Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served as an American representative and governor of Ohio. Hayes was a lawyer and staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years. During the American Civil War, he was wounded while fighting in the Union Army, he was nominated as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1876 and elected through the Compromise of 1877 that ended the Reconstruction Era by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens, he promoted civil service reform, attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction. Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861; when the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer.
Hayes was wounded five times, most at the Battle of South Mountain. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history, he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes; the result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U. S. troops protecting Republican office holders in the South, thus ending the Reconstruction era. Hayes believed in equal treatment without regard to race, he ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in so doing restore order from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery, his policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said his greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil service reform and defense of civil rights, Hayes is ranked as average or below average by historians and scholars. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard.
Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten weeks before Rutherford's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, raising Hayes and his sister, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood, she never remarried, Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists, his earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont, his mother's ancestors migrated to Vermont at a similar time. Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress, his first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead.
John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio, he did well at Norwalk, the following year transferred to The Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838, he enjoyed his time at Kenyon, was successful scholastically. He addressed the class as its valedictorian. After reading law in Columbus, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL. B, he opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky. Business was slow at first, but he attracted a few clients and represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation. In 1847, Hayes became ill with. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England. Returning from there and his uncle Sardis made a long journey to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon classm
George E. Seney
George Ebbert Seney was a nineteenth-century politician and judge from Ohio. Born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, he was grandson of Joshua Seney, was descended from colonial Governor of Maryland Francis Nicholson. Seney moved to Tiffin, Ohio with his parents in 1832, he attended Norwalk Seminary, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1853, commencing practice in Tiffin. He declined appointment as United States Attorney for the Northern District of Ohio, tendered by President James Buchanan, he was a judge of the court of common pleas in 1857 and during the Civil War, enlisted in the 101st Ohio Infantry in 1862 where he was promoted to first lieutenant and acted as quartermaster of the regiment until the close of the war. He lost election to the United States House of Representatives in 1874 by less than 140 votes. Seney was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1876 and was elected a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1882, serving from 1883 to 1891, not being a candidate for renomination in 1890.
Afterwards, he resumed practicing law in Tiffin, Ohio until his death there on June 11, 1905. He was interred in Greenlawn Cemetery in Tiffin. Seney was married to Anna Walker, granddaughter of founder of Tiffin, Josiah Hedges. Judge Seney was a pallbearer for Chief Justice Morrison Waite. William B. Ebbert. United States Congress. "George E. Seney". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-10-13 "George E. Seney". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-10-13
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only, doing so by complete immersion. Baptist churches generally subscribe to the tenets of soul competency/liberty, salvation through faith alone, scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ordinances: baptism and the Lord's supper. Diverse from their beginning, those identifying as Baptists today differ from one another in what they believe, how they worship, their attitudes toward other Christians, their understanding of what is important in Christian discipleship. Historians trace the earliest "Baptist" church to 1609 in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic with English Separatist John Smyth as its pastor. In accordance with his reading of the New Testament, he rejected baptism of infants and instituted baptism only of believing adults. Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.
Thomas Helwys formulated a distinctively Baptist request that the church and the state be kept separate in matters of law, so that individuals might have freedom of religion. Helwys died in prison as a consequence of the religious conflict with English dissenters under King James I. In 1638, Roger Williams established the first Baptist congregation in the North American colonies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the First and Second Great Awakening increased church membership in the United States. Baptist missionaries have spread their faith to every continent. Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, the view that it was an outgrowth of Anabaptist traditions, the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practice has existed since the time of Christ, the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churches existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Modern Baptist churches trace their history to the English Separatist movement in the 1600s, the century after the rise of the original Protestant denominations. This view of Baptist origins has the most historical support and is the most accepted. Adherents to this position consider the influence of Anabaptists upon early Baptists to be minimal, it was a time of considerable religious turmoil. Both individuals and churches were willing to give up their theological roots if they became convinced that a more biblical "truth" had been discovered. During the Protestant Reformation, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church. There were some Christians who were not content with the achievements of the mainstream Protestant Reformation. There were Christians who were disappointed that the Church of England had not made corrections of what some considered to be errors and abuses. Of those most critical of the Church's direction, some chose to stay and try to make constructive changes from within the Anglican Church.
