California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Purple Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Purple Line is a heavy rail subway line operating in Los Angeles, running between downtown and the Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown districts. It is one of six lines on the Metro Rail System, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Metro Purple Line is one of the city's two subway lines. Although they separate west of Downtown Los Angeles, the two subway lines were branded as two branches of the Red Line; the Purple Line was instituted as its own line, separate from the Red Line, in 2006. As of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Out of the eight stations served, only two of them are exclusive to the Purple Line, with the other six shared with the Red Line. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the D Line while retaining its purple coloring; the Metro Purple Line is a 6.4-mile line. At Union Station, passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line, the Metro Gold Line; the Purple Line travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District.
Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line at Civic Center Station. At Pershing Square Station, passengers can board the northbound Metro Silver Line bus at Olive Street/5th Street. At 7th St/Metro Center Station, travelers can connect to the Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line and the Metro Silver Line. From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, track is shared with the Metro Red Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge; the Purple Line continues west for one additional mile, terminates at Wilshire/Western. The Purple Line runs underground, below Wilshire Boulevard, served on the surface by Metro Local route 20 and Metro Rapid route 720. Despite the duplicate service, Metro considers the redundant bus service justified because both bus routes run from Downtown Los Angeles. Unlike the Purple Line, they run along the entire Wilshire corridor, west to Beverly Hills and Santa Monica.
Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. daily, with late night weekend service running until 2:00 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Wilshire/Western Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:41 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 11:42 p.m. Westbound First Train to Wilshire/Western: 4:56 a.m. Last Train to Wilshire/Western: 11:27 p.m. During the evenings Purple Line trains sometimes run as shuttles. Passengers must transfer to a Red Line train at Wilshire/Vermont; this will change. Trains on the Purple Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service can range between 20–30 minutes; the Purple Line is utilized as a downtown shuttle on its shared segment with the Red Line. The stub between Vermont and Western has a low ridership. According to Metro Service Coordinator Conan Cheung, the stub is operating 11% full during peak hours, lower at other times.
The current Purple Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunnelling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. However, a short one-mile branch down Wilshire from Vermont to Western was allowed to remain in the system; the service designated as the Purple Line opened in two minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993. MOS-2A, including three new stations between Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Western, opened in 1996; the Vermont branch began service in 1999.
Both branches were designated as part of the Red Line, but in 2006 trains travelling between Union Station and Wilshire/Western were rebranded the Purple Line for greater clarity. Metro is now aiming to complete the subway to the Westside; the new project is called the Purple Line Extension and the first phase broke ground on November 7, 2014. Metro released the Final Environmental Impact Report on March 19, 2012, the first phase of the project was approved by Metro's Board of Directors on April 26, 2012. Notice to proceed was issued to Tutor Perini on April 26, 2017 for phase two from Wilshire/La Cienega Station to Century City Station. Pre-construction has commenced. Metro is still attempting to obtain funding for phase 3 to Westwood/UCLA; the following table lists the stations of the Purple Line, from east to west: The Purple Line is operated out of the Division 20 Yard located at 320 South Santa Fe Avenue Los Angeles. This yard stores the fleet used on the Purple Line, it is where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet.
Subways get to this yard by continuing on after Union Statio
Cerritos named Dairy Valley because of the preponderance of dairy farms in the area, is an affluent suburban city in Los Angeles County, United States, is one of several cities that constitute the Gateway Cities of southeast Los Angeles County. It was incorporated on April 24, 1956; as of the 2010 census, the population was 49,041. It is part of the Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, California Metropolitan Statistical Area designated by the Office of Management and Budget. Cerritos was inhabited by Native Americans belonging to the Tongva; the Tongva would be renamed the "Gabrieleños" by the Spanish settlers after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcangel. The Gabrieleños were the largest group of Southern California Indians as well as the most developed in the region; the Gabrieleños lived off the land, deriving food from the animals or plants that could be gathered, snared or hunted, grinding acorns as a staple. Beginning in the late 15th century, Spanish explorers arrived in the New World and worked their way to the California coast in 1542.
The colonization process included "civilizing" the native populations in California by establishing various missions. Soon afterward, a town called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula would be founded and prosper with the aid of subjects from New Spain and Native American labor. One soldier, José Manuel Nieto, was granted a large plot of land by the Spanish King Carlos III, which he named Rancho Los Nietos, it covered 300,000 acres of what are today the cities of Cerritos, Long Beach, Downey, Santa Fe Springs, part of Whittier, Huntington Beach, Buena Park and Garden Grove. The rancho was divided five ways among Nieto's heirs during the nationalization of church property by the Mexican government, with Juan José Nieto retaining the largest plot, called Rancho Los Coyotes. Nieto called the area of Rancho Los Coyotes, where Cerritos is today, "cerritos" or "little hills", although no natural hills exist in modern-day Cerritos. After the Mexican-American war, the rancho would wind up in the hands of the Los Angeles and San Bernardino Land Company, which encouraged development and rail lines to be built by Henry E. Huntington and his Pacific Electric Railway company.
