McGuire he further recommended that the event should begin with a street parade as a public demonstration of organized labor's solidarity and strength, with the march followed by a picnic, to which participating local unions could sell tickets as a fundraiser. According to McGuire he suggested the first Monday in September as an ideal date for such a public celebration, owing to optimum weather and the date's place on the calendar, sitting midway between the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving public holidays. Labor Day picnics and other public gatherings featured speeches by prominent labor leaders. In 1909 the American Federation of Labor convention designated the Sunday preceding Labor Day as "Labor Sunday", to be dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement; this secondary date failed to gain significant traction in popular culture.
In 1887 Oregon became the first state of the United States to make Labor Day an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U. S. states celebrated Labor Day. All U. S. states, the District of Columbia, the United States territories have subsequently made Labor Day a statutory holiday. The date of May 1 emerged in 1886 as an alternative holiday for the celebration of labor becoming known as International Workers' Day; the date had its origins at the 1885 convention of the American Federation of Labor, which passed a resolution calling for adoption of the eight-hour day effective May 1, 1886. While negotiation was envisioned for achievement of the shortened work day, use of the strike to enforce this demand was recognized, with May 1 advocated as a date for coordinated strike action; the proximity of the date to the bloody Haymarket affair of May 4, 1886, further accentuated May First's radical reputation. There was disagreement among labor unions at this time about when a holiday celebrating workers should be, with some advocating for continued emphasis of the September march-and-picnic date while others sought the designation of the more politically-charged date of May 1.
Conservative Democratic President Grover Cleveland was one of those concerned that a labor holiday on May 1 would tend to become a commemoration of the Haymarket Affair and would strengthen socialist and anarchist movements that backed the May 1 commemoration around the globe. In 1887, he publicly supported the September Labor Day holiday as a less inflammatory alternative; the date was formally adopted as a United States federal holiday in 1894. Labor Day is called the "unofficial end of summer" because it marks the end of the cultural summer season. Many take their two-week vacations during the two weeks ending Labor Day weekend. Many fall activities, such as school and sports begin about this time. In the United States, many school districts resume classes around the Labor Day holiday weekend. Many begin the week before, making Labor Day weekend the first three-day weekend of the school calendar, while others return the Tuesday following Labor Day, allowing families one final getaway before the school year begins.
Many districts across the Midwest are opting to begin school after Labor Day. In the U. S. state of Virginia, the amusement park industry has succes
Milford Oyster Festival
Milford Oyster Festival, sometimes shortened to "Oysterfest," is an annual cultural festival held on the third Saturday of August throughout the city of Milford, Connecticut. As a major tourist attraction, billed as the largest one-day festival in the New England region and listed among the top 10 annual events in Connecticut, the Oyster Festival draws over 50,000 attendees each year, it is planned by the non-profit organization Annual Milford Oyster Festival, inc. run by volunteers. The festival hosts a wide variety of activities for all ages, including arts, music, amusement rides and oyster shucking; the first Milford Oyster Festival was held on the Milford Green and Fowler Field on August 23, 1975. Major founders of the oysterfest include Diano Nytko, first chairperson of the Milford Chamber of Commerce, Robert N. Cooke, for whom the Bob Cooke Skin Cancer Foundation was named. Since the oyster festival has become established as an annual Milford tradition, held rain or shine. In the past, the oysterfest was held over two days, but that proved to be too much a burden on the organizers.
While established as an oyster festival, the presence of actual oysters faded after some time and were absent for many years outside of the festival's name. In 2005, oysters returned provided by the East Coast Shellfish Growers Association, they have been there since. Starting in 2009, Milford began requiring that the non-profit AMOF reimburse the city, which spends $30,000-50,000 to host the festival each year; as a result of this decision, AMOF could no longer allow other local non-profits to sell beer at the event, as it is a major source of income for many of the non-profits. This led Alderman Ben Blake to express concern that the festival may "lose its local flavor" as "nonprofit groups out of the Oyster Festival food court." Every festival includes a headliner band. Many local and regional businesses, non-profits, governmental groups have sponsored the event, including NBC Universal, TD Bank, Whole Foods Market. Money raised by AMOF during the festival has been donated for charitable purposes.
