Zealand, at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper. Zealand has a population of 2,302,074, it is the 13th-largest island in the 4th most populous. It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located on the eastern shore of Zealand and on the island of Amager. Other cities on Zealand include Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør. Despite their identical names, the island is not connected to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, named after the Dutch province of Zeeland; the exact origin of the Danish name "Sjælland" is controversial. Sjæl in Danish today means "soul". A derivation derived from siô / sæ corresponding to the English name is today rejected– but it may be that the English name predated Danish research on its origin, compared with the current understanding.
The prevailing view today is: The Old Danish form "Siâland" comes from a composition of the word *selha- with the ending *wundia-. The latter means "indicates, resembles"; the word *selha- can have two different meanings: it can mean on the one hand "seal" and on the other hand mean "deep bay, fjord". Since the main settlement on Zealand was Roskilde, only accessible by sea through the narrow Roskilde Fjord, it is assumed that the sailors named the island after this. In Norse mythology as told in the Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi, the king of Sweden, she transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area became Mälaren. However, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun. Zealand is the most populous Danish island, it is irregularly shaped, is north of the islands of Lolland, Møn. The small island of Amager lies east. Copenhagen is on Zealand but extends across northern Amager.
A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, connected to Scania in Sweden by the Øresund Bridge via the artificial island of Peberholm. Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, Funen is connected by bridges to the country's mainland, Jutland. On June 5, 2007, the regional subsidiary of national broadcaster DR reported that Kobanke in the southeast near the town Rønnede in Faxe Municipality, with a height of 122.9 metres, was the highest natural point on Zealand. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, but, due to a man-made hill from the 17th century and its highest natural point is only 121.3 metres. Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10,000+ inhabitants: North Zealand New Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Sámi people are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, the Murmansk Oblast of Russia. The Sámi have been known in English as Lapps or Laplanders. Sámi ancestral lands are not well-defined, their traditional languages are the Sámi languages and are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family. Traditionally, the Sámi have pursued a variety of livelihoods, including coastal fishing, fur trapping, sheep herding, their best-known means of livelihood is semi-nomadic reindeer herding. About 10% of the Sámi are connected to reindeer herding, providing them with meat and transportation. 2,800 Sámi people are involved in reindeer herding on a full-time basis. For traditional, environmental and political reasons, reindeer herding is reserved for only Sami people in some regions of the Nordic countries. Sámi refer to themselves as Sámit or Sápmelaš, the word Sámi being inflected into various grammatical forms.
It has been proposed that Sámi, Häme, Suomi are of the same origin and borrowed from the Baltic word *žēmē, meaning'land'. The Baltic word is cognate with Slavic zemlja, which means'land'; the Sámi institutions – notably the parliaments, radio and TV stations, etc. – all use the term Sámi, including when addressing outsiders in Norwegian, Finnish, or English. In Norwegian, the Sámi are today referred to by the Norwegianized form Same; the first probable historical mention of the Sámi, naming them Fenni, was by Tacitus, about 98 A. D. Variants of Finn or Fenni were in wide use in ancient times, judging from the names Fenni and Phinnoi in classical Roman and Greek works. Finn was the name used by Norse speakers to refer to the Sámi, as attested in the Icelandic Eddas and Norse sagas; the etymology is somewhat uncertain, but the consensus seems to be that it is related to Old Norse finna, from proto-Germanic *finthanan, the logic being that the Sámi, as hunter-gatherers "found" their food, rather than grew it.
As Old Norse developed into the separate Scandinavian languages, Swedes took to using Finn to refer to inhabitants of what is now Finland, while the Sámi came to be called Lapps. In Norway, however, Sámi were still called Finns at least until the modern era, some northern Norwegians will still use Finn to refer to Sámi people, although the Sámi themselves now consider this to be an inappropriate term. Finnish immigrants to Northern Norway in the 18th and 19th centuries were referred to as Kvens to distinguish them from the Sámi "Finns". Ethnic Finns are a distinct group from Sámi; the word Lapp can be traced to Icelandic lappir of Finnish origin. It is unknown how the word Lapp came into the Norse language, but one of the first written mentions of the term is in the Gesta Danorum by 12th-century Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus, who referred to the two Lappias, although he still referred to the Sami as Finns. In fact, Saxo never explicitly connects the Sami with the "two Laplands"; the term "Lapp" was popularized and became the standard terminology by the work of Johannes Schefferus, Acta Lapponica.
