The Norwegian Football Cup is the main knockout cup competition in Norwegian football. It is run by the Football Association of Norway and has been contested since 1902, making it the oldest football tournament in the country; the tournament is known as Cupen or NM, an acronym formed from Norgesmesterskap. These terms are used to describe women's competitions; the equivalent competition for women's teams is the Norwegian Women's Football Cup. The Norwegian Football Cup is a national championship, meaning that while the Eliteserien may be the most prestigious competition to win, it is the winners of the Cup who are awarded the title "Norwegian football champions"; this differs from, for example, English football, where the winners of the Premier League are the ones who become English champions. Winners receive the King's trophy. Winners qualify for the Europa League second qualifying round and a place in the Mesterfinalen, the Norwegian super cup match; the current Norwegian champions and holders of the cup are Viking, who defeated Haugesund 1–0 in the 2019 final.
Odd and Rosenborg are the most successful clubs with 12 titles each. The first cup was played in 1902, Oscar II presented the King's Cup to the inaugural tournament; this was an invitation tournament organised by Kristiania IF and the Norwegian Football Association, given official status. Five teams joined the competition, Odd reached the final without playing a match. Grane won the first Norwegian Cup after they defeated Odd 2 -- 0 at Kristiania; the first tournament who had official status at the time of the events was the 1904 Norwegian Cup and was won by Odd. In the beginning, the cup was open for county champions only; this continued until 1933. League football began with the 1937–38 season, Fredrikstad became the first team to win a domestic double by winning both the league and the cup in the same year. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1940 and 1945 editions; the competition was not nationwide until 1963. 1963 was the first year clubs from Northern Norway were allowed to participate, this was due to a poor communication system in the northern parts of Norway and to the belief that the clubs in the three northern counties could not compete on the same level as the southern clubs.
Until 1963, teams from Northern Norway their own Northern Norwegian Championships. Before the 2004 cup final, NRK awarded the 1986 final between Tromsø and Lillestrøm with the title Tidenes Cupfinale, ex-Rosenborg striker Gøran Sørloth with Tidenes Cuphelt; the final has been played at Ullevaal Stadion since the 1948 cup final. Before the proper rounds take place, two qualifying rounds are played in April. 176 clubs from tier 4 and 5 enter the first qualifying round and 44 of these advance to the first round where they are joined by 84 teams from tiers 1, 2 and 3. The first round of the cup are played in April, around the same time as the Eliteserien season starts; the first two rounds are set up by the Norwegian Football Association, the top flight teams are pitted against weak amateur teams in rural areas, on the amateur team's home pitch. Early upsets, where an amateur team knocks a professional team out of the tournament do happen occasionally. For example, in 2012 the Eliteserien teams Sandnes Ulf and Sogndal were knocked out in the first round by the third division teams Staal Jørpeland IL and Florø SK respectively.
If the amateur team loses, squaring off against a professional team may well be the highlight of their season. From the third round to the semi-final, matchups are drawn at random, the teams face off once, the winner goes on to the next round; the final match is played at Ullevaal Stadium in November or December, takes place near the end of the Norwegian football season. The cup is popular in Norway, tickets for the final match are hard to get hold of, as the game sells out quickly; the supporters of the two teams playing in the final match are seated at the two short-ends of the pitch, while the more neutral supporters are seated by the long-ends. The match is televised on national television. Most entrants from level 4 and all entrants from level 5 have to play to qualifying rounds to join the competition proper. Reserve teams of Eliteserien clubs, who are eligible to play in 2. Divisjon cannot enter. Depending on the number of reserve teams, the first round proper will be filled with the best clubs from level 4 until the number of teams from levels 1–4 is 84.
Clubs from higher levels are added in the first round, as per the table below. The months in which rounds are played are traditional, with exact dates subject to each year's calendar. In all rounds, if a fixture result in a draw after normal time, the winner is settled by a period of extra time, if still necessary, a penalty shootout. Earlier, fixtures resulting in a draw would go to a replay, played at the venue of the away team; the first Cup Final to go to a replay was the 1945 final, between Fredrikstad. The initial tie finished 1–1 and the first replay finished 1–1. Lyn won the second replay 4–0; the only other time the final has taken three matches to settle was the 1965 final between Oslo rivals Skeid and Frigg. The last replayed final was the 1995 final, when Brann fought a 1 -- 1 draw; the replay saw Rosenborg win the Cup, with the score 3–1. The first final to b
Lacona is a village in Oswego County, New York, United States. The population was 582 at the 2010 census; the Village of Lacona is inside the Town of Sandy Creek. The village is halfway between Watertown; the village was founded around 1803. Lacona was incorporated as a village in 1880; the Smith H. Barlow House, First National Bank of Lacona, Lacona Clock Tower, Lacona Railroad Station and Depot, Charles M. Salisbury House, Matthew Shoecraft House, Fred Smart House, Newman Tuttle House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lacona is located at 43°38′38″N 76°4′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.0 square mile, all of it land. The village is east of Interstate 81. Little Sandy Creek flows westward through the adjacent Village of Sandy Creek; as of the census of 2000, there were 590 people, 243 households, 156 families residing in the village. The population density was 576.7 people per square mile. There were 271 housing units at an average density of 264.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 98.64% White, 0.17% African American, 0.34% Asian, 0.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population. There were 243 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97. In the village, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $32,222, the median income for a family was $41,111.
