The Capitalist Party is a Norwegian political party founded in 2014 that promotes a classical liberal platform. Based on classical liberalism and Age of Enlightenment philosophies, the party advocates for a minimal state, where the responsibility of government is limited to administering the police and justice system; the Capitalist Party believes that the state should be prohibited from compelling its electorate, exists only to protect individuals from aggression and fraud. In accordance with the party's motto, the foundation of this platform holds that an individual owns his or her own life, is responsible for his or her decisions and prosperity, that each has the inherent right to autonomously pursue his or her private interests to the extent that those pursuits do not violate the rights of another. With convictions rooted in the values of Western constitutionalism, the Capitalist Party believes in the separation of powers between the three branches of government: executive and judicial.
This system of checks and balances will, according to the party, ensure that personal freedoms are secure and will prevent the rise of statism. Economically, the party is dedicated to laissez-faire, which advocates for a free market, devoid of invasive regulations and taxation; the party views individual sovereignty as an inalienable natural condition, holds that regulatory practices impede upon self-determination and self-ownership, thereby inhibiting individual freedom and innovative productivity. To that end, people should collaborate under peaceful and voluntary conditions, without the coercion of state intervention; the Capitalist Party advocates for a gradual dismantling of the warfare-welfare state and encourages people to get off the bandwagon in the future when they have had enough of personal freedom. The Capitalist Party has ended the debate between Libertarians and Objectivists by agreeing to postpone the debate till the Night-watchman state has been reached; the Capitalist Party does have a defined philosophy based on classical liberalism making it easier for its spokespeople to answer the hundreds of detailed questions coming from a hostile media in the future.
The Capitalist Party was established in 2014. Headquartered in Oslo, the party is organized in every Norwegian county. National leadership serves on the Central Executive Committee, which includes leader Arnt Rune Flekstad, deputy leader Roald Ribe, party secretary Geir Hoksnes. Members constitute the party's legislative body, selecting leadership and protocols at the annual regional and national conventions; the party's youth wing is The Capitalist Youth. Established in 2004, The Capitalist Youth was affiliated with the Liberal People's Party until transitioning to the Capitalist Party in 2014. In March 2015, the Capitalist Party gathered the amount of constituent signatures required by the state to participate in Oslo's 2015 municipal elections; the Capitalist Party has declared support for the creation of Liberland, a micronation founded by Czech libertarian Vít Jedlička from the Party of Free Citizens. The Capitalist Party held their second national congress in the center of Oslo in April 2016.
The Capitalist Party held their third national congress in the center of Oslo in April 2017. Official website
The Storting is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway. It is located in Oslo; the unicameral parliament has 169 members, is elected every four years based on party-list proportional representation in nineteen plurinominal constituencies. A member of the Storting is known in Norwegian as a stortingsrepresentant "Storting representative"; the assembly is led by a president and, since 2009, five vice presidents: the presidium. The members are allocated to twelve standing committees, as well as four procedural committees. Three ombudsmen are directly subordinate to parliament: the Parliamentary Intelligence Oversight Committee and the Office of the Auditor General. Parliamentarianism was established in 1884. In 2009, qualified unicameralism was replaced by unicameralism, through the dissolution of the two chambers: the Lagting and the Odelsting. Following the 2017 election, nine parties are represented in parliament: the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the Progress Party, the Centre Party, the Christian Democratic Party, the Liberal Party, the Socialist Left Party, the Green Party, the Red Party.
Since 2018, Tone Wilhelmsen Trøen has been President of the Storting. The parliament in its present form was first constituted at Eidsvoll in 1814, although its origins can be traced back to the allting, as early as the 9th century, a type of thing, or common assembly of free men in Germanic societies that would gather at a place called a thingstead and were presided over by lawspeakers; the alltings were where political matters were discussed. These were formalised so that the things grew into regional meetings and acquired backing and authority from the Crown to the extent that on occasions they were instrumental in effecting change in the monarchy itself; as oral laws became codified and Norway unified as a geopolitical entity in the 10th century, the lagtings were established as superior regional assemblies. During the mid-13th century, the by archaic regional assemblies, the Frostating, the Gulating, the Eidsivating and the Borgarting, were amalgamated and the corpus of law was set down under the command of King Magnus Lagabøte.
This jurisdiction remained significant until King Frederick III proclaimed absolute monarchy in 1660. The Parliament of Norway Building opened in 1866. On 27 June 1940 the presidium signed an appeal to King Haakon. In September 1940 the representatives were summoned to Oslo, voted in favour of the results of the negotiations between the presidium and the authorities of the German invaders. However, directives from Adolf Hitler resulted in the obstruction of "the agreement of cooperation between parliament and occupation force". Although the Storting has always been unicameral, until 2009 it would divide itself into two divisions for legislative purposes. After an election, the Storting would elect a quarter of its membership to form the Lagting, a sort of "upper house" or revising chamber, with the remaining three-quarters forming the Odelsting or "lower house"; the division was used on rare occasions in cases of impeachment. The original idea in 1814 was to have the Lagting act as an actual upper house, the senior and more experienced members of the Storting were placed there.
