Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. A few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory; the study of bacteria is known as a branch of microbiology. There are 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. There are 5×1030 bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Data reported by researchers in October 2012 and published in March 2013 suggested that bacteria thrive in the Mariana Trench, with a depth of up to 11 kilometres, is the deepest known part of the oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that microbes thrive inside rocks up to 580 metres below the sea floor under 2.6 kilometres of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. According to one of the researchers, "You can find microbes everywhere—they're adaptable to conditions, survive wherever they are."The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. There are 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body.
This means that although they do have the upper hand in actual numbers, it is only by 30%, not 900%. The largest number exist in the gut flora, a large number on the skin; the vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, anthrax and bubonic plague; the most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.
Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and harbour membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor; these evolutionary domains are called Archaea. The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον, the diminutive of βακτηρία, meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped; the ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species.
However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago. Bacteria were involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves related to the Archaea; this involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alphaproteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still found in all known Eukarya. Some eukaryotes that contained mitochondria engulfed cyanobacteria-like organisms, leading to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants; this is known as primary endosymbiosis. Bacteria display a wide diversity of sizes, called morphologies.
Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, the focus of physiology is on how organisms, organ systems, organs and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is the investigation of the fundamental biophysical and biochemical phenomena, the coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, the continuous communication between cells; the physiologic state is the condition occurring from normal body function, while the pathological state is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans. According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into, animal physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology and microbial physiology; the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of systems within systems; the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals; the biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of both electrical and chemical. Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning of plants. Related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, cell biology, genetics and molecular biology. Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, plant nutrition, nastic movements, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination and stomata function and transpiration. Absorption of water by roots, production of food in the leaves, growth of shoots towards light are examples of plant physiology. Although there are differences between animal and microbial cells, the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, cell metabolism. Microorganisms can be found everywhere on Earth.
Types of microorganisms include archaea, eukaryotes, protists and micro-plants. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel and other bioactive compounds, they are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora, they are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures. Most microorganisms can reproduce and bacteria are able to exchange genes through conjugation and transduction between divergent species; the study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates. Outside of Western tradition, early forms of physiology or anatomy can be reconstructed as having been present at around the same time in China and elsewhere.
Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudius Galenus would expand on; the critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold and dry. Claudius Galenus, known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body, his modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were tied to the humours, added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood.
Galen saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota; the gut is one niche. In humans, the gut microbiota has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of the body. In humans, the gut flora is established at one to two years after birth, by which time the intestinal epithelium and the intestinal mucosal barrier that it secretes have co-developed in a way, tolerant to, supportive of, the gut flora and that provides a barrier to pathogenic organisms; the relationship between some gut flora and humans is not commensal, but rather a mutualistic relationship. Some human gut microorganisms benefit the host by fermenting dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid and butyric acid, which are absorbed by the host. Intestinal bacteria play a role in synthesizing vitamin B and vitamin K as well as metabolizing bile acids and xenobiotics.
The systemic importance of the SCFAs and other compounds they produce are like hormones and the gut flora itself appears to function like an endocrine organ, dysregulation of the gut flora has been correlated with a host of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The composition of human gut microbiota changes over time, when the diet changes, as overall health changes. A systematic review from 2016 examined the preclinical and small human trials that have been conducted with certain commercially available strains of probiotic bacteria and identified those that had the most potential to be useful for certain central nervous system disorders; the microbial composition of the gut microbiota varies across the digestive tract. In the stomach and small intestine few species of bacteria are present; the colon, in contrast, contains a densely-populated microbial ecosystem with up to 1012 cells per gram of intestinal content. These bacteria represent between 1000 different species. However, 99 % of the bacteria come from about 40 species.
As a consequence of their abundance in the intestine, bacteria make up to 60% of the dry mass of feces. Fungi, protists and viruses are present in the gut flora, but less is known about their activities. Over 99% of the bacteria in the gut are anaerobes, but in the cecum, aerobic bacteria reach high densities, it is estimated that these gut flora have around a hundred times as many genes in total as there are in the human genome. Many species in the gut have not been studied outside of their hosts because most cannot be cultured. While there are a small number of core species of microbes shared by most individuals, populations of microbes can vary among different individuals. Within an individual, microbe populations stay constant over time though some alterations may occur with changes in lifestyle and age; the Human Microbiome Project has set out to better describe the microflora of the human gut and other body locations. The four dominant bacterial phyla in the human gut are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria.
Most bacteria belong to the genera Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium. Other genera, such as Escherichia and Lactobacillus, are present to a lesser extent. Species from the genus Bacteroides alone constitute about 30% of all bacteria in the gut, suggesting that this genus is important in the functioning of the host. Fungal genera that have been detected in the gut include Candida, Aspergillus, Rhodotorula, Pleospora, Sclerotinia and Galactomyces, among others. Rhodotorula is most found in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease while Candida is most found in individuals with hepatitis B cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Archaea constitute another large class of gut flora which are important in the metabolism of the bacterial products of fermentation. Industralization is associated with changes in the microbiota and the reduction of diversity could drive certain species to extinction. An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the human gut microbiome not dictated by age, body weight, or national divisions.
