La Legión Extranjera was the main Asistencia, Asesoría y Administración heel group, though loosely affiliated. It was a catch all for one time and irregularly scheduled foreign heels, working as Konnan's hired guns as well as a number of AAA regular Rudos; this allowed AAA to advertise matches where La Legión Extranjera is scheduled, without announcing the specific participants before the show. La Legión Extranjera's leader was Konnan. At the end of 2006, he was put out of action by Cibernético Nicho el Millonario debuted in 2007 as the replacement leader, getting revenge for Konnan while he was recovering. During the period Konnan worked for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, many TNA wrestlers appeared in AAA as both members of La Legión Extranjera and as representing their promotions. Since he left TNA no contracted TNA wrestlers have worked for La Legión Extranjera. After being defeated in the main event of Triplemania XVII Legión Extrangera lost control of AAA and Konnan was suspended from Mexican wrestling for an indefinite time.
At this time Legion Extrangera was dissolved leaving only Electroshock and Kenzo Suzuki. Electroshock joined up with Silver King and Dr. Wagner, Jr. to form La Wagnermania while Kenzo Suzuki would form La Yakuza with El Orientál and Sugi San/Yoshitsune. On August 21, 2009, Konnan returned with a new Legion, built around Teddy Hart, Roxxi and Jennifer Blade, they were joined by Alex Koslov and El Zorro, who returned to the stable after turning on them in the main event of TripleMania XVII. In March 2010 Dorian Roldan turned on his father, AAA president Joaquin Roldan, became the new co-leader of La Legión Extranjera. In July 2010 Decnnis started a new sub-group called La Milicia within the Legion, consisting of himself, Alan Stone, Chris Stone, Black Abyss, Psicosis II, Tigre Cota and Billy Boy. Both groups became a part of Dorian Roldan's La Sociedad, along with Los Maniacos and Los Perros del Mal. Over the years La Legión has been used as the storyline reason for foreign wrestlers competing for AAA if just for one or two appearances.
Besides Konnan and Nicho, only Kenzo Suzuki and Headhunter A were regulars early in 2007. Both X-Pac and Ron Killings became regulars with unit in mid-2007, Sabu appeared with them as well. AAA / Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide AAA Reina de Reinas Championship – Sexy Star AAA Mega Championship – El Zorro and Jeff Jarrett AAA World Mixed Tag Team Championship – Alex Koslov and Christina Von Eerie AAA World Tag Team Championship – Takeshi Morishima and Taiji Ishimori, Abyss and Chessman Reina de Reinas – Sexy Star Rey de Reyes – El Zorro and Chessman
The Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés is an independent French administrative regulatory body whose mission is to ensure that data privacy law is applied to the collection and use of personal data. Its existence was established by the French loi n° 78-17 on Information Technology, Data Files and Civil Liberty of 6 January 1978, it is the national data protection authority for France. Since September 2011, the CNIL has been chaired by Isabelle Falque-Pierrotin; the CNIL was created in response to public outrage against the SAFARI program, an attempt by the French government to create a centralized database allowing French citizens to be identified by different government services. On March 21, 1974, an article in the newspaper Le Monde, "SAFARI ou la chasse aux Français" brought public attention to the project. Interior Minister Jacques Chirac, freshly appointed following the events of May 1968, had to face the public uproar. Chirac was the successor to Raymond Marcellin, forced to resign in the end of February 1974 after having attempted to place wiretaps in the offices of the weekly newspaper Le Canard enchaîné.
The massive popular rejection of the government's activities in this domain prompted the creation of the CNIL. At the beginning of 1980, when the CNIL began its main activities, news anchorman Patrick Poivre d'Arvor announced that the CNIL had registered 125,000 files. By the end of 1980, Poivre d'Arvor counted 250,000 files; the CNIL is composed of seventeen members from various government entities, four of whom are members of the French parliament. The CNIL's status as an administrative regulatory body gives it total independence to choose its course of action. However, its power is defined by law; the CNIL is financed by the budget of the French Republic. The CNIL registers the setup of information systems that process personal data on French territories. By September 2004, more than 800,000 declarations of such systems had been made. Additionally, CNIL checks the law to be applied in this domain as well as in about 50 annual'control missions'. CNIL can warn organisations or people who are found to be non-compliant with the law, report them to the Parquet.
