Norwich Union was the name of insurance company Aviva's British arm before June 2009. It was established in 1797, it was was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. On 29 April 2008, Aviva announced that the Norwich Union brand would be phased out and disappear over a period of two years, on the grounds that a consistent Aviva brand would bring "global impact". On 1 June 2009, Norwich Union was rebranded as Aviva. Norwich Union was founded in 1797 in Norwich, when 36-year-old merchant and banker Thomas Bignold formed the "Norwich Union Society for the Insurance of Houses and Merchandise from Fire", a mutual society owned by the policyholders who received a share of the profits; this in turn became known as the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Office. In 1808 Thomas Bignold established the Norwich Union Life Insurance Society; the Fire Society demutualised in 1821. In common with many insurance companies against fire loss, they operated their own fire brigades to protect the society's policyholders whose buildings were identified by "Fire insurance marks".
It was not until 1929 that the Fire Society gave up its last private brigade, in Worcester, to the municipal authorities. By the start of the 20th century, Norwich Union societies were operating worldwide, although the last two decades of the century saw a retrenchment and withdrawal from a number of markets seen as unstable in Africa. In 1997, its bicentenary year, Norwich Union demutualised and floated as a public limited company on the London Stock Exchange. Although it sold general insurance, motoring and life policies – its wide range of products leading indirectly to its slogan no-one protects more – it was listed on the markets as a life company, in years was under some pressure from analysts to shed its general insurance arm. In 2000, Norwich Union merged with CGU, which itself was formed from the merger of General Accident and Commercial Union in October 1998; the Norwich Union had tried to take over General Accident over 100 years earlier. CGU offered a broad range of life and general insurance products, with a stronger global presence than the UK-based Norwich Union.
Upon merging they formed the group CGNU. In 2005, there were still two companies operating in the UK under the Aviva umbrella that used the Norwich Union brand: Norwich Union Insurance and Norwich Union Life. Outside the UK, the Aviva brand was dominant. Following an extensive pilot, in October 2006, Norwich Union introduced a novel type of auto insurance called "Pay as You Drive". A GPS receiver and mobile technology are placed in a car and risk factors are monitored; the information is transmitted back to the insurance company. Drivers using their vehicles at low risk times of day or on low risk roads or driving low mileage get a discount on their motor insurance premiums. There are several business method patents covering this invention; the Pay as You Drive service was withdrawn in 2008 due to lower than expected volumes of new business. Norwich Union supported a European public service ad campaign against careless driving at too great a speed; the ad campaign is known as "The Faster the Speed, the Bigger the Mess."
In December 2007 Norwich Union was fined £1.26m by the Financial Services Authority after customers with life assurance policies were put at a small risk of fraud. The FSA said the company had failed to deal with the issue properly when it had been alerted to the problem. After discovering an overcharging error that dated back to 2001, Norwich Union agreed to compensate their clients with a cheque for £300 each, due to charges that exceeded the 1% cap imposed by the government; the final amount of compensation is expected to exceed £11 million. In Canada, Norwich Union was well known as a direct marketer of life insurance products promoted through repeated television advertisements. Most famous was a spot beginning with the phrase, "It's Patrick! He took out life insurance." Following the Norwich/CGU merger, this unit was sold to American International Group and renamed AIG Assurance, which decided to drop the "Patrick" ads. The unit was resold in 2009 to Bank of Montreal, is now known as BMO Insurance.
In Australia the operations of Norwich Union Australia were rebranded as Aviva in October 2003. The company consisted of three businesses: life insurance, fund manager Portfolio Partners and the master trust/financial planning service Navigator. History of Norwich Union
Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont is a private university in Northfield, Vermont. It is the oldest private military college in the United States; the university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary and Military Academy. It is the oldest of six senior military colleges and is recognized by the United States Department of Defense as the "Birthplace of ROTC"; the university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont by Captain Alden Partridge, military educator and former superintendent of West Point. Partridge believed in the "American System of Education," a traditional liberal arts curriculum with instruction in civil engineering and military science. After leaving West Point because of congressional disapproval of his system, he returned to his native state of Vermont to create the American Literary and Military Academy. Partridge, in founding the academy, rebelled against the reforms of Sylvanus Thayer to prevent the rise of what he saw as the greatest threat to the security of the young republic: an aristocratic and careerist officer class.