In 2010, the major fundraiser of the festival was for Gulf coast fishing communities, whose oyster industries were struggling after being shut down by the BP's Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Jodi Rell, the 72nd and current governor of Connecticut, attended the 2008 festival. Linda McMahon, a Republican politician, plunged a firefighter in a dunk tank in the "dunk your favorite firefighter" festival activity during her 2010 campaign for a seat in the US Senate for Connecticut. John A. Smith, a world-traveling sailor and writer, wrote, "It's kind of sad to hear that none of the oysters at the recent'Oyster Festival' were from local waters and that most of the oyster boats are now in museums," in his book of travels Little Fish Big Pond while talking about Milford as his home town. On the Friday evening before the oysterfest, there is a surrounding event called "Oyster Eve," which includes activities such as dancing, a 90-minute cruise on a 80-foot-long schooner around the Long Island Sound. Around 1,500 people came to downtown Milford for Oyster Eve in 2010.
In 2010, the Daniel Street nightclub began hosting what they dubbed the "1st Annual Oyster Festival After Party" on the evening after the main events close. Norwalk Oyster Festival Oyster festival Official website
Dion Francis DiMucci, better known mononymously as Dion, is an American singer and songwriter whose work has incorporated elements of doo-wop, rock and R&B styles—and, most straight blues. As lead singer of Dion and the Belmonts and in his solo career, he was one of the most popular American rock and roll performers of the pre-British Invasion era, he had 39 Top 40 hits in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a solo performer, with the Belmonts or with the Del Satins. He is best remembered for the singles "Runaround Sue", "The Wanderer", "Ruby Baby" and "Lovers Who Wander", among his other hits. Dion's popularity waned in the mid-1960s. Toward the end of the decade, he shifted his style and produced songs with a more mature, contemplative feeling, such as "Abraham and John." He became popular again in the late 1960s and into the mid-1970s, he has continued making music since. Critics who had dismissed his early work, pegging him as a teen idol, praised his work, noted the influence he has had on other musicians.
Dion was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1989. Dion was born to an Italian-American family in the New York; as a child, he accompanied his father, Pasquale DiMucci, a vaudeville entertainer, on tour, developed a love of country music – the work of Hank Williams. He developed a fondness for the blues and doo-wop musicians he heard performing in local bars and on the radio, his singing was honed on the street corners and local clubs of the Bronx, where he and other neighborhood singers created a cappella riffs. In early 1957, he auditioned for Gene Schwartz, who had just formed Mohawk Records, they recorded Dion singing lead on a song, arranged by Hugo Montenegro and pre-recorded with everything but the lead vocals. The backing vocals were by a group called "The Timberlanes"; the resulting single, "The Chosen Few," was released under the name Dion and the Timberlanes, became a minor regional hit. Writing about this experience in his autobiography, The Wanderer, Dion said that he had never met the Timberlanes and didn't know who they were.
"The vocal group was so white bread, I went back to my neighborhood and I recruited a bunch of guys – three guys – and we called ourselves Dion and the Belmonts." Bob and Gene Schwartz signed Dion's friends, the Belmonts, a vocal group named for the neighborhood itself, known as "Belmont", teamed them, with Dion singing lead. The new group's breakthrough came in early 1958, when "I Wonder Why" made No. 22 on the U. S. charts. Dion said of the Belmonts. I'd give'em parts and stuff. That's. We kind of invented this percussive rhythmic sound. If you listen to that song, everybody was doing something different. There's four guys, one guy was doing bass, I was singing lead, one guy's going'ooh wah ooh,' and another guy's doing tenor, it was amazing. When I listen to it today, oftentimes I think,'man, those kids are talented.'"Their initial hit was followed by "No One Knows" and "Don't Pity Me", which charted the Billboard Top 100. This success won a place for Dion and the Belmonts on the ill-fated "The Winter Dance Party" tour with Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, the Big Bopper, Frankie Sardo, other performers.