However, the composition of the Lagting followed that of the Odelsting, so that there was little that differentiated them, the passage of a bill in the Lagting was a formality. Bills were submitted by the Government by a member of the Odelsting. A standing committee, with members from both the Odelsting and Lagting, would consider the bill, in some cases hearings were held. If passed by the Odelsting, the bill would be sent to the Lagting for revision. Most bills were passed unamended by the Lagting and sent directly to the king for royal assent. If the Lagting amended the Odelsting's draft, the bill would be sent back to the Odelsting. If the Odelsting approved the Lagting's amendments, the bill would be signed into law by the King. If it did not the bill would return to the Lagting. If the Lagting still proposed amendments, the bill would be submitted to a plenary session of the Storting. In order to be passed, the bill required the approval of a two-thirds majority of the plenary session. In all other cases a simple majority would suffice.
Three days had to pass between each time a chamber voted on a bill. In all other cases, such as taxes and appropriations, the Storting would meet in plenary session. A proposal to amend the constitution and abolish the Odelsting and Lagting was introduced in 2004 and was passed by the Storting on 20 February 2007, it took effect with the newly elected Storting in 2009. The number of seats in the Storting has varied over the years; as of 1882 there were 114 seats, increasing to 117 in 1903, 123 in 1906, 126 in 1918, 150 in 1921, 155 in 1973, 157 in 1985, 165 in 1989, 169 as of 2005. The legislative procedure goes through five stages. First, a bill is introduced to parliament either by a member of govern
Liberal Party (Norway)
The Liberal Party is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Norway. The party is the oldest in Norway, has enacted reforms such as parliamentarism, freedom of religion, universal suffrage and state schooling. For most of the late 19th and early 20th century, it was Norway's largest and dominant political party, but in the postwar era it lost most of its support and became a small party; the party has participated in several centrist and centre-right government coalitions in the postwar era. It holds eight seats in the Parliament, is a part of Norway's government together with the Conservative Party and the Progress Party. Since 2010, the leader of the party is Trine Skei Grande; the party is regarded as social-liberal and advocates personal freedom under the pre-condition of an active state. Since the 1970s, the party has maintained an environmentalist position, an important part of the party profile when it came back to parliament in the 1990s; the Liberal Party was rated the second best party after the Green Party by the environmentalist organisation Framtiden i våre hender.
The party is a strong supporter of multiculturalism, increased labour immigration to Norway, relaxed integration measures. Overall, it has had a centrist position in the Norwegian political landscape. Founded in 1884 with the main support from farmers and progressive members of the bourgeoisie, it was the first political party that came into existence in Norway, was the dominant government party for several decades. Since the 1880s, the party has seen many internal schisms. A politically moderate and religious wing broke out in 1888 to form the Moderate Liberal Party, the conservative-liberal faction, including among them the first Prime Minister of Norway Christian Michelsen broke out in 1909 to form the Free-minded Liberal Party; the most notable recent schism was in 1972, when the Liberal Party decided to oppose Norwegian membership in the European Economic Community, the faction supporting membership broke out and formed the Liberal People's Party. The party Venstre was formed in 1884 in connection with the dispute about whether or not to introduce parliamentarism in Norway.
Venstre was the party advocating parliamentarism, whereas the conservatives, who opposed parliamentarism, formed the party Høyre. When the fight for parliamentarism was won, Venstre's leader Johan Sverdrup became the first Norwegian prime minister to be appointed on the basis of having the support of a majority in the Storting. Venstre advocated universal suffrage for men, achieved in 1898, the break-up of the Swedish-Norwegian Union, which happened in 1905, universal women's suffrage, introduced in 1913. In the first decades after 1884, Venstre formed several governments, interspersed with periods of Høyre-governments. Six different Prime Ministers of Norway have come from Venstre, all of them before 1935. With the growth of Labour Party, Venstre lost ground; the election of 1915 was the last in which Venstre was the largest party and won an outright majority in the Storting. Venstre was further weakened with the formation of Bondepartiet in 1920, Christian People's Party in 1933, both of which were formed by former Venstre members.