There are indications. Three human enterotypes have been proposed. Due to the high acidity of the stomach, most microorganisms cannot survive there; the main bacterial inhabitants of the stomach include: Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Peptostreptococcus, types of yeast. Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative spiral bacterium that establishes on gastric mucosa causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a carcinogen for gastric cancer; the small intestine contains a trace amount of microorganisms due to the proximity and influence of the stomach. Gram-positive cocci and rod-shaped bacteria are the predominant microorganisms found in the small intestine. However, in the distal portion of the small intestine alkaline conditions support gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae; the bacterial flora of the small intestine aid in a wide range of intestinal functions. The bacterial flora provide regulatory signals that enable the utility of the gut. Overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can lead to intestinal failure.
In addition the large intestine contains the largest bacterial ecosystem in the human bod
Medicalization or medicalisation is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, thus become the subject of medical study, prevention, or treatment. Medicalization can be driven by new evidence or hypotheses about conditions. Medicalization is studied from a sociologic perspective in terms of the role and power of professionals and corporations, for its implications for ordinary people whose self-identity and life decisions may depend on the prevailing concepts of health and illness. Once a condition is classified as medical, a medical model of disability tends to be used in place of a social model. Medicalization may be termed "pathologization" or "disease mongering". Since medicalization is the social process through which a condition becomes a medical disease in need of treatment, medicalization may be viewed as a benefit to human society. According to this view, the identification of a condition as a disease will lead to the treatment of certain symptoms and conditions, which will improve overall quality of life.
The concept of medicalization was devised by sociologists to explain how medical knowledge is applied to behaviors which are not self-evidently medical or biological. The term medicalization entered the sociology literature in the 1970s in the works of Irving Zola, Peter Conrad and Thomas Szasz, among others. According to Dr. Cassell's book, The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine, the expansion of medical social control is being justified as a means of explaining deviance; these sociologists viewed medicalization as a form of social control in which medical authority expanded into domains of everyday existence, they rejected medicalization in the name of liberation. This critique was embodied in works such as Conrad's "The discovery of hyperkinesis: notes on medicalization of deviance", published in 1973. Opium was used to pacify children in ancient Egypt before 2000 BC; these sociologists did not believe medicalization to be a new phenomenon, arguing that medical authorities had always been concerned with social behavior and traditionally functioned as agents of social control.
However, these authors took the view that sophisticated technology had extended the potential reach of medicalization as a form of social control in terms of "psychotechnology". In the 1975 book Limits to medicine: Medical nemesis, Ivan Illich put forth one of the earliest uses of the term "medicalization". Illich, a philosopher, argued that the medical profession harms people through iatrogenesis, a process in which illness and social problems increase due to medical intervention. Illich saw iatrogenesis occurring on three levels: the clinical, involving serious side effects worse than the original condition; the concept of medicalization dovetailed with some aspects of the 1970s feminist movement. Critics such as Ehrenreich and English argued that women's bodies were being medicalized by the predominantly male medical profession. Menstruation and pregnancy had come to be seen as medical problems requiring interventions such as hysterectomies. Marxists such as Vicente Navarro linked medicalization to an oppressive capitalist society.
They argued that medicine disguised the underlying causes of disease, such as social inequality and poverty, instead presented health as an individual issue. Others examined the power and prestige of the medical profession, including the use of terminology to mystify and of professional rules to exclude or subordinate others. Tiago Correia offers an alternative perspective on medicalization, he argues that medicalization needs to be detached from biomedicine to overcome much of the criticism it has faced, to protect its value in contemporary sociological debates. Building on Gadamer's hermeneutical view of medicine, he focuses on medicine's common traits, regardless of empirical differences in both time and space. Medicalization and social control are viewed as distinct analytical dimensions that in practice may or may not overlap. Correia contends that the idea of "making things medical" needs to include all forms of medical knowledge in a global society, not those forms linked to the established medical professions.
Looking at "knowledge", beyond the confines of professional boundaries, may help us understand the multiplicity of ways in which medicalization can exist in different times and societies, allow contemporary societies to avoid such pitfalls as "demedicalization" on the one hand, or the over-rapid and unregulated adoption of biomedical medicine in non-western societies on the other. The challenge is to determine what medical knowledge is present, how it is being used to medicalize behaviors and symptoms. Several decades on the definition of medicalization is complicated, if for no other reason than because the term is so used. Many contemporary critics position pharmaceutical companies in the space once held by doctors as the supposed catalysts of medicalization. Titles such as "The making of a disease" or "Sex and marketing" critique the pharmaceutical industry for s
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, peace activist, author and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He published books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time, as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history. Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of molecular biology, his contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements. Pauling worked on the structures of biological molecules, showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure. Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building and quantum chemistry, his discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.