On February 3, 1959, after a concert stop in Clear Lake, Iowa and others decided to charter a flight to the next venue rather than travel on the tour bus. Dion was invited to accompany the group but decided that he did not want to spend $36 for the flight, as it was the same monthly rent his parents paid for his childhood apartment and he couldn't justify the indulgence; the plane crashed, killing all on board: Holly, Valens and the pilot Roger Peterson. Dion and the Belmonts continued on the tour, along with Frankie Sardo, while Bobby Vee an unknown artist, performed in Holly's place at the next concert. Jimmy Clanton, Frankie Avalon, Fabian were added to replace the other now-deceased headliners. Dion and the Belmonts' next single, "A Teenager in Love", was released in March 1959 hitting No. 5 on the U. S. pop charts and No. 28 in the UK. The group's biggest hit, "Where or When", was released in November of that year, reached No. 3 on the U. S. charts. However, in early 1960, Dion checked into hospital for heroin addiction, a problem he had had since his mid-teens.
Further single releases for the group that year were less successful. There were musical and financial differences between Dion and members of the Belmonts, in October 1960, Dion decided to quit for a solo career. By the time of their breakup, all eight Laurie releases had charted on the Hot 100. By the end of 1960, Dion had released his first solo album on Laurie, Alone with Dion, the single "Lonely Teenager", which rose to No. 12 in the US charts. The name on his solo releases was "Dion". Follow-ups "Havin' Fun" and "Kissin' Game" had less success, the signs were that Dion would drift onto the cabaret circuit. However, he recorded, with a new vocal group, the Del-Satins, an up-tempo number co-written with Ernie Maresca; the record, "Runaround Sue", stormed up the U. S. charts, reaching No. 1 in October 1961, No. 11 in the UK, where he toured. "Runaround Sue" sold over a million copies. For the next single, Laurie promoted the A-side, "The Majestic", but it was the B-side, Maresca's "The Wanderer", which received more radio play and climbed swiftly up the charts to reach No. 2 in the U.
S. in February 1962 and No. 10 in the UK. "The Wanderer" has been used
Richard Wayne Penniman, known as Little Richard, is an American recording artist, singer and actor. An influential figure in popular music and culture for seven decades, Penniman's most celebrated work dates from the mid-1950s, when his dynamic music and charismatic showmanship laid the foundation for rock and roll, his music played a key role in the formation of other popular music genres, including soul and funk. Penniman influenced numerous musicians across musical genres from rock to hip hop. Penniman has been honored by many institutions, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as part of its first group of inductees in 1986. He was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, he is the recipient of a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Recording Academy and a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. Little Richard's "Tutti Frutti" was included in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2010, which stated that his "unique vocalizing over the irresistible beat announced a new era in music."
In 2015, the National Museum of African American Music honored Little Richard with a Rhapsody & Rhythm Award for his pivotal role in the formation of popular music genres and in helping to shatter the color line on the music charts, changing American culture significantly. Little Richard was born Richard Wayne Penniman on December 5, 1932, in Georgia, he was the third of twelve children of Charles "Bud" Penniman. His father was a church deacon who sold bootlegged moonshine on the side and owned a nightclub, the Tip In Inn, his mother was a member of Macon's New Hope Baptist Church. Penniman's first name was supposed to have been "Ricardo" but an error resulted in "Richard" instead; the Penniman children were raised in a neighborhood of Macon called Pleasant Hill. In childhood, he was nicknamed "Lil' Richard" by his family, because of his skinny frame. A mischievous child who played pranks on neighbors, Penniman began singing in church at a young age; as a result of complications at birth, Penniman had a slight deformity that left one of his legs shorter than the other.
This produced an unusual gait. Penniman's family was religious, joining various A. M. E. Baptist and Pentecostal churches, with some family members becoming ministers. Penniman enjoyed the Pentecostal churches the most, because of their charismatic worship and live music, he recalled that people in his neighborhood during segregation sang gospel songs throughout the day to keep a positive outlook, because "there was so much poverty, so much prejudice in those days". He had observed that people sang "to feel their connection with God" and to wash their trials and burdens away. Gifted with a loud singing voice, Penniman recalled that he was "always changing the key upwards" and that they once stopped him from singing in church for "screaming and hollering" so loud, earning him the nickname "War Hawk"; as a child, Penniman would "beat on the steps of the house, on tin cans and pots and pans, or whatever", while singing, annoying neighbors. Penniman's initial musical influences were gospel performers such as Brother Joe May, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, Mahalia Jackson and Marion Williams.