The Sámi are known in other languages by the exonyms Lap, Lapp, or Laplanders, although these are considered derogatory terms, while others accept at least the name Lappland. Variants of the name Lapp were used in Sweden and Finland and, through Swedish, adopted by many major European languages: English: Lapps. In Russian the corresponding term is лопари́ and in Ukrainian лопарі́. In Finland and Sweden, Lapp is common in place names, such as Lappi and Lapinlahti in Finland; as mentioned, Finn is a common element in Norwegian place names, whereas Lapp is exceedingly rare. Terminological issues in Finnish are somewhat different. Finns living in Finnish Lapland call themselves lappilainen, whereas the similar word for the Sámi people is lappalainen; this can be confusing for foreign visitors because of the similar lives Finns and Sámi people live today in Lapland. Lappalainen is a common family name in Finland. In the Scandinavian languages, the word saamelainen is used, at least in official contexts.
Since prehistoric times, the Sami people of Arctic Europe have lived and worked in an area that stretches over the northern parts of the regions now known as Norway, Sweden and the Russian Kola Peninsula. They have inhabited the northern arctic and sub-arctic regions of Fenno-Scandinavia and Russia for at least 5,000 years; the Sami are counted among the Arctic peoples and are members of circumpolar groups such as the Arctic Council Indigeno
The Oseberg ship is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway. This ship is acknowledged to be among the finer artifacts to have survived from the Viking Era; the ship and some of its contents are displayed at the Viking Ship Museum at Bygdøy on the western side of Oslo, Norway. The Oseberg burial mound contained two female human skeletons as well as a considerable quantity of grave goods; the ship's interment into its burial mound dates from AD 834, but parts of the ship date from around 800, the ship itself is thought to be older. It was excavated by Norwegian archaeologist Haakon Shetelig and Swedish archaeologist Gabriel Gustafson in 1904–1905; the ship is a Karve, clinker built entirely of oak. It is 21.58 metres long and 5.10 metres broad, with a mast of 9–10 metres. With a sail of c. 90 square metres, the ship could achieve a speed up to 10 knots. The ship has 15 pairs of oar holes. Other fittings include a broad steering oar, iron anchor, a bailer.
The bow and stern of the ship are elaborately decorated with complex woodcarvings in the characteristic "gripping beast" style known as the Oseberg style. During the debate on whether to move the original ship to a new proposed museum, thorough investigations were made into the possibilities of moving the ship without damaging it. During the process thorough photographic and laser scans of both the outside and inside of the ship were made. In 2004, an attempt to build a copy of the Oseberg ship was launched. A collective effort of Norwegian and Danish professional builders and volunteers engaged in this new attempt with the photo scans and laser scans made available free of charge to the enthusiastic builders. During this new attempt it was discovered that, during the initial restoration of the ship, a breach in one of the beams had been made and that the ship was therefore inadvertently shortened; that fact had not been appreciated earlier. It is believed this was the prime reason why several earlier replicas sank: previous attempts at working replicas had failed owing to a lack of correct data.
In 2010, a new reconstruction was entitled Saga Oseberg. Using timber from Denmark and Norway and utilizing traditional building methods from the Viking age, this newest Oseberg ship was completed. On the 20th of June 2012 the new ship was launched from the city of Tønsberg; the ship floated well and in March 2014 it was taken to open seas, with Færder as its destination, under full sail. A speed of 10 knots was achieved; the construction was a success, the ship performing well. It demonstrated that the Oseberg ship could have sailed and was not just a burial chamber on land; the skeletons of two women were found in the grave with the ship. One aged around 80, suffered badly from arthritis and other maladies; the second was believed to be aged 25–30, but analysis of tooth-root translucency suggests she was older. It is not clear which one was the more important in life or whether one was sacrificed to accompany the other in death; the younger woman had a broken collarbone thought to be evidence that she was a human sacrifice, but closer examination showed that the bone had been healing for several weeks.
The opulence of the burial rite and the grave-goods suggests that this was a burial of high status. One woman wore a fine red wool dress with a lozenge twill pattern and a fine white linen veil in a gauze weave, while the other wore a plainer blue wool dress with a wool veil showing some stratification in their social status. Neither woman wore anything made of silk, although small silk strips were appliqued onto a tunic worn under the red dress. Dendrochronological analysis of timbers in the grave chamber dates the burial to the autumn of 834. Although the high-ranking woman's identity is unknown, it has been suggested that she is Queen Åsa of the Yngling clan, mother of Halfdan the Black and grandmother of Harald Fairhair. Recent tests of the women's remains suggest; this theory has been challenged and some think that she may have been a shaman. There were the skeletal remains of 14 horses, an ox, three dogs found on the ship. According to Per Holck of Oslo University, the younger woman's mitochondrial haplogroup was discovered to be U7.