In his years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy, dietary supplements. None of the latter have gained much acceptance in the mainstream scientific community. For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962, he is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize. Of these, he is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes, one of two people to be awarded Nobel Prizes in different fields, the other being Marie Curie. Pauling was born in Portland, the first-born child of Herman Henry William Pauling and Lucy Isabelle "Belle" Darling, he was named "Linus Carl", in honor of Lucy's father and Herman's father, Carl. In 1902, after his sister Pauline was born, Pauling's parents decided to move out of Portland, to find more affordable and spacious living quarters than their one-room apartment. Lucy stayed with her husband's parents in Lake Oswego until Herman brought the family to Salem, where he worked as a traveling salesman for the Skidmore Drug Company.
Within a year of Lucile's birth in 1904, Herman Pauling moved his family to Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore. He moved his family to Condon, Oregon, in 1905. By 1906, Herman Pauling was suffering from recurrent abdominal pain, he died of a perforated ulcer on June 11, 1910, leaving Lucy to care for Linus and Pauline. Pauling attributes his interest in becoming a chemist to being amazed by experiments conducted by a friend, Lloyd A. Jeffress, who had a small chemistry lab kit, he wrote: "I was entranced by chemical phenomena, by the reactions in which substances with strikingly different properties, appear. With an older friend, Lloyd Simon, Pauling set up Palmon Laboratories in Simon's basement, they approached local dairies offering to perform butterfat samplings at cheap prices but dairymen were wary of trusting two boys with the task, the business ended in failure. At age 15, the high school senior had enough credits to enter Oregon State University, known as Oregon Agricultural College.
Lacking two American history courses required for his high school diploma, Pauling asked the school principal if he could take the courses concurrently during the spring semester. Denied, he left Washington High School in June without a diploma; the school awarded him an honorary diploma 45 years after he was awarded two Nobel Prizes. Pauling held a number of jobs to earn money for his future college expenses, including working part-time at a grocery store for $8 per week, his mother arranged an interview with the owner of a number of manufacturing plants in Portland, Mr. Schwietzerhoff, who hired him as an apprentice machinist at a salary of $40 per month; this was soon raised to $50 per month. Pauling set up a photography laboratory with two friends. In September 1917, Pauling was admitted by Oregon State University, he resigned from the machinist's job and informed his mother, who saw no point in a university education, of his plans. In his first semester, Pauling registered for two courses in chemistry, two in mathematics, mechanical drawing, introduction to mining and use of explosives, modern English prose and military drill.
He founded the school's chapter of the Delta Upsilon fraternity. After his second year, he planned to take a job in Portland to help support his mother; the college offered him a position teaching quantitative analysis, a course he had just finished taking himself. He worked forty hours a week in the laboratory and classroom and earned $100 a month, enabling him to continue his studies. In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules, he decided to focus his research on how the physical and chemical properties of substances are related to the structure of the atoms of which they are composed, becoming one of the founders of the new science of quantum chemistry. Engineering professor Samuel Graf selected Pauling to be his teaching assistant in a mechanics and materials course. During the winter of his senior year, Pauling taught a chemistry course for home economics majors.
It was in one of these classes that Pauling met his future wife
Harvey Akio Itano was an American biochemist best known for his work on the molecular basis of sickle cell anemia and other diseases. In collaboration with Linus Pauling, Itano used electrophoresis to demonstrate the difference between normal hemoglobin and sickle cell hemoglobin. In 1979, Itano became the first Japanese American elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences. Itano was an emeritus professor of pathology at the University of San Diego. Itano died in California of complications from Parkinson's disease. Itano was born in California. Itano attended the University of California, Berkeley where he was valedictorian of the Class of 1942. However, Itano missed commencement in Berkeley because he and his family were sent to the Tanforan Assembly center, prior to being sent to the Tule Lake internment camp. Itano was allowed to leave camp to attend the St. Louis University medical school, earning his M. D. in 1945. He went to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology, where he received doctorates in chemistry and physics in 1950.
While at Caltech, Itano joined the lab of Linus Pauling and began working on sickle cell anemia, a genetic disease that Pauling was interested in. Pauling was convinced that sickle cell disease was caused by defective hemoglobin, set Itano to find out what made sickle cell hemoglobin chemically different. After failing with a number of other techniques, Itano succeeded in differentiating normal and sickle cell hemoglobins using moving boundary electrophoresis, he used an apparatus designed by Stanley M. Swingle, a variation on the original apparatus of electrophoresis pioneer Arne Tiselius, he found that, under certain conditions, sickle cell hemoglobin is positively charged while normal hemoglobin is not, creating a difference in electrophoretic mobility. By 1956, Vernon Ingram had determined that this was caused by a single difference in peptide sequence, which by 1958 he determined to be a glutamic acid in place of a valine. Itano's subsequent work brought the new field of "molecular medicine" to other genetic and blood diseases.
In 1954, he won the Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry, in 1972 he won the Martin Luther King Jr. Medical Achievement Award; the Register of Harvey Itano Papers 1946 - 2000 - UC San Diego Key Participants: Harvey Itano - It's in the Blood! A Documentary History of Linus Pauling and Sickle Cell Anemia