He believed that a well-trained militia was an urgent necessity and developed the American system around that idea. His academy became the inspiration for a number of military colleges throughout the nation, including The Citadel, the land grant colleges created through the Morrill Act of 1862. Today, Norwich offers substantial online distance graduate programs and is similar in many regards to The Citadel in mission, online offerings, student body composition, size. Partridge was the founding father of the Citizen-Soldier concept. All entering freshman entering the Corps of Cadets are called "Rooks" and their first year at Norwich is called "Rookdom"; the institution of "Rookdom" consists of two three-month processes that mold civilians into Norwich Cadets: Rook Basic Training and Basic Leadership Training. Culmination of Rook Basic Training marks the halfway point toward Recognition and occurs before Thanksgiving break, after which Rooks are awarded privileges. Recognition into the Corps of Cadets occurs around the eighteenth week.
Partridge's educational beliefs were considered radical at the time, this led to his conflicting views with the federal government while he was the superintendent of West Point. Upon creation of his own school, he incorporated classes of agriculture and modern languages in addition to the sciences, liberal arts, various military subjects. Field exercises, for which Partridge borrowed cannon and muskets from the federal and state governments, supplemented classroom instruction and added an element of realism to the college’s program of well-rounded military education. Partridge founded seven other military institutions during his quest to reform the fledgling United States military, they were the Virginia Literary and Military Academy at Portsmouth, Pennsylvania Literary and Military Academy at Bristol, Pennsylvania Military Institute at Harrisburg, Wilmington Literary and Military Academy at Wilmington, the Scientific and Military Collegiate Institute at Reading, Pennsylvania and Military Institute at Pembroke, New Hampshire and the National Scientific and Military Academy at Brandywine Springs, Delaware.
In 1825 the academy moved to Middletown, Connecticut, to provide better naval training to the school's growing Corps of Cadets. Beginning in 1826, the academy offered the first program of courses in civil engineering in the US. In 1829, the state of Connecticut declined to grant Captain Partridge a charter and he moved the school back to Norwich. In 1834, Vermont recognized the institution as Norwich University. During the 1856 academic year, the first chapter of the Theta Chi Fraternity was founded by cadets Frederick Norton Freeman and Arthur Chase. With the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, Norwich cadets served as instructors of the state militias throughout the Northeast and the entire class of 1862 enlisted upon its graduation. Norwich turned out hundreds of officers and soldiers who served with the federal armies in the American Civil War, including four recipients of the Medal of Honor. One graduate led a corps, seven more headed divisions, 21 commanded brigades, 38 led regiments, various alumni served in 131 different regimental organizations.
In addition, these men were eyewitnesses to some of the war's most dramatic events, including the bloodiest day of the conflict at Antietam, the attack up Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg, the repulse of Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. Seven hundred and fifty Norwich men served in the Civil War, of whom an estimated fifty-six fought for the Confederacy; because of the university's participation in the struggle, the number of students dwindled to seven in the class of 1864 alone. The Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont precipitated fear that Newport, Vermont was an imminent target; the Corps of Cadets boarded an express train for Newport, the same day, October 19, 1864, to the great relief of the inhabitants. After a catastrophic fire in 1866 which devastated the Old South Barracks and the entire Military Academy, the town of Northfield welcomed the struggling school; the Civil War, the fire, the uncertainty regarding the continuation of the university lowered the attendance, the school opened in the fall of 1866 with only 19 students.