Her ancestors came to Norway from the Pontic littoral Iran. Three subsequent studies failed to confirm these results, it is that the bone samples contain little original DNA or have been contaminated through handling. Examinations of fragments of the skeletons have provided more insight into their lives; the younger woman's teeth showed signs that she used a rare 9th century luxury. Both women had a diet composed of meat, another luxury when most Vikings ate fish. However, there was not enough DNA to tell if they were related, for instance a queen and her daughter; the grave had been disturbed in antiquity, precious metals were absent. A great number of everyday items and artifacts were found during the 1904–1905 excavations; these included four elaborately decorated sleighs, a richly carved four-wheel wooden cart, bed-posts, wooden chests, as well as the so-called "Buddha bucket", a brass and cloisonné enamel ornament of a bucket handle in the shape of a figure sitting with crossed legs. The bucket is made from yew wood, held
The Gokstad ship is a 9th-century Viking ship found in a burial mound at Gokstad in Sandar, Vestfold, Norway. It is on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo, Norway, it is the largest preserved Viking ship in Norway. The site where the boat was found, situated on arable land, had long been named Gokstadhaugen or Kongshaugen, although the relevance of its name had been discounted as folklore, as other sites in Norway bear similar names. In 1880, sons of the owner of Gokstad farm, having heard of the legends surrounding the site, uncovered the bow of a boat while digging in the still frozen ground; as word of the find got out, Nicolay Nicolaysen President of the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments, reached the site during February 1880. Having ascertained that the find was indeed that of an ancient artifact, he liaised for the digging to be stopped. Nicolaysen returned and established that the mound still measured 50 metres by 43 metres, although its height had been diminished down to 5 metres by constant years of ploughing.
With his team, he began excavating the mound from the side rather than from the top down, on the second day of digging found the bow of the ship. The Gokstad ship is clinker-built and constructed of oak; the ship was intended for warfare, transportation of people and cargo. The ship is 5.10 m wide. It is the largest in the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo; the ship was steered by a quarter rudder fastened to a large block of wood attached to the outside of the hull and supported by an extra stout rib. The block is known as the wart, is fastened by osiers, bent willow shoots on the outside passed through both the rudder and wart to be anchored in the ship. There are 16 tapered planks per side; the garboard planks are near vertical. The garboard planks are narrow and remain only wider to take the turn of the bilge; the topside planks are progressively wider. Each oak plank is tapered in cross section to allow it to overlap about 30mm the plank above and below in normal clinker style. Iron rivets are about 180 mm apart where the planks lie straight and about 125 mm apart where the planks turn.
At the bow, all of the planks taper to butt the stem. The stem is carved from a single curved oak log to form the cutwater and has one land for each plank; the inside of the stem is hollowed into a v shape so the inside of the rivets can be reached during construction or repair. Each of the crossbeams has a ledge cut about 25 mm wide and deep to take a removable section of decking. Sea chests were placed on top of the decking to use when rowing. Most on longer voyages sea chests were secured below decks to act as ballast when sailing; the centre section of the keel has little rocker and together with flat midships transverse section the hull shape is suited to medium to flat water sailing. When sailing downwind in strong winds and waves, directional control would be poor, so it is that some reefing system was used to reduce sail area. In such conditions the ship would take water aboard at an alarming rate; the ship was built to carry 32 oarsmen, the oar holes could be hatched down when the ship was under sail.
It utilized a square sail of 110 square metres, which, it is estimated, could propel the ship to over 12 knots. The mast could be lowered. While the ship was traveling in shallow water, the rudder could be raised quickly by undoing the fastening. Dendrochronological dating suggests that the ship was built of timber, felled around 890 AD; this period is the height of Norse expansion in Dublin and York, England. The Gokstad ship was commissioned at the end of the 9th century during the reign of King Harald Fairhair; the ship could carry a crew of 40 men but could carry a maximum of 70. The ship's design has been demonstrated to be seaworthy. During the excavations, a human skeleton was found in a bed inside a timber-built burial chamber; the skeleton was that of a man in his 40s - 50s, of powerful build and between 183 cm tall. The grave was furnished with grave goods in addition to the ship itself: three small boats, a tent, a sledge, riding equipment. Other grave goods were plundered in ancient times: the excavation in 1880 found no gold or silver.
