Norwegian literature is literature composed in Norway or by Norwegian people. The history of Norwegian literature starts with the pagan Eddaic poems and skaldic verse of the 9th and 10th centuries with poets such as Bragi Boddason and Eyvindr Skáldaspillir; the arrival of Christianity around the year 1000 brought Norway into contact with European medieval learning and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this was to flower into an active period of literature production in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Major works of that period include Historia Norwegie, Thidreks saga and Konungs skuggsjá; the period from the 14th century to the 19th is considered a Dark Age in the nation's literature though Norwegian-born writers such as Peder Claussøn Friis and Ludvig Holberg contributed to the common literature of Denmark–Norway. With the advent of nationalism and the struggle for independence in the early 19th century, a new period of national literature emerged.
In a flood of nationalistic romanticism, the great four emerged: Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Alexander Kielland, Jonas Lie. The dramatist Henrik Wergeland was the most-influential author of the period while the works of Henrik Ibsen were to earn Norway a key place in Western European literature. Modernist literature was introduced to Norway through the literature of Knut Hamsun and Sigbjørn Obstfelder in the 1890s. In the 1930s Emil Boyson, Gunnar Larsen, Haakon Bugge Mahrt, Rolf Stenersen and Edith Øberg were among the Norwegian authors who experimented with prose modernism; the literature in the first years after the Second World War was characterized by a long series of documentary reports from people, in German custody, or who had participated in the resistance efforts during the occupation. In the 20th century notable Norwegian writers include the two Nobel Prize-winning authors, Knut Hamsun and Sigrid Undset; the period after 1965 represented a sharp expansion of market for Norwegian fiction and the 1970s produced both politicization and empowerment of Norwegian authors.
The 1980s has been labeled the "fantasy decade" in Norwegian literature. The earliest preserved examples of Old Norse literature are the Eddic poems, the oldest of which may have been composed in early 9th century Norway drawing on the common Germanic tradition of alliterative verse. In the 9th century the first instances of skaldic poetry appear with the skalds Bragi Boddason, Þjóðólfr of Hvinir and the court poets of Harald Fairhair; this tradition continued through the 10th century with the major Norwegian poet being Eyvindr skáldaspillir. By the late 10th century the tradition of skaldic verse had moved to Iceland and Norwegian rulers such as Eiríkr Hákonarson and St. Olaf employed Icelandic poets. In pagan times the runic alphabet was the only one used in Norway; the preserved inscriptions from that time are short memorial dedications or magical formulas. One of the longest inscriptions is that on the 8th century Eggjum stone, containing cryptic religious or magical allusions. Around the years 1000 to 1030, Christianity became established in Norway, bringing with it the Latin alphabet.
The oldest preserved Norwegian prose works are from the mid-12th century, the earliest are Latin hagiographical and historical texts such as Passio Olavi, Acta sanctorum in Selio, Historia Norwegie and Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium. At the end of the 12th century, historical writing expanded to the vernacular with Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum followed by the Legendary Saga of St. Olaf and Fagrskinna. Medieval Norwegian literature is tied with medieval Icelandic literature and considered together as Old Norse literature; the greatest Norse author of the 13th century was the Icelander Snorri Sturluson. He recorded Norse mythology in the form of the Prose Edda, a book of poetic language providing an important understanding of Norse culture prior to Christianity, he was the author of the Heimskringla, a detailed history of the Norwegian kings that begins in the legendary Ynglinga saga and continues to document much of early Norwegian history. The period of common Old Norse literature continued up through the 13th century with Norwegian contributions such as Thidreks saga and Konungs skuggsjá but by the 14th century saga writing was no longer cultivated in Norway and Icelandic literature became isolated.