The 1870s and 1880s saw many financially turbulent times for the institution and the renaming of the school to Lewis College in 1880. In 1881, the student body was reduce
World War II postal acronyms
World War II postal acronyms were first used to convey messages between servicemen and their sweethearts back home. They were written on the back of an envelope; the acronyms including some more recent additions, include: S. W. A. L. K. — Sealed With A Loving Kiss. A variant is S. W. A. K.. V. E. N. I. C. E. — Very Excited Now I Caress Everywhere E. G. Y. P. T. — Eager to Grab/Eagerly Groping/Grasping Your Pretty Tits B. U. R. M. A. — Be Undressed/Upstairs Ready My Angel R. A. D. I. O. Romance And Delight I Offer S. I. A. M. Sexual Intercourse At Midnight H. O. L. L. A. N. D. — Hope Our Love Lives/Lasts And Never Dies I. T. A. L. Y. — I Trust And Love You or I'm Thinking About Loving You F. R. A. N. C. E. — Friendship Remains And Never Can End M. A. L. A. Y. A. — My Ardent Lips Await Your Arrival C. H. I. N. A. — Come Home I'm Naked Already C. H. I. P. — Come Home I'm Pregnant B. O. L. T. O. P. — Better On Lips Than On Paper N. O. R. W. I. C. H. — Nickers Off Ready When I Come Home E. N. G. L. A. N. D. — Every Naked Girl Loves A Naked Dick C. A. P. S. T. A. N. — Can A Prick Stand Twice A Night L.
O. W. E. S. T. O. F. T. — Legs Opened Wide Enter Slowly To Obtain Full Treatment E. D. I. N. B. U. R. G. H. — Erection Definitely Imminent Now Book Usual Room George HotelTerry Pratchett parodied this in his Discworld novel Going Postal. His acronyms included L. A. N. C. R. E. Although these were never expanded. A Dirty Pretty Things song is named "B. U. R. M. A." After the postal acronym and contains the line'Be Upstairs Ready My Angel'
Norwich is a city in Kingman County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 491. Norwich was founded about 1885, it was named after Connecticut. Norwich is located at 37°27′28″N 97°50′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.46 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Norwich has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 491 people, 176 households, 114 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,067.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 204 housing units at an average density of 443.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.1% White, 0.6% African American, 1.0% Native American, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 176 households of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.2% were non-families.
33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.41. The median age in the city was 31.8 years. 37.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 43.6% male and 56.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 551 people, 203 households, 140 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,187.2 people per square mile. There were 216 housing units at an average density of 465.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.92% White, 0.18% African American, 1.45% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 3.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 203 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families.
29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.19. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,344, the median income for a family was $47,857. Males had a median income of $39,167 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,268. About 4.1% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.6% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over. Norwich is part of USD 331 Kingman-Norwich; the Norwich Eagles won the following Kansas State High School championships: 1974 Boys Track & Field - Class 1A 1974 Girls Track & Field - Class 1A 1975 Boys Track & Field - Class 1A 1977 Girls Track & Field - Class 1A 2013 Girls Track & Field - Class 1A Farrar Corporation & Foundry CityNorwich - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 331, local school districtMapsNorwich City Map, KDOT
Norwich School of painters
The Norwich School of painters, founded in 1803 in Norwich, was the first provincial art movement in Britain. Artists of the school were inspired by the natural environment of the Norfolk landscape and owed some influence to the work of landscape painters of the Dutch Golden Age such as Hobbema and Ruisdael; the Norwich Society of Artists was founded in 1803 by John Crome and Robert Ladbrooke as a club where artists could meet to exchange ideas. Its aims were "an enquiry into the rise and present state of painting and sculpture, with a view to point out the best methods of study to attain the greater perfection in these arts." The society's first meeting was in "The Hole in the Wall" tavern. Its first exhibition opened in 1805, was such a success that it became an annual event until 1825; the building was demolished but the society re-opened three years in 1828, as "The Norfolk and Suffolk Institution for the Promotion of the Fine Arts" at a different venue and exhibitions continued until 1833.