It was through rapid development, combined with improved transportation systems, that the modern-day city of Artesia was formed in Rancho Los Coyotes in 1875, from it, the city of Dairy Valley. Cranford Airport, a small general-aviation airport, was built around 1946 and consisted of two 2,300-foot runways, one oriented north/south & the other northeast/southwest; each runway had a parallel taxiway, a ramp along the south side of the field had two building hangars. The former airport site is on the northwest corner of the intersection of South Street & Carmenita Road. Cranford Airport closed at some point between 1953-54; the city of Dairy Valley was incorporated on April 24, 1956, as a reaction to nearby Artesia's rapid urbanization. The city's name symbolized the more than 400 dairies, 100,000 cows and 106,300 chickens found within its limits; the cows outnumbered the 3,439 residents by a factor of 29 to 1. The chickens outnumbered the residents by over 30 to 1; the first business license in the new city was for Walter Marlowe's "Dairy Valley Egg Farms".
Two years Dairy Valley voted to become a chartered California city. As land values and property taxes in California rose in the early 1960s, agriculture became unprofitable, development pressures increased. In a special election held on July 16, 1963, residents voted to permit large-scale residential development; as a reflection of its newly planned suburban orientation, the city's name was formally changed to Cerritos on January 10, 1967, after the nearby Spanish land grant Rancho Los Cerritos, which figured prominently in the region, after Cerritos College in neighboring Norwalk. Cerritos is a prime example of the "fiscalization" of California politics after the tax revolt of the 1970s and the passage of Proposition 13; the only way for California cities to raise long-term tax revenue in light of Proposition 13 was to create as many commercial zones as possible to take advantage of the percentage of county sales tax allocated back to municipalities as sales tax revenue. Cerritos was one of the first cities in Los Angeles County to develop large-scale retail zones, such as the Los Cerritos Center and Cerritos Auto Square, achieved stunning success.
City leaders reinvested funds into the community with large public works projects and an increasing number of community services and programs. The current progressive nature of the Cerritos government and the unusually strong tax base is best reflected in its facilities. In 1978, Cerritos dedicated the nation's first solar-heated City Hall complex. In 1993, the Cerritos Center for the Performing Arts opened its doors. In 1994, the City unveiled the Cerritos Towne Center project, combining office, lodging, fine arts and dining in an open-air location. In 1997, the city opened the Cerritos Sheriff's Station/Community Safety Center to provide public safety services. In 2002, the City rededicated its public library. In 2006, the City celebrated its golden anniversary with memorials and the unveiling of a sculpture garden; the assessed valuation of the city is $7,177,428,066. Between 1970 and 1972, Cerritos was the fastest-growing city in California. Since the 1980s, Cerritos has attracted a large number of Filipino, Taiwanese and Chinese immigrant families.
On August 31, 1986, Aeroméxico Flight 498, on approach to Los Angeles International Airport from Mexico City, was struck by a small Piper aircraft tha
LA County Library
LA County Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States which serves residents living in 49 of the 88 incorporated cities of Los Angeles County, California. United States and those living in unincorporated areas resulting in a service area extending over 3,000 square miles. "County Free Library Act" established and authorized the Los Angeles County Free Library to become the Los Angeles County Public Library system of branches. The library system, headquartered in Downey, California, is overseen by the Library Commission of 20 appointed members who report on administration and service to the County Board of Supervisors who operate County Library as a special fund department. Skye Patrick was appointed County Librarian on February 1, 2016; the library provides many resources, including literacy services and programs for families and children. The library system offers consumer health information under CHIPS. City Terrace Library Claremont Library Clifton M. Brakensiek Library Compton Library Cudahy Library Culver City Julian Dixon Library Diamond Bar Library Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Library Duarte Library East Los Angeles Library East Rancho Dominguez Library El Camino Real Library El Monte Library Florence Library Gardena Mayme Dear Library George Nye Jr. Library Graham Library Hacienda Heights Library Hawaiian Gardens Library Hawthorne Library Hermosa Beach Library Hollydale Library Huntington Park Library La Cañada Flintridge Library La Crescenta Library La Mirada Library La Puente Library La Verne Library Lake Los Angeles Library Lancaster Library Lawndale Library Leland R. Weaver Library Lennox Library Littlerock Library Live Oak Library Lloyd Taber-Marina del Rey Library Lomita Library Los Nietos Library Lynwood Library Malibu Library Manhattan Beach Library Masao W. Satow Library Maywood César Chávez Library Montebello Library Norwalk Library Norwood Library Paramount Library Pico Rivera Library Quartz Hill Library Rivera Library Rosemead Library Rowland Heights Library San Dimas Library San Fernando Library San Gabriel Library Santa Clarita Valley Bookmobile Sorensen Library South El Monte Library South Whittier Library Stevenson Ranch Library Sunkist Library Temple City Library Topanga Library Urban Outreach Bookmobile View Park Library Walnut Library West Covina Library West Hollywood Library Westlake Village Library Willowbrook Library Wiseburn Library Woodcrest Library Woelfel, Roger H..