After World War II, Venstre has been part of five coalition governments, the most recent one being Solberg's Cabinet from 2018. A dispute over Norwegian membership in the European Community, now the European Union, made the party split up at Røros in 1972, with the people favoring EC membership departing, forming Liberal People's Party; these included the party leader, Helge Seip, 9 of the 13 members of parliament. Since Venstre has been a small party; the parliamentary group was reduced to two after the 1973 election. In 1974, Venstre elected the first female leader of a political party in Eva Kolstad. Election results continued to be poor for Venstre. Before the 1985 elections, the party announced for the first, so far only, time that they would support a Labour Party government. At the following election they lost their two remaining seats, were without representation in the Norwegian Parliament for the first time. In 1988, Venstre was re-united with the splinter party from 1972, now calling itself the Liberal People's Party, but at the elections of 1989, the re-united party again failed to win parliamentary seats.
In 1993 the party again failed to achieve the 4% threshold which would make them eligible for the leveling seats in parliament, but Lars Sponheim was elected directly from Hordaland county. In 1997, Venstre passed the 4 % threshold; as a consequence Venstre saw their first participation in cabinet since 1973. The party held four seats in the minority first government of Kjell Magne Bondevik. Lars Sponheim became minister of Odd Einar Dørum. Mrs. Løwer was the first female minister of defense in Norway; this cabinet resigned in 2000. In 2001, Venstre narrowly fai
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Christian Democratic Party (Norway)
The Christian Democratic Party, is a Christian democratic political party in Norway founded in 1933. The Norwegian name translates to Christian People's Party, shortened KrF; the name may be translated as "The People's Christian Party". The party follows its European counterparts in many ways, positioning itself as a family-friendly party. While founded on the basis of advocating moral-cultural Christian issues, the party has broadened its political profile over time, although Christian values remains its core distinction, it is considered an overall centrist party, combining conservative views with more left-leaning economic positions. The party is an observer member of the European People's Party; the Christian Democrats' leader from 1983 to 1995, Kjell Magne Bondevik, was one of the most prominent political figures in modern Norway, serving as Prime Minister from 1997 to 2000 and 2001 to 2005. Under the old leadership of Bondevik and Valgerd Svarstad Haugland, the party was to some extent radicalized and moved towards the left.
Due to their poor showing in the 2009 elections, the party has seen a conflict between its conservative and liberal wings. Until 2019 the leader was Knut Arild Hareide, who led the party into a more liberal direction as part of a "renewal" process, introduced climate change and environmentalism as the party's most important issues. In social policy the Christian Democratic Party have conservative opinions. On life issues, the party opposes euthanasia, abortion, though it may support abortion in cases of rape or when the mother's life is at risk; the party supports accessibility to contraception as a way of lowering abortion rates. They want to ban research on human fetuses, have expressed skepticism for proposals to liberalise the biotechnology laws in Norway. Bondevik's second government made the biotechnology laws of Norway among the strictest in the World, with support from the Socialist Left Party and the Centre Party, but in 2004 a case regarding a child with thalassemia brought this law under fire.
On gay rights issues, the party supports possibilities for gay couples to live together, but opposes gay marriage and gay adoption rights. The party maintains neutrality on the issue of gay clergy. Since the party was established, a declaration of Christian faith was required for a person to be a representative in the party. Membership had no such requirement; the increase of support from other religions, including Islam, stimulated efforts to abolish this rule. At the 2013 convention the rule was modified; the new rules require that representatives work for Christian values but do not require them to declare a Christian faith. This latter point was considered the "last drop" for some conservative elements of the party, who as a result broke away and founded The Christians Party; the Christian Democratic Party was founded as a reaction to the growing secularism in Norway in the 1930s. Cultural and spiritual values were proposed as an alternative to political parties focusing on material values.
The immediate cause of its foundation was the failure of Nils Lavik, a popular figure in the religious community, to be nominated as a candidate for the Liberal Party, for the parliamentary elections in 1933. In reaction to this, Kristelig Folkeparti was set up, with Lavik as their top candidate in the county of Hordaland, he succeeded in being elected to the Norwegian parliament. No other counties were contested. At the next elections, in 1936, the party ran a common list with the Libral Party in Bergen, succeeded in electing two representatives from Hordaland with 20.9% of the local votes. In 1945, at the first elections after the Nazi occupation of Norway, the party was organised on a nationwide basis, won 8 seats; the Christian Democrats became part of a short-lived non-socialist coalition government along with the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party and the Centre Party in 1963. At the elections of 1965, these four parties won a majority of seats in Stortinget and ruled in a coalition government from 1965 to 1971.
The Christian Democrats opposed Norwegian membership in the European Community ahead of the referendum in 1972. The referendum gave a no-vote, when the pro-EC Labour government resigned, a coalition government was formed among the anti-EC parties, the Christian Democrats, the Liberal Party and the Centre Party. Lars Korvald became the Christian Democrats' first prime minister for a year, until the elections of 1973 restored the Labour government; the party's historic membership numbers peaked with 69,000 members in 1980. The 1981 elections left the non-socialists with a majority in parliament, but negotiations for a coalition government failed because of disagreement over the abortion issue. However, this issue was toned down, from 1983 to 1986 and 1989 to 1990, the Christian Democrats were part of coalitions with the Conservative Party and the Centre Party. In 1997 the Christian Democrats received 13.7% of the votes, got 25 seats in the Storting. Kjell Magne Bondevik served as prime minister between 1997 and 2000, in coalition with the Liberal Party and the Centre Party, between 2001 and 2005 with the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party.