In the Viking period, weapons were considered an important part of a man's grave goods, but again, none were found in the Gokstad ship. The ship, the reconstructed burial chamber, two of the small boats and two tent boards from the burial chamber are displayed in the Viking Ship Museum located on Bygdøy peninsula in Oslo, Norway; some other artifacts that survived the plundering are on display in the museum. The ship will not be moved from Bygdøy, Kristin Halvorsen stated on May 3, 2012 — thirteen years after a debate regarding a possible relocation began. Viking, an exact replica of the Gokstad ship, crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Bergen, Norway to be exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Other replicas include the Gaia, which has Sandefjord as its home port, the Munin, a half-scale replica in Vancouver, British Columbia, the Íslendingur in the Viking World museum in Iceland, the Hugin, in Ramsgate, a replica at the Hjemkomst Center in Moorhead, Minnesota. Vinner, Max Boats of the Viking Ship Museum ISBN 978-8785180636 Williams, Gareth The Viking Ship ISBN 978-0714123400 Gokstadhaugen or Kongshaugen Artific
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
The system of imperial units or the imperial system is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, refined and reduced. The Imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825; the system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, although some imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom and other countries part of the British Empire; the imperial system developed from what were first known as English units, as did the related system of United States customary units. The Weights and Measures Act of 1824 was scheduled to go into effect on 1 May 1825. However, the Weights and Measures Act of 1825 pushed back the date to 1 January 1826; the 1824 Act allowed the continued use of pre-imperial units provided that they were customary known, marked with imperial equivalents. Apothecaries' units are mentioned neither in the act of 1824 nor 1825.
At the time, apothecaries' weights and measures were regulated "in England and Berwick-upon-Tweed" by the London College of Physicians, in Ireland by the Dublin College of Physicians. In Scotland, apothecaries' units were unofficially regulated by the Edinburgh College of Physicians; the three colleges published, at infrequent intervals, the London and Dublin editions having the force of law. Imperial apothecaries' measures, based on the imperial pint of 20 fluid ounces, were introduced by the publication of the London Pharmacopoeia of 1836, the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia of 1839, the Dublin Pharmacopoeia of 1850; the Medical Act of 1858 transferred to The Crown the right to publish the official pharmacopoeia and to regulate apothecaries' weights and measures. Metric equivalents in this article assume the latest official definition. Before this date, the most precise measurement of the imperial Standard Yard was 0.914398415 metres. In 1824, the various different gallons in use in the British Empire were replaced by the imperial gallon, a unit close in volume to the ale gallon.
It was defined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the barometer standing at 30 inches of mercury at a temperature of 62 °F. In 1963, the gallon was redefined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water of density 0.998859 g/mL weighed in air of density 0.001217 g/mL against weights of density 8.136 g/mL, which works out to 4.546096 l or 277.4198 cu in. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 switched to a gallon of 4.54609 L. These measurements were in use from 1826, when the new imperial gallon was defined, but were abolished in the United Kingdom on 1 January 1971. In the US, though no longer recommended, the apothecaries' system is still used in medicine in prescriptions for older medications. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the UK used three different systems for weight. Troy weight, used for precious metals; the distinction between mass and weight is not always drawn. A pound is a unit of mass, although it is referred to as a weight; when a distinction is necessary, the term pound-force may be used to refer to a unit of force rather than mass.
The troy pound was made the primary unit of mass by the 1824 Act. The Weights and Measures Act 1855 made the avoirdupois pound the primary unit of mass. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it. Although the 1824 act defined the yard and pound by reference to the prototype standards, it defined the values of certain physical constants, to make provision for re-creation of the standards if they were to be damaged. For the yard, the length of a pendulum beating seconds at the latitude of Greenwich at Mean Sea Level in vacuo was defined as 39.01393 inches. For the pound, the mass of a cubic inch of distilled water at an atmospheric pressure of 30 inches of mercury and a temperature of 62° Fahrenheit was defined as 252.458 grains, with there being 7,000 grains per pound. However, following the destruction of the original prototypes in the 1834 Houses of Parliament fire, it proved impossible to recreate the standards from these definitions, a new Weights and Measures Act was passed in 1855 which permitted the recreation of the prototypes from recognized secondary standards.