They are described by Gourley as cousins of the English Separatists. Others decided they must leave the Church because of their dissatisfaction and became known as the Separatists. Historians trace the earliest Baptist church back to 1609 in Amsterdam, with John Smyth as its pastor. Three years earlier, while a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, he had broken his ties with the Church of England. Reared in the Church of England, he became "Puritan, English Separatist, a Baptist Separatist," and ended his days working with the Mennonites, he began meeting in England with 60–70 English Separatists, in the face of "great danger." The persecution of religious nonconformists in England led Smyth to go into exile in Amsterdam with fellow Separatists from the congregation he had gathered in Lincolnshire, separate from the established church. Smyth and his lay supporter, Thomas Helwys, together with those they led, broke with the other English exiles because Smyth and Helwys were convinced they should be baptized as believers.
In 1609 Smyth first baptized himself and baptized the others. In 1609, while still there, Smyth wrote a tract titled "The Character of the Beast," or "The False Constitution of the Church." In it he expressed two propositions: first, infants are not to be baptized. Hence, his conviction was that a scriptural church should consist only of regenerate believers who have been baptized on a personal confession of faith, he rejected the Separatist movement's doctrine of infant baptism. Shortly thereafter, Smyth left the group, layman Thomas Helwys took over the leadership, leading the church back to England in 1611. Smyth became committed to believers' baptism as the only biblical baptism, he was convinced on the basis of his interpretation of Scripture that infants would not be damned should they die in infancy. Smyth, convinced that his self-baptism was invalid, applied with the Mennonites for membership, he died while waiting for membership, some of his followers became Mennonites. Thomas Helwys and others kept their Baptist commitments.
The modern Baptist denomination is an outgrowth of Smyth's movement. Baptists rejected the name Anabaptist. McBeth writes that as late as the 18th century, many Baptists referred to themselves as "the Christians commonly—though falsely—called Anabaptists."Another milestone in the early dev
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Edward Thomson was an American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1864. Thomson was born in part of Portsmouth, England; when he was seven years old his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Ohio. His father, a pharmacist, influenced Edward toward the study of medicine, which he pursued at the University of Pennsylvania, he united with the M. E. Church April 29, 1832, was licensed as an Exhorter the next year. Indiana Asbury University gave him the degree of D. D. in 1846, Ohio Wesleyan that of LL. D. in 1855. The following July, Thomson was recommended for admission to the Ohio Annual Conference, he was received "on trial" that September, he was appointed junior preacher on the Norwalk Circuit. His great abilities were apparent immediately. In 1836 he was appointed to Detroit in the Michigan Annual Conference. Lewis Cass, Governor of Michigan, though a Presbyterian, was among Rev. Thomson's parishioners. While at Detroit, Thomson married a daughter of Mordecai Bartley, a U.
S. congressman and also a governor. In 1837 Thomson became the Principal of the Norwalk Seminary, where his success was so great that in 1843 he was offered the Chancellorship of the University of Michigan and the Presidency of Transylvania College. In 1844 Edward was elected by the M. E. General Conference as the editor of the Ladies' Repository, an important denominational periodical, he was re-elected to this post in 1848, but instead was called to the Presidency of Ohio Wesleyan University, a post he held until 1860. He was elected editor of the Christian Advocate in 1860, remaining until 1864 despite much opposition. Elected to the Episcopacy in 1864, Bishop Thomson continued in this office until his death, he attained high rank as a lecturer and an editor, writing much for periodicals and papers. He was a profound student, though absent-minded, preferring the seclusion of a college to the episcopal "office." Notwithstanding, he was among the most eminent of Bishops of that time. Thomson died in West Virginia.
He was buried at Oak Grove Cemetery in Ohio. Educational Essays, Cincinnati, 1856. Moral and Religious Essays, 1856. Biographical and Incidental Sketches, 1856. Letters from Europe, 1856. Letters from India and Turkey, 1870. Our Oriental Missions, 1870. List of bishops of the United Methodist Church Leete, Frederick DeLand, Methodist Bishops. Nashville, The Methodist Publishing House, 1948
Henry Beadman Bryant
Henry Beadman Bryant was an author and co-founder and namesake of Bryant & Stratton College and Bryant University in Smithfield, Rhode Island. Henry B. Bryant was born in Gloucestershire, England on April 5, 1824 and was the youngest son of six children, his father, John Bryant, was a farmer who brought the family to Ohio to a farm near a Native American settlement. Bryant's first education was during the winters in a log school house, while at home he worked on the family farm during the rest of the year, he attended the Norwalk Seminary, a Methodist school, began teaching school before entering college in Cleveland. He married Lucy A. Stratton in 1854 in Cleveland in a double wedding ceremony with his sister and brother-in-law Henry Stratton; the wedding was officiated by Dr. Charles Finney, a Protestant minister, the president of Oberlin College; the Bryants had three children. Along with his brother, John Collins Bryant, his brother-in-law, Henry Dwight Stratton, Bryant graduated from Folsom Business College in Cleveland, Ohio.