Diamond Jubilee: Seventy-Five Years of Public Service. Glendale, CA: Arthur C. Clark Company. ISBN 0-87062-181-5 County of Los Angeles Library system
Blue Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Blue Line is a 22.0-mile light rail line running north-south between Los Angeles and Long Beach, passing through Downtown Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Willowbrook, Rancho Dominguez and Long Beach in Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines in the Metro Rail system. Opened in 1990, it is the system's oldest and second busiest line with an estimated 22.38 million boardings per year as of December 2017. It is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Blue Line passes near the cities of Vernon, Huntington Park, South Gate and Carson. The famous Watts Towers can be seen from the train near 103rd Street station; the under-construction Regional Connector will directly link this line beyond. On January 26, 2019, Metro shut down the Blue Line between Downtown Long Beach and 103rd Street station, it is undergoing heavy construction, including track and wire replacement. Metro Local and Rapid shuttle buses replace Blue Line service along this portion of the route until late May 2019.
After the renovation project is complete, the line will be renamed to A Line while retaining its blue coloring. The Metro Blue Line runs 22.0 miles between Downtown Los Angeles and Downtown Long Beach making stops at 22 stations. The line's northern terminus is the underground 7th Street/Metro Center station, after rising to street level, trains run south along Flower Street, sharing tracks with the Expo Line. Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at 7th Street/Metro Center and Grand stations; the Blue and Expo Lines diverge at Flower Street and Washington Boulevard just south of downtown Los Angeles. Here the Blue Line turns east on Washington Boulevard before turning south on Long Beach Avenue where it enters the former Pacific Electric right-of-way; this historic rail corridor has four tracks, two are used by Blue Line trains and two are used by freight trains. There are some elevated sections as this private right of way cuts through more densely populated areas.
Passengers can connect with the Metro Green Line at midway through the rail corridor as it passes under Interstate 105 at Willowbrook station. Just south of Willow station, Blue Line trains exit the rail corridor and follows Long Beach Boulevard into the city of Long Beach, where trains travel through the Long Beach Transit Mall while making a loop using 1st Street, Pacific Avenue and 8th Street. Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Long Beach Northbound First Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 4:46 a.m. Last Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 12:03 a.m. Southbound First Train to Long Beach: 5:00 a.m. Last Train to Long Beach: 1:01 a.m. Of note, some trains operate at or earlier times due to the Blue Line making the turnaround in Downtown Long Beach. Trains on the Blue Line operate every six minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday.
They operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 9 a.m.. Night service consists of ten-minute headways. During peak hours, every other train serves only the stations between Willow and 7th Street/Metro Center to decrease the headway on that portion of the route. Willow was chosen because of its proximity to the Blue Line storage yard and because it is the last southbound station with a park-and-ride lot. In the evening rush hour, riders will see some trains destined to "Willow" and others to "Long Beach"; those riders destined to Long Beach must exit at Willow Station and wait for the next train which will terminate at Downtown Long Beach Station. When the Blue Line began operation in 1990, it was projected to have a daily ridership of 5,000; the line performed much better than expected with daily ridership reaching 12,000 passengers within the first months of service and reaching 32,000 by the end of the first year of service. As of October 2018, the Blue Line had an average weekday ridership of 63,008, Saturday and Sunday boardings of 30,579 and 30,314, respectively.
In 2017, the line saw a total of 22.38 million boardings. Much of the current Blue Line follows the route of streetcar service operated by Pacific Electric Railway; the current line opened on Saturday, July 14, 1990, at a cost of US$877 million.. An intended extension to Pasadena was scrapped after the 1998 county ballot was approved which banned the use of sales tax revenue for subway projects, preventing construction of a downtown light rail tunnel; the line was operated by two-car trains, but proved more popular than expected and 19 platforms were lengthened to accommodate three-car trains in 2002-2003 at a cost of US$11 million. A series of major improvements is underway for Metro's oldest light rail line; the six-year, $1.2 billion overhaul began in late 2014 with several months of projects to refurbish Blue Line stations that were completed in July 2015. The next major improvement came to the rolling stock on the line, which included $130 million to refurbish older light rail vehicles and $739 million to purchase 78 new vehicles.
The final phase of improvements come in 2019, where large sections of the line are closed for months as crews replace tracks and overhead wiring, upgrade signal systems, refurbish aerial rail bridges, a reb
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the