300 nominal information systems registered daily. 8,000 phone calls handled each month. 4,000 claims or requests for information received each year. The main principles for regulation of personal data processing are as follows: all illegal means of data collection are forbidden; the archival of sensitive information can result in a € 300,000 fine. Germany in 1971, Sweden in 1973, France in 1978 were the first three States to vote for a "Computers and Liberty" law. International and political structures have been created or assigned to apply CNIL directives. Amongst these are the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 1980, the Council of Europe in 1981 and the United Nations in 1990. In 1995, the European Commission voted through a directive in this manner; as of 2004, 25 countries have applied this directive. The CNIL is the target of various criticisms, alleging its lack of action and tendency to support governmental legislation, forgetting its original aims of protecting data privacy and citizens' rights.
It is criticised for its lack of administering proper sanctions to data privacy violations. It was criticized, for instance, for having authorized "ethnic statistics", forbidden in official demographic statistics; the CNIL has been criticized for attempting to enforce right to be forgotten rulings on search results globally. In 2016, Google appealed a CNIL right to be forgotten ruling on the grounds that it could set a precedent for abuse by "less open and democratic" governments. French national identity card General Data Protection Regulation Official website La CNIL Detailed analysis of each of the CNIL's powers
The Society of Jesus is a religious order of the Catholic Church, whose members are known as Jesuits, founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540 in Spain. In the United States, the order is best known for its missions to the Native Americans in the early 17th century, its network of colleges and universities, its politically conservative role in the Catholic Counter Reformation. Most of the Jesuit missions to North America were located in today's Canada, but they explored and mapped much of the west. French missionaries Père Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and chart the northern portion of the Mississippi River, as far as the Illinois River. Peter De Smet was a Belgian Jesuit active in missionary work among the Plains Indians in the mid-19th century, his extensive travels as a missionary were said to total 180,000 miles. He was known as the "Friend of Sitting Bull" because he persuaded the Sioux war chief to participate in negotiations with the United States government for the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
It was a crime for Jesuits to enter colonial Massachusetts. There were about two dozen Jesuits in the Thirteen Colonies in 1760, they kept a low profile. Former Jesuit John Carroll became the first Catholic bishop in the young republic, he founded Georgetown University in 1789, it remains a pre-eminent Jesuit school. Stephen Larigaudelle Dubuisson, S. J. was sent by the Jesuits from France to the United States in 1816-26. He served in several parishes and colleges in the Maryland-Pennsylvania area, the center of Catholicism in the new nation, he was not a success as the head of Georgetown College, but otherwise was energetic and successful. In 1826 he was recalled to Rome, where he became in charge of all Jesuits in the United States, as the advisor on American affairs to the head of the Society, he handled fund-raising and setting general policies. The American Jesuits were restored in 1804, intellectually reflected the English Enlightenment, emphasizing reasonableness of faith, the right of individual conscience, private devotion, active participation in the political life of the Republic.
In Europe, by contract, the Jesuits were restored in 1814, as part of the Bourbon reaction against the French Revolution. The restored order "resisted intellectual innovation, distrusted Republicanism, championed papal primacy, clung to the throne/altar alliance, promoted a Baroque piety that was'warm, emotional and ardent.'" The European and American models were incompatible, a flood of European Jesuits overwhelmed the new nation and established its conservative policies. In 1864, they wholeheartedly adopted the "Syllabus of Errors" an encyclical from Pope Pius IX that named 80 specific modern liberal ideas that Catholics were forbidden to teach or believe in; the Jesuits were quite successful in establishing staffing and enrolling students for a growing network of secondary and collegiate schools. As the Irish and German ethnic middle classes became better established, they sent their boys off to Jesuit schools; the main goals of the Jesuit education were to inculcate piety, loyalty to the church, strict adherence to the rules.
The chief intellectual pursuit was Thomistic philosophy. Catholic students were not allowed to attend lectures given by non-Catholics; as late as the 1950s, Catholic writers such as John Tracy Ellis were bemoaning The intellectual weakness of the Catholic community. The late 19th century, the reform element emerged among Catholics, led by Archbishop John Ireland, Strongly opposed by conservative elements, led by the Jesuits. One battle involved creation of the Catholic University of America, in Washington, which would compete directly with the nearby Jesuit school Georgetown University; the dispute lasted for decades, weakened both schools. The Society of Jesus is organized into geographic provinces, each of which being headed by a provincial superior. Today, there are four Jesuit provinces operating in the United States: the USA East, USA Central and Southern, USA Midwest, USA West Provinces. At their height, there were ten provinces. Though there had been mergers in the past, a major reorganization of the provinces began in early 21st century, with the aim of consolidating into four provinces by 2020.