The trio purchased the school from the owner, Ezekiel G. Folsom, who founded his school in 1848. Bryant & Stratton College was organized in 1854 to provide practical workplace education, was known as Bryant and Stratton Business Institute. In addition to purchasing the Cleveland school and Stratton established a number of business schools that operated under the name of Bryant & Stratton & Co's chain of International Commercial Colleges in most major US cities. By 1864 as many as 50 schools existed. After the death of Mr. Stratton in 1867, the brothers sold most of the schools except the ones in Chicago and Buffalo. Henry Bryant led the one in Chicago and his brother, led the school in Buffalo, New York. Bryant died in 1892
Norwalk is a city in and the county seat of Huron County, United States. The population was 17,012 at the 2010 census; the city is the center of the Norwalk Micropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Cleveland-Akron-Canton Combined Statistical Area. Norwalk is located 10 miles south of Lake Erie, 51 miles west/southwest of Cleveland, 59 miles southeast of Toledo, 87 miles north/northeast of Columbus. Norwalk is at the center of a subregion of the Connecticut Western Reserve; the subregion's name recalls the founding of the area as one for settlers from cities in Connecticut that were destroyed by fire during the Revolutionary War. Several locations in the Firelands were named in honor of those cities, including Danbury, Groton, New Haven, New London, Norwalk and Ridgefield. Other locations were named for the settlers, including Clarksfield and Sherman. On July 11, 1779, Connecticut, was burned by the British Tories under Governor Tryon. A committee of the General Assembly estimated the losses to the inhabitants at $116,238.66.
The federal government gave an area in the Western Reserve of Ohio as compensation for those established losses. On May 30, 1800, the United States ceded the land titles to the "fire sufferers" and the representatives of the Reserve transferred the political jurisdiction to the general government; the Indian title was extinguished by treaty on July 4, 1805, on payment of $18,916.67. On November 9, 1808, a group of prominent citizens from Ridgefield, New Haven and Fairfield met at the courthouse in New Haven, Connecticut, as the Board of Directors of the Proprietors of the 500,000 acres of land lying south of Lake Erie, called the "Sufferers Land", they passed a resolution naming many of the townships in this area known as the "Firelands of Ohio". Between 1806 and 1810, many families made the trip to look over land they had purchased in the "Firelands". During the War of 1812, because of the fear of British and Indian raids, settlement of the Huron County area came to a standstill. However, in 1815, Platt Benedict of Danbury, Connecticut and examined the present site of Norwalk.
He purchased 1,300 acres of land with an eye toward establishing a town. In July 1817, Benedict returned to Norwalk with his family and built a house; this was the first permanent residence established within the limits of Norwalk Village. In May 1818, the county seat was removed from Avery, Ohio, to Norwalk, by 1819 a census showed a population of 109 residents. Platt Benedict, the founder of Norwalk and its first mayor, died in 1866 at the age of 91, he is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. Among the earliest settlers of Norwalk were other men of education, they brought with them not only the customs, but the architecture of New England. Many of their homes are still standing today. In 1881, Norwalk's population reached the required minimum entitling her to incorporate as a city and the City of Norwalk dates from April 12, 1881. Norwalk is located at 41°14′35″N 82°36′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.15 square miles, of which 8.87 square miles is land and 0.28 square miles is water.
The city of Norwalk is bound by Norwalk Township in each direction and a small portion of the west side is bound by Ridgefield Township. The city is located 12 miles south of Lake Erie; as of the census of 2010, there were 17,012 people, 6,764 households, 4,385 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,917.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,446 housing units at an average density of 839.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.2% White, 1.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 3.2% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. There were 6,764 households of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.2% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 37 years. 26.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. At the 2000 census, there were 16,238 people, 6,377 households and 4,234 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,950.3 per square mile. There were 6,687 housing units at an average density of 803.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.53% White, 1.95% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 1.86% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.82% of the population. There were 6,377 households of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.06. Age distribution was 27.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 28