May, who as a singing evangelist was known as "the Thunderbolt of the Middle West" because of his phenomenal range and vocal power, inspired the boy to become a preacher. Penniman attended Macon's Hudson High School. Penniman learned to play alto saxophone joining his school's marching band while in fifth grade. While in high school, Penniman obtained a part-time job at Macon City Auditorium for local secular and gospel concert promoter Clint Brantley. Penniman sold Coca-Cola to crowds during concerts of star performers of the day such as Cab Calloway, Lucky Millinder and his favorite singer, Sister Rosetta Tharpe. In October 1947, 14-year-old Penniman performed with Tharpe at the Macon City Auditorium. After the show Tharpe paid him. A year he began performing in Doctor Nubillo's traveling show. Penniman was inspired to wear turbans and capes in his career by Nubillo, who "carried a black stick and exhibited something he called'the devil's child' - the dried-up body of a baby with claw feet like a bird and horns on its head."
Nubillo told Penniman he was "gonna be famous" but that he would have to "go where the grass is greener."Before entering the tenth grade, Penniman left his family home and joined Dr. Hudson's Medicine Show in 1949, performing Louis Jordan's "Caldonia". Penniman recalled the song was the first secular R&B song he learned, since his family had strict rules against playing R&B music, which they considered "devil music." Penniman performed in drag during this time, performing under the name "Princess LaVonne". In 1950, Penniman joined his first musical band, Buster Brown's Orchestra, where Brown gave him the name Little Richard. Performing in the minstrel show circuit, Penniman, in and out of drag, performed for various vaudeville acts such as Sugarfoot Sam from Alabam, the Tidy Jolly Steppers, the King Brothers Circus and Broadway Follies. Having settled in Atlanta, Georgia at this point, Penniman began listening to rhythm and blues and frequented Atlanta clubs, including the Harlem Theater and the Royal Peacock where he saw performers such as Roy Brown and Billy Wright onstage.
Penniman was further influenced by Brown's and Wright's flashy style of showmanship and was more influenced by Wright
Kansas is an American rock band that became popular in the 1970s on album-oriented rock charts and with hit singles such as "Carry On Wayward Son" and "Dust in the Wind". The band has produced nine gold albums, three multi-platinum albums, one other platinum studio album, one platinum live double album, a million-selling single, "Dust in the Wind". Kansas appeared on the Billboard charts for over 200 weeks throughout the 1970s and 1980s and played to sold-out arenas and stadiums throughout North America and Japan. "Carry On Wayward Son" was the second-most-played track on US classic rock radio in 1995 and No. 1 in 1997. In 1969 Don Montre and Kerry Livgren were performing in a band called the Reasons Why in their hometown of Topeka, Kansas. After leaving to form the band Saratoga with Lynn Meredith and Dan Wright, they started playing Livgren's original material, with Scott Kessler playing bass and Zeke Lowe coming in on drums. In 1970 they changed the band's name to Kansas and merged with members of rival Topeka progressive rock group White Clover.
White Clover members Dave Hope and Phil Ehart joined with Livgren, vocalists Meredith and Greg Allen, keyboardists Montre and Wright and saxophonist Larry Baker. This early Kansas group, which lasted until early 1971 when Ehart and some of the others left to re-form White Clover, is sometimes referred to as Kansas I. Ehart was replaced by Zeke Lowe and Brad Schulz, Hope was replaced by Rod Mikinski on bass and Baker was replaced by John Bolton on saxophone and flute. In 1972, after Ehart returned from England, he and Hope once again re-formed White Clover with Robby Steinhardt, Steve Walsh and Rich Williams. In early 1973 they recruited Livgren from the second Kansas group, which folded, they received a recording contract with Don Kirshner's eponymous label, after Kirshner's assistant, Wally Gold, heard one of their demo tapes and came out to check out the band at one of their local gigs in March 1973 in Ellinwood, Kansas. After signing with Kirshner, the group decided to return to using the name "Kansas".