The leading light of the movement was John Crome who attracted many friends and pupils until his death in 1821. The mantle of leadership fell on John Sell Cotman, a member of the society since 1807, who continued to keep the society together until he left Norwich for London in 1834; the society ceased to exist from that date. The Norwich School's great achievement was that a small group of self-taught working class artists were able to paint with vitality the hinterland surrounding Norwich, assisted by meagre local patronage. Far from creating pastiches of the Dutch 17th century and Cotman, along with Joseph Stannard, established a school of landscape painting which deserves greater fame. S. Cotman's water-colours anticipate French impressionism. One reason the Norwich School artists are not so well known as other painters of the period, notably Constable and Turner, is because the majority of their canvases were collected by the industrialist J. J. Colman, have been on permanent display in Norwich Castle Museum since the 1880s.
This lack of wider exposure was remedied in 2001, when many of the school's major works were exhibited outside Norwich for the first time at the Tate Gallery, London in 2000. In 1986 Norwich Castle museum acquired a late masterwork by John Crome entitled Back of New Mills Evening dated circa 1812-1819, its composition includes a small boy trailing a toy boat from the stern of a boat. The identical motif occurs in Joseph Stannard's masterwork Thorpe Water Frolic of 1828. Stannard had requested tuition in painting from Crome as a young man but Crome refused and Stannard broke away from the'Norwich School', his relatives and friends never forgiving Crome for the snub to him; such was the intense rivalry between the major painters of the Norwich School. London members of the society included: John Burnet Sir Martin Archer Shee Brown, D. B.. Romantic Landscape, The Norwich School of Painters. London: Tate Gallery Publishing. Clifford, Derek Plint. Watercolours of the Norwich School. Cory, Adams & Mackay.
Cundall, Herbert Minton. The Norwich school. E. J. J. Cotman, etc. London: The Studio Ltd. Day, Harold; the Norwich School of Painters. Eastbourne, UK: Eastbourne Fine Art. ISBN 0 902010 10 7. Dickes, William Frederick; the Norwich school of painting: being a full account of the Norwich exhibitions, the lives of the painters, the lists of their respecitve exhibits and descriptions of the pictures. Norwich: Jarrold & Sons Ltd. Fawcett, Trevor; the rise of English provincial art: artists and institutions outside London, 1800-1830. London: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-817328-8. Hemingway, Andrew; the Norwich School of Painters, 1803-33. Oxford: Phaidon. ISBN 9780714820019. Moore, Andrew W.. The Norwich School of Artists. HMSO/Norwich Museums Service. Mottram, R. H.. John Crome of Norwich. London: John Lane The Bodley Head Limited. Rajnai, Miklos; the Norwich Society of Artists, 1805-1833: a dictionary of contributors and their work. Norfolk Museums Service for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art. Scott, Peter Kennedy.
A Romantic Look at Norwich School Landscapes: By a Handful of Great Little Masters. ISBN 0-9534711-0-1. Searle, Geoffrey R.. Etchings of the Norwich School. Norwich: Lasse Press. ISBN 978-0-9568758-9-1. Walpole, Josephine. Art and Artists of the Norwich School. Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club. ISBN 1-85149-261-5; the Norwich School Norfolk Museums service Information on the Norwich School
Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
John Julius Norwich
John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich, known as John Julius Norwich, was an English popular historian, travel writer and television personality. Norwich was the son of Conservative politician and diplomat Duff Cooper Viscount Norwich, of Lady Diana Manners, a celebrated beauty and society figure. Through his father, he was descended from his mistress Dorothea Jordan, he was educated at Upper Canada College, Canada and the University of Strasbourg. He served in the Royal Navy before taking a degree in French and Russian at Oxford. Joining the British Foreign Service after Oxford, before that Eton, John Julius Cooper served in Yugoslavia and Lebanon and as a member of the British delegation to the Disarmament Conference in Geneva. On his father's death in 1954, he inherited the title of Viscount Norwich, created for his father, Duff Cooper, in 1952; this gave him a right to sit in the House of Lords, though he lost this right with the House of Lords Act 1999. In 1964, Viscount Norwich left the diplomatic service to become a writer.