The imperial system is one of many systems of English units. Although most of the units are defined in more than one system, some subsidiary units were used to a much greater extent, or for different purposes, in one area rather than the other; the distinctions between these systems are not drawn precisely. One such distinction is that between these systems and older British/English units/systems or newer additions; the term imperial should not be applied to English units that were outlawed in the Weights and Measures Act 1824 or earlier, or which had fallen out of use by that time, nor to post-imperial inventions, such as the slug or poundal. The US customary system is derived from the English units that were in use at the time of settlement; because the United States was independent at the time, these units were unaffected b
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for four hundred years. Its name lives on in the many currencies called dollar and the Samoan tālā, until also in the Slovenian tolar; the name thaler was used as an abbreviation of Joachimsthaler, a coin type from the town of Joachimsthal in the Kingdom of Bohemia, where there were silver mines and the first such coins were minted in 1518. This original Bohemian thaler carried a lion, from the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bohemia, on its reverse side. Etymologically, Thal is German for "valley", a thaler is a person or a thing "from the valley"; the Czech spelling was tolar. In the 1902 spelling reform, the German spelling was changed from Thal and Thaler to Tal and Taler, which however did not affect the English spelling of thaler; the Dutch daalders carried the picture of a lion, which gave them the name leeuwendaalder. From an abbreviation of leeuwendaalder come the names of three present-day Balkan currencies, the Romanian and Moldovan Leu and the Bulgarian Lev.
The roots and development of the thaler-sized silver coin date back to the mid-15th century. As the 15th century drew to a close the state of much of Europe's coinage was quite poor because of repeated debasement induced by the costs of continual warfare, by the incessant centuries-long loss of silver and gold in indirect one-sided trades importing spices, porcelain and other fine cloths and exotic goods from India and the Far East; this continual debasement had reached a point that silver content in Groschen-type coins had dropped, in some cases, to less than five percent, making the coins of much less individual value than they had in the beginning. Countering this trend, with the discovery and mining of silver deposits in Europe, Italy began the first tentative steps toward a large silver coinage with the introduction in 1472 of the lira tron in excess of 6 grams, a substantial increase over the 4-gram gros tournois of France. In 1474 a 9-gram lira was issued but it was in 1484 that Archduke Sigismund of Tirol issued the first revolutionary silver coin, the half Guldengroschen of 15.5 grams.
This was a rare coin a trial piece, but it did circulate so that demand could not be met. With the silver deposits—being mined at Schwaz—to work with and his mint at Hall, Sigismund issued, in 1486, large numbers of the first true thaler-sized coin, the Guldengroschen; the Guldengroschen, nicknamed the guldiner, was unqualified success. Soon it was being copied by many states who had the necessary silver; the engravers, no less affected by the Renaissance than were other artists, began creating intricate and elaborate designs featuring the heraldic arms and standards of the minting state as well as brutally realistic, sometimes unflattering, depictions of the ruler. By 1518, guldiners were popping up everywhere in central Europe. In the Kingdom of Bohemia ruled together with Hungary by Louis II of the Jagiellonian dynasty, a guldiner was minted— of similar physical size but less fineness—that was named in German the Joachimsthaler, from the silver mined by the Counts of Schlick at a rich source near Joachimsthal where Thal means "valley" in German.
Joachim, the father of the Virgin Mary, was portrayed on the coin along with the Bohemian lion. Similar coins began to be minted in neighbouring valleys rich in silver deposits, each named after the particular'thal' or valley from which the silver was extracted. There were soon so many of them that these silver coins began to be known more as'thaler' in German and'tolar' in the Czech language. From these earliest'thaler' developed the new thaler – the coin that the Holy Roman Empire had been looking to create as a standard for trade between the regions of Europe; the original Joachimsthaler Guldengroschen was one ounce in weight. The Empire's Reichstaler was defined as containing 400.99 grains of silver and became the coin of account of the whole Empire. In the 17th century, some Joachimsthalers were in circulation in the Tsardom of Russia, where they were called yefimok – a distortion of the first half of the name; the zenith of thaler minting occurred in the late 16th and 17th centuries with the so-called "multiple thalers" called Lösers in Germany.
The first were minted in Brunswick, indeed the majority were struck there. Some of these coins reached as much as sixteen normal thalers; the original reason for minting these colossal coins, some of which exceeded a full pound of silver and being over 12 cm in diameter, is uncertain. The name "löser" most was derived from a large gold coin minted in Hamburg called the Portugalöser, worth 10 ducats; some of the silver löser reached this value, but not all. The term was applied to numerous similar coins worth more than a single thaler; these coins are rare, the larger ones costing tens of thousands of dollars, are sought after by serious collectors of thalers. Few circulated in any real sense so they remain in well-preserved condition. In the Holy Roman Empire, the thaler was used as the standard against which the various states' currencies could be valued. One standard adopted by Prussia was the Reichsthaler, which contained 1⁄14 of a Cologne mark of silver. In 1754, the Conventionsthaler was introduced.
In 1837, the Prussian thaler beca