Males had a median income of $37,500 versus $27,955 for females. The per capita income for the village was $16,418. About 19.3% of families and 24.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.9% of those under age 18 and 18.2% of those age 65 or over. RW&O Railroad, Lacona, NY
In Inuit religion, Adlivun refers to both the spirits of the departed who reside in the underworld, that underworld itself, located beneath the land and the sea. The souls are purified there, in preparation for the travel to the Land of the Moon, where they find eternal rest and peace. Sedna and the tornat and tupilaq live in Adlivun, described as a frozen wasteland. Sedna is the ruler of the land, is said to imprison the souls of the living as part of the preparation for the next stage of their journey; when an Inuk dies, they are buried. Elderly corpses have their feet pointing towards west or southwest, while children's feet point east or southeast and young adults towards the south. Three days of mourning follow, with relatives staying in the deceased's hut with nostrils closed by a piece of caribou skin. After three days, the mourners ritualistically circle the grave three times, promising venison to the spirit, brought when the grave is visited; the psychopomps Pinga and Anguta bring the souls of the dead to Adlivun, where they must stay for one year before moving on.
Boas, Franz. Smithsonian Institution; the Central Eskimo: Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1884-1885. Washington, USA: Government Printing Office. OCLC 16737743 – via Project Gutenberg. Gabryl, Franciszek. Skład Główny w Księgarni G. Gebethnera i spółki. Nieśmiertelność duszy ludzkiej w świetle rozumu i nowoczesnej nauki. Kraków, PL: Druk. Wł. L. Anczyc i Sp. oai:rcin.org.pl:1834 – via RCIN-IGIPZ - Digital Repository of Scientific Institutions. Leach, Maria; the Beginning: Creation Myths Around the World. New York City, USA: Funk & Wagnalls. OCLC 528661 – via Google Books
Bruce O. Riedel is an American expert on U. S. security, South Asia, counter-terrorism. He is a senior fellow in the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, a professor at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, he serves as a senior adviser at Albright Stonebridge Group. Riedel, a former Central Intelligence Agency analyst and counter-terrorism expert, served in the Agency for 29 years until his retirement in 2006, he has advised four presidents on Middle East and South Asian issues in the White House on the staff of the National Security Council. He is a contributor to several periodicals and an author of books examining topics related to his areas of expertise — counter-terrorism, Arab-Israeli relations, Persian Gulf security, South Asia India and Pakistan. Riedel was born in 1953 in New York, he was just a year old when his father — a political adviser at the United Nations — moved his family to Jerusalem and to Beirut. After much travel, Riedel obtained a B.
A. in Middle East history and an MA in Medieval Islamic history. From 2002 to 2003, he attended the Royal College of Defence Studies in London. CIA years: 1977 – 2006 In 1977, Riedel began a career as an analyst for the CIA, where he spent most of his professional life. After serving 29 years, he retired in 2006. During his tenure at the CIA he held several positions, including: Various assignments, Central Intelligence Agency Deputy Chief Persian Gulf Task Force, Central Intelligence Agency Director for Gulf and South Asia Affairs, National Security Council National Intelligence Officer for Near East and South Asian Affairs at the National Intelligence Council Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Near East and South Asian Affairs, Office of the Secretary of Defense Special Assistant to the President, Senior Director for Near East Affairs on the National Security Council Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Near East and North African Affairs, National Security Council Member, Royal College of Defence Studies, London, UK Special Advisor, NATO, Belgium 2006 – to present Riedel is a senior fellow in the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, a professor at Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.