His subsequent books included histories of Sicily under the Normans, Byzantium, the Mediterranean, the Papacy, amongst others. He served as editor of series such as Great Architecture of the World, The Italian World, The New Shell Guides to Great Britain, The Oxford Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Art and the Duff Cooper Diaries. Viscount Norwich has contributed to Cornucopia, a magazine devoted to the history and culture of Turkey. Viscount Norwich worked extensively in television, he was host of the BBC radio panel game My Word! for four years and a regional contestant on Round Britain Quiz. He has written and presented some 30 television documentaries, including The Fall of Constantinople, Napoleon's Hundred Days, Cortés and Montezuma, The Antiquities of Turkey, The Gates of Asia, Maximilian of Mexico, Toussaint l'Ouverture of Haiti, The Knights of Malta, The Treasure Houses of Britain, The Death of the Prince Imperial in the Zulu War. Norwich worked for various charitable projects, he was the chairman of the Venice in Peril Fund, honorary chairman of the World Monuments Fund, a Vice-President of the National Association of Decorative and Fine Arts Societies.
For many years he was a member of the Executive Committee of the National Trust, served on the Board of English National Opera. Viscount Norwich was a patron of SHARE Community, which provides vocational training to disabled people. Viscount Norwich began to compile 24-page anthologies for friends in 1970 producing around 2,000 copies a year and expanding to the United States in the mid-1980s. Several anthologies have been published and certain single issues fetch high prices in secondhand bookstores. Christmas Crackers were compiled from whatever attracted Norwich: letters and diaries and gravestones and poems, boastful Who's Who entries, indexes from biographies, word games such as palindromes and mnemonics in untranslated Greek, Latin, German or whatever language they were sourced from, as well as such oddities as a review from the American outdoors magazine Field and Stream concerning the re-publication of Lady Chatterley's Lover. Viscount Norwich's first wife was Anne Frances May Clifford, daughter of the Hon.
Sir Bede Clifford. After their divorce, Lord Norwich married his second wife, the Hon. Mary Philipps, daughter of The 1st Baron Sherfield. Viscount Norwich was the father of Allegra Huston, born of his affair with the American ballet dancer Enrica Soma while she was married to the American film director John Huston. Norwich lived for much of his life, or was based in, a large detached Victorian house in Warwick Avenue, in the heart of Little Venice, Maida Vale close to the Regent's Canal. Viscount Norwich died age 88 on June 1, 2018. 1929–1952: Mr John Julius Cooper 1952–1954: The Honourable John Julius Cooper 1954–2018: The Right Honourable The Viscount NorwichViscount Norwich was appointed to the Royal Victorian Order as a Commander in 1992 by the Queen after curating a Victoria and Albert Museum exhibition entitled Sovereign, which marked the 40th anniversary of the Queen's accession. Mount Athos, Hutchinson, 1966 The Normans in the South, 1016–1130, Longman, 1967. Published by Harper & Row with the title The Other Conquest Sahara, Longman, 1968 The Kingdom in the Sun, Longman, 1970 Great Architecture of the World, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, 1975 ISBN 978-0855330675 Venice: The Rise to Empire, Allen Lane, 1977 ISBN 0713907428 Venice: The Greatness and Fall, Allen Lane, 1981 ISBN 0713914092 A History of Venice, Knopf, 1982 / Penguin, 1983 ISBN 0-679-72197-5, single-volume combined edition Britain's Heritage, HaperCollins, 1983 ISBN 978-0246118400 The Italian World: History and the Genius of a People, Thames & Hudson, 1983, ISBN 978-0500250884 Hashish, Quartet Books, 1984, ISBN 0-7043-2450-4 The Architecture of Southern England, Macmillan, 1985, ISBN 978-0-333-22037-5 Fifty Years of Glyndebourne, Cape, 1985, ISBN 0-224-02310-1 A Taste for Travel, Macmillan, 1985, ISBN 0-333-38434-2 Byzantium: The Early Centuries, Viking, 1988, ISBN 0-670-80251-4 Venice: a Traveller's Companion, Constable, 1990, ISBN 0-09-467550-3 Oxford Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Art Oxford, 1990 The Normans in the South and The Kingdom in the Sun, on Norman S