Their self-titled debut album, produced by Gold, was released in March 1974, nearly a year after it was recorded in New York. It defined the band's signature sound, a mix of American-style boogie rock and complex, symphonic arrangements with changing time signatures. Steinhardt's violin was a distinctive element of the group's sound, being defined more by heartland rock than the jazz and classical influences which most progressive rock violinists followed; the band developed a cult following due to promotion by Kirshner and extensive touring for the debut album and its two follow-ups, Song for America and Masque. Song for America was co-produced by Wally Gold and their former White Clover bandmate Jeff Glixman, who would go on to produce all of their albums from Masque to Two for the Show on his own, returning to the helm for 1995's Freaks of Nature. Both Masque and their next release, were recorded at a studio in the middle of the Louisiana Bayou named Studio in the Country. Kansas released its fourth album, Leftoverture, in October 1976, which produced a hit single, "Carry On Wayward Son", in 1977.
The follow-up, Point of Know Return, recorded at Studio in the Country and Woodland Sound in Nashville and released in October 1977, featured the title track and "Dust in the Wind", both hit singles. Leftoverture was a breakthrough for the band, hitting No. 5 on Billboard's pop album chart. Point of Know Return peaked higher, at No. 4. Both albums sold over four million copies in the U. S. Both "Carry On Wayward Son" and "Dust in the Wind" were certified gold singles, selling over one million units each. "Dust in the Wind" was certified gold as a digital download by the RIAA in 2005 30 years after selling one million copies as a single. Leftoverture was certified five-times platinum by the RIAA in 2001. During this period, Kansas became a major headlining act and sold out the largest venues available to rock bands at the time, including New York's Madison Square Garden; the band documented this era in 1978 with Two for the Show, a double live album of recordings from various performances from its 1977 and 1978 tours.
The band gained a solid reputation for faithful live reproduction of their studio recordings. In March 1978 Kansas was brought over to tour Europe for the first time and on that same year, they were named UNICEF Deputy Ambassadors of Goodwill; the follow-up studio album to Point of Know Return was Monolith, self-produced. The album generated a Top 40 single in "People of the South Wind", whose title refers to the meaning of the'Kanza' Native American people, after whom the state and the band are named; the album failed to garner the sales and radio airplay of its two predecessors. The album went platinum. Livgren's platinum award for the album is on display at the Kansas History Museum; the band toured the US for Monolith during the summer and fall of 1979 went over to tour Japan for the first time in January 1980. Kansas' band members began to drift apart in the early 1980s. During the tour supporting Monolith, Livgren became a born-again Christian, this was reflected in his lyrics on the next three albums, beginning with Audio-Visions.
"Hold On", a Top 40 single from that album, displayed his new-found
Bridgeport is a historic seaport city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is in Fairfield County, at the mouth of the Pequonnock River on Long Island Sound, 60 miles from Manhattan and 40 miles from The Bronx, it is bordered by the towns of Trumbull to the north, Fairfield to the west, Stratford to the east. As of 2017, Bridgeport had an estimated population of 146,579, which made it the largest city in Connecticut and the fifth-most populous in New England; the Greater Bridgeport area is the 48th-largest urban area in the United States. The showman P. T. Barnum was a resident of the city and served as the town's mayor in the late 19th century. Barnum housed his circus in town during winter; the first Subway restaurant opened in Bridgeport's North End in 1965. The Frisbie Pie Company was in Bridgeport, Bridgeport is credited as the birthplace of the Frisbee. After World War II, industrial restructuring and suburbanization caused the loss of many jobs and affluent residents, leaving Bridgeport struggling with poverty and crime.