He serves as a senior adviser at Albright Stonebridge Group. Riedel was a policy adviser to the 2008 presidential campaign of Barack Obama. In February 2009, Obama appointed him chair of a White House review committee formed to overhaul U. S. policy on Afghanistan and Pakistan. In 2011, he served as an expert advisor to the prosecution of al Qaeda terrorist Omar Farooq Abdulmutallab in Detroit. In December 2011, Prime Minister David Cameron asked him to advise the UK’s National Security Council on Pakistan. In a February 2013 article published on the website of the Brookings Institution, Riedel discussed "false flag ops" in relation to Algerian counter-terrorism units. In his article "Algeria a Complex Ally in War Against al Qaeda", he described the Algerian counter-terrorism unit DRS and its methods: " DRS is known for its tactic of infiltrating terrorist groups, creating “false flag” terrorists and trying to control them.", Riedel writes. "Rumors have associated the DRS in the past with the Malian warlord Iyad Ag Ghali, head of Ansar al Dine AQIM’s ally in Mali, with Mukhtar Belmukhtar, the al-Qaeda terrorist who engineered the attack on the natural gas plant."
On 14 February 2012, in an article for American news website The Daily Beast, Riedel quoted former ISI chief, Gen. Ziauddin Khwaja, as saying that former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf "knew bin Laden was in Abbottabad". Secretary of Defense Distinguished Service Medal Distinguished Intelligence Medal Department of State Meritorious Honor Award, for work in the intelligence and defense communities Riedel is a contributor to several journals and magazines. Edmund S. Hawley. Papers on Intelligence Activities. Brown University. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Bruce O. Riedel; the Oslo Impasse: Where Do We Go from Here?: with Keynote Address by Bruce O. Riedel. Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Bruce Riedel. Truman, American Diplomacy and a Middle Eastern Peace Settlement, 1949 - 1952. Brown University. Retrieved 23 October 2012. John Kiriakou; the Reluctant Spy: My Secret Life in the CIA's War on Terror. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61608-628-2. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
Kenneth M. Pollack. Grand; the Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-2227-4. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Amb. Ronald E. Neumann; the Other War: Winning and Losing in Afghanistan. Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59797-427-1. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Which Path to Persia: Options for a New American Strategy Toward Iran, Al Qaeda Strikes Back, Bruce Riedel; the Search for Al Qaeda: Its Leadership and Future. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-0451-5. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Bruce Riedel. Deadly Embrace: Pakistan and the Future of the
James L. Perry is an American professor. Perry began his career in academia in 1974 at University of Irvine. After an 11-year career at UC – Irvine, which included positions as Associate Dean and Doctoral Program Coordinator, Perry began his tenure at Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs. During his 24 years at SPEA he served as a visiting professor at Chinese University of Hong Kong on a Fulbright Scholarship and as a visiting professor at the Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, he has held numerous leadership positions during his tenure at SPEA including Director of Indiana University American Democracy Project, Associate Dean of at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Chair of Policy and Administration Faculty, Director of the Joint PhD program in public policy. From 1998 to 2000 Perry served as the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Public Affairs Education, he served as the editor-in-chief of Public Administration Review between 2012 and 2017.
Perry won the 2008 Dwight Waldo Award and the John Gaus Award in 2017. Motivation in Public Management: The Call of Public Service Quick Hits for Educating Citizens Civic Service: What Difference Does It Make? http://www.iu.edu/~speaweb/faculty/perry.php http://www.indiana.edu/~jlpweb/index.php
Memorial Drive is a major road in Calgary, Alberta. Besides having an important role in city infrastructure, the tree lined sides of Memorial Drive serve as a living testament to the many soldiers who died during World War I and give it a parkway look on the western section. An active path system runs along the south side of Memorial Drive, beside the banks of the Bow River; the Calgary Soldiers' Memorial will form part of an extensive renovation to Memorial Drive, which will heighten the function of the road as a monument to the city's military. The Landscape of Memory Project began in 2004, in order to revitalize a nine kilometre stretch of the road. Memorial Drive begins at an interchange with Crowchild Trail in the northwest, serving as an eastern extension of Parkdale Boulevard, though the signage at 16 Avenue NW shows eastbound Bowness Road as Memorial Drive; the road continues east as a divided parkway until it passes the dual-intersection with 4 Street NE and Edmonton Trail at which point it becomes a freeway until Deerfoot Trail.
(Westbound traffic is offered a flyover into downtown at the 4th/Edmonton intersection. At this point the C-Train runs along the median of the split road, beginning with the Bridgeland/Memorial Station. After passing Barlow Trail, the road downgrades to a major arterial with the C-Train turning north along 36 Street E/Métis Trail after the Franklin Station. Memorial is downgraded to traffic signalized intersections and continues east to 68th Street N. E. where it downgrades once again to a residential street for its last few blocks to its present terminus at Abbeydale Drive. City planners have made provisions for Memorial Drive to connect with Stoney Trail. East of 36 Street E, Memorial Drive serves as the boundary between the Northeast and Southeast quadrants of the city. From west to east; the entire route is in Calgary. Transportation in Calgary