Norwegian literature was nonexistent during the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union. Ibsen characterized this period as "Four Hundred Years of Darkness". During the period of union with Denmark, Danish replaced Norwegian; the university and cultural center of Denmark–Norway was Copenhagen, where young men went to study. The reformation was imposed on Norway in 1537 and the Dano-Norwegian rulers used it to impose Danish culture. Thus, written Norwegian became related to Danish, causing the literature to become Danish. Geble Pedersson was a man of broad humanistic views. Peder Claussøn Friis was a humanist who both revived the Heimskringla by translating it into the language of the period and wrote the first natural history of Norway as well as an important topographic study of Norway; the seventeenth century was a period of meager literary activity in Norway, but there were significant contributions. Petter Dass wrote Nordlands Trompet w
Bill Worrell is an American guitarist/multi-instrumentalist and singer-songwriter. His career has included touring 2013-2016 as lead guitarist and playing keyboards and banjo for the classic rock group America. Worrell was born in California, he attended Moorpark High School, Glendale Community College, graduated with a bachelor's degree in Classical Guitar Performance from California State University, Northridge in 2008. In the fall of 2016, he began his MBA in Music Business, a joint program between Southern New Hampshire University and Berklee College of Music, his father is guitarist/mixing engineer Jeff Worrell. Worrell joined the group “America” in 2009, as guitar tech subbing for the existing tech, Pete Leonardo, for 4 months. However, Pete was unable to return leading Bill to retain the position full-time, he continued as guitar tech until 2011, during which time, he was asked to sub for lead guitarist Michael Woods. In 2011, he left the group to pursue his own music, but returned again in late 2013 to replace retiring Woods.
Affectionately introduced as “Billy the Kid," Worrell continued touring with the band until 2016, when he launched into a solo career. Bill's music is guitar-oriented. While many songs include lyrics and have a radio-friendly appeal to them, several are instrumental in nature, his first EP, “Bill Worrell” is instrumental recalling luminaries such as Joe Satriani, Steve Vai, John Petrucci. Worrell released his solo "Nashville Sessions" EP, produced by Fred Mollin and featuring original songs Worrell co-wrote with Molly Rocklind, in August 2016; this album featured session musicians Shannon Forrest on drums, Pat Coil on keys, Kerry Marx on rhythm guitars, Larry Paxton on bass. Fred Mollin played additional keys and percussion instruments. In early 2017, Bill released a collection of instrumentals recorded over the years, called “Time to Change”; this marked a return to instrumental guitar compositions, although tracks such as “Time to Change”, “Jaded”, “Done” include vocals. In April 2018, he released the single “Crashing Down”.
That year, he released “I Wanna Fly ” – a track from his “The Nashville Sessions EP” re-recorded with new players, a new key, a different arrangement
MetroCentro is a tram system serving the centre of the city Seville, in Andalusia, Spain. It began operating in October 2007; the tram is operated by TUSSAM, a municipally owned corporation tasked with the operation of the bus and tram system of Seville. The tram has connections with the Seville Cercanías Sevilla. At the present time, the service consists of just five stops, Plaza Nueva, Archivo de Indias, Puerta de Jerez, Prado de San Sebastián and San Bernardo, as part of Phase I of the project; the service is expected to be extended to Santa Justa AVE station, including four new stops: San Francisco Javier, Eduardo Dato, Luis de Morales and Santa Justa. This Phase II was due to start in late 2008, but was postponed until 2018. City council gave priority to extending the lines of the Seville Metro; the project works began in mid-2005 and its first phase was completed by Autumn 2007. It covers 1.4 km and is served by 7 Urbos trams, all of which were manufactured by the Spanish company Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles.
From the start it was envisaged that part of the Metrocentro system should be able to run free from using the overhead contact wire for power. The city had forecast that the catenaries would be removed from the area surrounding the cathedral by 2008. On several occasions the City of Seville administration had to dismantle the overhead wires to allow, at Easter, processions to pass without restriction; the system operated using the vehicles of the Seville Metro, which did not start operating until 2009. The final system, now in use since the Holy Week in 2011, uses a technology called ACR, which are fast charging batteries that were developed and patented by the Spanish company CAF; the Seville city government announced in March 2018 that the tram line would be extended from its current terminus at San Bernardo station to the Santa Justa train station, facilitating transfers with high-speed AVE and other intercity lines. The extension would be tunneled for a short distance on Avenida de Ramón y Cajal to Avenida San Francisco Javier and otherwise run in the median of the street.
In total, four additional stops would be added to the line. The project is projected to cost 49 million euros with completion in 2020. Seville Metro Supercapacitor