Bridgeport was inhabited by the Paugussett native American tribe at the time of its English colonization. The earliest European communal settlement was in the historical Stratfield district, along US Route 1. Closeby, Mount Grove Cemetery was laid out on what was a native village that extended past the 1650s, it is an ancient Paugusett burial ground. The English farming community grew and became a center of trade and whaling; the town incorporated to subsidize the Housatonic Railroad and industrialized following the rail line's connection to the New York and New Haven railroad. The namesake of the town was the need for bridges over the Pequonnock River that provided a navigable port at the mouth of the river. Manufacturing was the mainstay of the local economy until the 1970s; the first documented English settlement within the present city limits of Bridgeport took place in 1644, centered at Black Rock Harbor and along North Avenue between Park and Briarwood Avenues. The place was called Pequonnock, after a band of the Paugussett, an Algonquian-speaking Native American people who occupied this area.
One of their sacred sites was Golden Hill, which overlooked the harbor and was the location of natural springs and their planting fields. The Golden Hill Indians were granted a reservation here by the Colony of Connecticut in 1639. Bridgeport's early years were marked by residents' reliance on farming; this was similar to the economy of the Paugusset, who had cultivated corn and squash. A village called Newfield began to develop around the corner of State and Water streets in the 1760s; the area became known as Stratfield in 1695 or 1701, due to its location between the existing towns of Stratford and Fairfield. During the American Revolution, Newfield Harbor was a center of privateering. By the time of the State of Connecticut's ratification of the American constitution in 1781, many of the local farmers held shares in vessels trading at Newfield Harbor or had begun trading in their own name. Newfield expanded around the coasting trade with Boston, New York, Baltimore and the international trade with the West Indies.
The commercial activity of the village was clustered around the wharves on the west bank of the Pequonnock, while the churches were erected inland on Broad Street. In 1800, the village the first so incorporated in the state, it was named for the Newfield or Lottery Bridge across the Pequonnock, connecting the wharves on its east and west banks. Bridgeport Bank was established in 1806. In 1821, the township of Bridgeport became independent of Stratford; the West India trade died down around 1840, but by that time the Bridgeport Steamship Company and Bridgeport Whaling Company had been incorporated and the Housatonic Railroad chartered. The HRRC ran upstate along the Housatonic Valley, connecting with Massachusetts's Berkshire Railroad at the state line. Bridgeport was chartered as Connecticut's fifth city in 1836 in order to enable the town council to secure funding to provide to the HRRC and ensure that it would terminate in Bridgeport; the Naugatuck Railroad—connecting Bridgeport to Waterbury and Winsted along the Naugatuck—was chartered in 1845 and began operation four years later.
The same year, the New York and New Haven Railroad began operation, connecting Bridgeport to New York and the other towns along the north shore of the Long Island Sound. Now a major junction for western Connecticut, the city industrialized. Following the Civil War, it held several iron foundries and factories manufacturing firearms, metallic cartridges, horse harnesses and blinds. Wheeler & Wilson's sewing machines were exported throughout the world. Bridgeport annexed the West End and the village of Black Rock and its busy harbor in 1870. In 1875, P. T. Barnum was elected mayor of the town, which afterwards served as the winter headquarters of Barnum and Bailey's Circus and Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. From 1870 to 1910, Bridgeport became the major industrial center of Connecticut and its population rose from around 25,000 to over 100,000, including thousands of Irish, Hungarians, Germans and Italian immigrants. Among the initiatives, the Singer factory joined Wheeler & Wilson in producing sewing machines and the Locomobile Company of America was a prom
Carl Frederick Kendall Palmer is an English drummer and percussionist, credited as one of the most respected rock drummers to emerge from the 1960s. He is a veteran of a number of famous English bands: the Crazy World of Arthur Brown, Atomic Rooster, Lake & Palmer, Asia. Inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1989, he was awarded "Prog God" at the 2017 Progressive Music Awards. Palmer began travelling to Denman Street, Piccadilly, his first band, formed with others from the Midlands area, was known as the King Bees, but changed its name to the Craig. In 1966, the band made its first record, "I Must Be Mad", with flip side "Suspense", produced by Larry Page. At this time, Palmer did his first session work, playing on the song "Love Light" by the Chants, a group from Liverpool. In 1966, he was invited to join Chris Farlowe and the Thunderbirds. Drachen Theaker was the original drummer for The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, founded by Arthur Brown, played on the band's eponymous album, including the song "Fire".