The Jesuit provinces were first organized into an "assistancy", called the Jesuit Conference of the United States, in 1972. A new, consolidated assistancy was created in 2014, called the Jesuit Conference of Canada and the United States, under which all the provinces in the two countries are organized; the Jesuit mission in the United States dated back to 1634. However, it was not until 1833 that the first province in the United States was established: the Maryland Province. William McSherry was elected as the first provincial superior, whose territory included the entire United States except for the territory of the Missouri mission. In 1879, the Maryland Province assumed responsibility for the New York portion of the New York-Canada mission, which gave rise to the new Maryland-New York Province. From the Maryland-New York Province was separated the New England Province in 1926; the New England Province administered a mission in Iraq and Jordan. In 1943, the Maryland-New York Province was once again split into the Maryland Province and the New York Province, whose territory included all of New York State and northern New Jersey.
From the New York Province, the Buffalo Province was created in 1960, whose territory included Upstate New York. The New York Province administered mis
The two Veinticinco de Mayo-class heavy cruisers served in the Argentine Navy through World War II. They were the only post-Washington Naval Treaty heavy cruisers built for a South American Navy. Both ships of the class were built in Italy by the OTO company, commissioned into the Argentine Navy in 1931; the Veinticinco de Mayo design was derived from the Italian Trento class, identifiable by the paired main guns, similar to the last batches of the Condottieri-class cruisers. The ships were smaller than the original, carried less armour, they had a clean and simple design, with a length-width ratio of 10:1. Three twin turrets were mounted with an elevation of 46 degrees for firing, they were not the first Argentinian cruiser class bought in Italy, as four Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armoured cruisers were brought into service 30 years before. The main 190 mm guns were designed for this class for greater stability; this could have been a quite powerful gun, but no documents about its characteristics are available in Italian or Argentinian archives.
The guns had single mounts to simplify construction, could fire a 90 kg shell up to 23 kilometres. Despite this reduction in size and weight, they were still too heavy, so the number of turrets were reduced from four to three. In most respects the resulting vessel was similar in profile to the British York class; the secondary armament was a new design, similar to standard 100–102 mm guns of the time. It consisted of twelve 102 mm /45 DP guns, firing a 13.5 kg shell, all in twin mounts. This was an unusual arrangement for Italian heavy cruisers, which carried sixteen of these weapons; however to counter the additional weight, gun shields were removed, which adversely affected their operability in bad weather conditions. Unusually, the torpedo tubes were in fixed mounts amidships firing abeam, which caused problems in aiming effectively. Light anti-aircraft artillery consisted of six Vickers-Terni 40/39 mm guns, all in single mounts, on the aft part of the superstructure; these guns were among the first automatic heavy weapons, firing 100-130 rounds per minute, but were of poor reliability.
Though single mounts were simpler and more reliable, they offered poorer fire concentration. The Royal Navy used similar weapons in quad or octuple mounts. A catapult launcher for seaplanes was placed over the fore deck. Armour was within the standard for light rather than heavy cruisers. A 70 mm armoured belt was fitted from the first to the last main turret. 60 mm was used for the command turret. 50 mm was used for barbettes. Only 25 mm was provided above aft machinery. After World War II the ships were modified to improve their stability by reducing weight; the powerful twin 102 mm gun batteries were replaced with six Bofors 40 mm guns, one for each twin mount, drastically reducing the secondary armament. Another four Bofors replaced the six Vickers AA guns. US Mk.53 radar directors were installed to improve the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire. The gain in stability, with several tons removed for each 102 mm gun, was somewhat offset by the addition of radar installations to the superstructure and masts.