In the 2005 election the Christian Democrats received only 6.8%, the party became part of the opposition in the Storting. In 2013 the Conservative Party and the Progress Party formed a new government based on a political agreement with the Christian Democrats and the Liberal party with confidence and supply. In the 2017 election the party got only 4.2% and did not sign a new agreement, but got a politically strategic position as the conservative minority government depended on their votes
Socialist Left Party (Norway)
The Socialist Left Party or SV, is a democratic socialist political party in Norway. In 2005, the party became a governing party for the first time, participating in the Red-Green Coalition with the Labour Party and the Centre Party. Following the 2013 election, the party was reduced to seventh-largest party in its worst election on record, became a part of the opposition; the party was founded in 1973 as the Socialist Electoral League, an electoral coalition with the Communist Party, Socialist People's Party, Democratic Socialists - AIK, independent socialists. In 1975, the coalition was turned into a unified political party; the party was founded as a result of the foreign policies prevalent at the time, with the socialists being opposed to Norwegian membership of the European Union and NATO. While having the official ideology of democratic socialism, the party increasingly profiles itself as a supporter of feminism and environmentalism, it calls for a stronger public sector, more government involvement in the economy, a strengthening of the social welfare net.
As of 2017, the party has over 10,000 members. The current leader of the Socialist Left is Audun Lysbakken, elected on 11 March 2012. Like its predecessors, the Socialist People's Party and the Information Committee of the Labour Movement against Norwegian membership in the European Community, the Socialist Left is a left-wing party which favours a welfare state and taxation of the wealthy. Finn Gustavsen, former leader of the Socialist People's Party, believed that the Labour Party were not socialists, the only socialist force in parliament were members from the Socialist Electoral League, he was one of the main opponents of Norwegian membership in the European Community, saying the organisation showed how "evil and stupid" capitalism was. According to a 2002 poll, one out of four members in the Socialist Left wanted Norway to join the European Union; the party's election program for the 2001 parliamentary election stated that the party was a "socialist party" with a vision of a Norway without social injustice.
Since its inception, the party has promoted itself as socialist. In years, the party has been portrayed as social democratic by some in the Norwegian media, as democratic socialists; the party has been categorised as eco-socialist. The present leader, Audun Lysbakken, has been a self-proclaimed revolutionary and Marxist, he believes the party to be a democratic socialist one. Education has been one of main campaign issues. Øystein Djupedal was elected Minister of Education and Research, held that position for two years. He was replaced by fellow Socialist Left politician Bård Vegar Solhjell. Halvorsen took over the ministry in late 2009. Djupedal's first assignment in office was granting 10 million kr to "even out social differences" between ethnic minorities; the party believes. Anders Folkestad, leader of the Confederation of Unions for Professionals, was not pleased with Djupedal's efforts during his term in office, saying, "Djupedal has created much uncertainty and a mess after he became Minister of Education and Research.
Many had great expectations, but he is sure lagging behind from the time when he was a sideliner". Djupedal was criticised by the Norwegian media for his controversial and bizarre statements. In late 2005, it was estimated that students studying general and administrative studies would save up to 11,978 kr under the Red-Green Coalition; the party wants to reduce the number of private schools. Bård Vegar Solhjell said he believed government-funded schools helped "smoothing social inequality", he further stated, "Many of those who remain outside the labor market have received lack of training from school. It prevents them from contributing to the community. Parties on the right confuse social security and welfare schemes as the problem. There are systematic connections between social background and lack of training - it is a class question where something is needed to be done." Others believe. Torbjørn Urfjell, former leader of the Socialist Youth chapter in Vest-Agder, said, "School and adolescence is too important to be left to the market.
Therefore, they should be taken back." During the 2005 election, the party promised to increase resources to public schools, believing that more money would lead to fewer pupils per teacher, thus more individualised and personal instructions. The party has held the office of Minister of the Environment since 2005, first by Helen Bjørnøy, followed by Erik Solheim and since 2012 by Bård Vegar Solhjell. During the 2009 parliamentary election, the party promoted itself as the "biggest" and "strongest" green party in Norway; the party was vocal against oil drilling in Lofoten and Vesterålen during the election campaign. A large minority within the party are opposed to the conservation plan, with the majority of them coming from Nordland, the county where the drilling is taking place; the party struggled, despite the public's strong focus on global warming. They instead experienced one of their worst elections in years. By August 2009, various opinion polls gave the party 10% support, but they lost most of their voters to the Labour Party during the last da