Theaker abruptly left the band during a U. S. tour in 1969. Carl Palmer was recruited as a replacement and became a permanent band member. Vincent Crane was the keyboard player with the Crazy World of Arthur Brown, both he and Palmer left that group in the summer of 1969 to strike out musically on their own as Atomic Rooster, a trio formed with vocalist/bassist Nick Graham. Palmer reports that Brown himself had "gone missing on a commune on Long Island" and that this was a deciding factor in forming the new band. There were several personnel changes in the band, their first album was released in early 1970. Meanwhile, Palmer received a call from Keith Emerson to audition for a new group and left Atomic Rooster in the summer of 1970. Palmer met up with two other young English musicians, Greg Lake, Keith Emerson. Emerson had most been a member of the Nice, Lake was in King Crimson, both wanted to further expand their musical creativity. After auditioning several drummers, including Mitch Mitchell, they felt an "immediate chemistry" with Palmer, by the summer of 1970 they had formed a band.
In naming the new group, the trio chose their last names alphabetically – Emerson, Lake & Palmer shortened to ELP. The band has been the most successful of his career, he remained with ELP until they first disbanded in 1980, they developed a sound that merged art rock, electronica, pop rock and classical music and found fans within their peers and the public alike. During that time Palmer released only one single as a solo artist but went on to develop a solo career, alongside ELP and his other future bands. During the latter part of 1981, Palmer played drums on the Mike Oldfield album Five Miles Out, including the song "Mount Teide". Other recordings that Palmer did with Oldfield, such as "Ready Mix," remained unreleased until 2001. Emerson, Lake & Palmer subsequently reunited in the early 1990s and played the progressive rock circuit in outdoor summer concerts, they released two new studio albums. In 1998 the members of ELP had a rather acrimonious falling-out and Lake left the band. Following the deaths of Emerson in March 2016 and Lake in December 2016, Palmer is the only surviving member of Emerson, Lake & Palmer.
Following the first break-up of ELP in 1980, Palmer formed PM with Texas blues rock guitarist John Nitzinger for one album before joining John Wetton and Steve Howe in early 1981, brought together to form a new super-group. They were joined by Geoff Downes to form Asia. Palmer left Asia in 1991 to join the ELP reunion. After several personnel changes the four founding members of Asia including Palmer reunited in 2006; the jazz trio Back Door toured with ELP circa 1974, Palmer began to collaborate with them, producing their fourth album, Activate. Two of the members of the group, saxophonist Ron Aspery and bassist Colin Hodgkinson, co-wrote the song Bullfrog with Palmer playing on the song, which appears on Works Volume 2. Palmer rejoined the newly reformed ELP in 1992 for Black Moon, In the Hot Seat, a box set, as well as several DVDs and the subsequent tours. A one-off ELP performance at the 2010 High Voltage Festival celebrated the 40th anniversary of forming the band. Following the 1998 break-up of ELP, Palmer worked with Asia's John Wetton in the band Qango, subsequently toured with his'Carl Palmer Band' featuring Shaun Baxter on guitar and Dave Marks on bass.
In addition to these tours, he has released four "new" albums, most notably Working Live Vol. I,II & III as well as an anthology album. In recent years, Palmer has performed a series of drum clinics across the UK, Europe and United States. Highlights of Palmer's live drum solo over the years have included the use of both gongs and tambourines, his ability to extract himself from his T-shirt while playing complex double bass drum patterns; the removal of his shirt was a major'attraction' in Palmer's drum solos during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. On recent tours, his shirt has remained on throughout his performances. Palmer is a patron of the British ` Classic Rock Society'. Palmer has been reunited with the original line-up of Asia since 2006, they celebrated their 25th anniversary, have since released four new studio albums, Phoenix, in 2008, Omega in 2010, XXX in 2012, Gravitas in 2014. A live album and DVD from the 2006 reunion tour, entitled Fantasia was released by Eagle Rock Records. In 2013, Palmer went on a world tour that included shows in South and North Ameri