The aircraft catapult. Despite Argentina's declaration of war on 27 March 1945, neither vessel played a role in the conflict; the ships proved popular with the Argentine Navy, until they were superseded by two Brooklyn-class cruisers acquired in 1951. Argentina planned to acquire three of the class, but were limited to having only two built, they would turn to the United Kingdom for their next cruiser, acquiring La Argentina in 1938. List of cruisers List of World War II ships List of ship commissionings in 1931 M. J Whitley, Cruisers of World War II, An International Encyclopedia Arms and Armour Press Article in "Storia Militare" magazine, October 2007. Burzaco, Ricardo. Acorazados y Cruceros de la Armada Argentina. Eugenio B, Buenos Aires, 1997. ISBN 987-96764-0-8 Arguindeguy, Pablo. Apuntes sobre los buques de la Armada Argentina. Comando en Jefe de la Armada, Buenos aires, 1972. ISBN n/d History of argentinian cruisers, at HISTARMAR
The Carillon is the student published newspaper at the University of Regina in Regina, Canada. It has a reputation for producing notable journalists. Like many university newspapers, it has had a precarious existence. Among its many alumni are Canadian broadcaster Norm Bolen and novelist Ken Mitchell; the Carillon as a student organization has evolved over the years. Before 1962 there existed a variety of campus news outlets in the form of single page letters or smaller broadsheet publications; the names of these papers include The Sparrow and The Forum. The name Carillon was selected in 1962 by a vote of the student body, it moved to change its status from a conventional "top-down" administrative structure in 1975, a shift, formalized about 15 years later. During the period of the 1960s The Carillon enjoyed great infamy, labeled as a "red paper" for its strong left wing editorial content. Archives reveal a paper filled with left wing rhetoric; the Carillon reflected the anti-war sentiment of many American intellectuals who left the U.
S. to teach in Canada. The paper enjoyed much more lax editorial restrictions, publishing scandalous articles and using challenging imagery to provoke students and faculty. One famous cover has the dean of education standing at a podium before a Nazi procession, with the University coat of arms replacing the swastika symbol. A book has been written, by Prof. James Pitsula of the University of Regina, exploring the political attitudes and activism of the University's students and faculty during the 1960s through extensive research of the pages of The Carillon, he is in possession of many interesting historical documents including photos and slides. The book is titled New World Dawning: The Sixties At Regina Campus; the early 70s saw the greatest period for Carillon editors. Not only were they brilliant writers and great editorial leaders, they succeeded every year in fielding an excellent drinking team for the annual Bacchus festival. Covered by the national media, CHIT was a drinking competition requiring entrants and doubles, to consume individual glasses of draft beer at downtown Regina hotel bars, running from one to another for a total of 24 beers.
Many contestants were primed and, if you will, trained for CHIT success during the weekly infamous Pub Nights held every Thursday in the venerable Student Union building, at which Sandy Monteith reigned supreme. Of course Monteith dominated CHIT for years, if not decades. During the 1990s, The Carillon was maintained by a dedicated group of writers and editors who believed in the newspaper’s founding socialist principle of governance by a collective of contributors, the importance of freedom of the press. Throughout this period, contributors felt undue pressure to be the mouthpiece of the University of Regina Students' Union; the Students’ Union’s heavy-handed direction of “The Carillon”, coupled with financial mismanagement by previous Carillon editorial staff, caused conflict at weekly meetings, threats to shut the paper down. In the summer of 1998, “The Carillon” decided to get out from under the yoke of URSU and sought autonomy under the Saskatchewan Non-Profit Corporations Act, assisted in these efforts with help from its sister paper, the University of Manitoba’s “The Manitoban”, both under the umbrella of the Canadian University Press.
The effort was successful, allowing the paper to operate independently, without editorial interference from URSU, under its own financial operations. Notable “Carillon” alumni from the ‘90s include Tanya Birkbeck, Merelda Fiddler, Bonnie Allen, Jen Quesnel, all journalists on air with CBC Radio. Up until 2002 the collective had the power to hire staff members of The Carillon.” During the 2002/03 school year a series of events led to a reorganization of the paper at various levels of operation from the Board of Directors to the line editors. In the wake of a controversial article, intended to be satirical a small, vocal group of student activists protested against the Carillon and attempted to put forward a series of motions at the Annual General Meeting that directed editorial content and dismiss staff members; the motions were ruled out of order but the efforts of the protesters changed the organization significantly. Calls for further accountability of the paper and checks and balances on the authority of the Editor in Chief led to a reorganization of the Carillon Board of Directors and a redrafting of the constitution to meet the demands of the activists.
By 2003/04, The Carillon staff would no longer be hired by the collective but by the reformed board of directors. Although this wasn't the intention of protesters, Carilloners involved directly in the operation of the paper foresaw the danger of having a collective body make hiring decisions for specialized roles at the paper; the new constitution dictated that the collective would only be allowed to elect members to the Board of Directors. The new Board of Directors were endowed with a series of fiduciary and hiring powers to act as a check on the Editor in Chief. Registered students from any faculty or background can run for a seat on the Board of Directors; as a result, the Carillon hiring process is no longer "a goddamn popularity contest" but a streamlined event t