Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is the name of a stone quadrangular and stepped structure in the Naqsh-e Rustam compound beside Zangiabad village in Marvdasht county in Fars, Iran. The Naqsh-e Rustam compound incorporates memorials of the Elamites, the Achaemenids and the Sassanians in itself in addition to the mentioned structure; the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is 46 metres from the mountain, situated opposite Darius II's mausoleum. It has only one entrance door; the material of the structure is white limestone. It is about 12 metres high, or 14.12 metres if including the triple stairs, each side of its base is about 7.30 metres long. Its entrance door leads to the chamber inside via a thirty-stair stone stairway; the stone pieces are rectangular and are placed on top of each other, without the use of mortar. The structure was built in the Achaemenid era and there is no information of the name of the structure in that era, it was called Bon-Khanak in the Sassanian era. Various views and interpretations have been proposed about the application of the chamber, but none of them could be accepted with certainty: some consider the tower a fire temple and a fireplace, believe that it was used for igniting and worshiping the holy fire, while another group rejects this view and considers it the mausoleum of one of the Achaemenid shahs or grandees, due to its similarity to the Tomb of Cyrus and some mausoleums of Lycia and Caria.
Some other Iranian scholars believe the stone chamber to be a structure for the safekeeping of royal documents and holy or religious books. Other less noticed theories, such as its being a temple for the goddess Anahita or a solar calendar, have been mentioned. Three inscriptions have been written in the three languages Sassanian Middle Persian, Arsacid Middle Persian and Greek on the Northern and Eastern walls of the tower, in the Sassanian era. One of them belongs to Shapur I the Sassanian, the other to the priest Kartir. According to Walter Henning, "These inscriptions are the most important historical documents from the Sassanian era." The Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is a beautiful structure: its proportions and external beauty are based on well-executed architectural principles. The structure is part of the Naqsh-e Rustam compound and owned by the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization of Iran. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi believes that the phrase Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is new and inaccurate, originating around the fourteenth century.
When the structure was discovered by the Europeans, its local name was Karnaykhaneh or Naggarekhaneh. As the shape of the structure was cuboid and the black stones that were placed on the white background of its walls resembled the Black Stone, the Muslims' Kaaba, it became famous as Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, the Kaaba of Zoroaster; the Encyclopedia Iranica explains about the name of the structure: "Ka'ba-ye Zartosht has acquired its name in the fourteenth century, the time that the ruined ancient sites in the whole Iran were attributed to characters in the Quran or Shahnameh. This does not mean that the place has been Zoroaster's mausoleum and there is no report of the pilgrims' travels there for pilgrimage."Due to the discovery of Kartir's inscription on its walls, it is revealed that the name of the structure in the Sasanian era was Bon Khaanak, meaning the Foundation House, as the inscription reads: "This Foundation House will belong to you. Act as the best way you see suitable that will delight our gods and purpose."
There is no knowledge of the name of the structure in any earlier periods. Ibn al-Balkhi has mentioned the name of the area of Naqsh-e Rustam and its mountain as Kuhnebesht, has considered that the reason behind its naming was that the book Avesta was held there; the word Dezhnebesht or Dezhkatibehs might have been used for the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht. Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is cuboid in shape, has only one entrance door, which leads inside its chamber by means of a stone stairway. There are four blind windows on each of its sides; the stone used is white marbly limestone, there are dentate shelves of black stone on its walls. The limestone blocks were brought from Mount Sivand, where they were quarried in a place called Na'l Shekan, to Naqsh-e Rustam in order to build the Ka'ba; these blocks were chiselled into large rectangular pieces and are put in place atop each other without using mortar. The size of the stones varies from 2.90 by 2.10 by 0.48 metres to 1.10 by 1.08 by 0.56 metres. Four large rectangular pieces of stone form the ceiling/roof, placed along an east-west axis.
Each of those stones are 7.30 metres long, connected to each other by dovetail joints, the chipping method used to form them has given the roof the s
Al-Ghazali was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians and mystics of Sunni Islam. He was of Persian origin. Islamic tradition considers him to be a Mujaddid, a renewer of the faith who, according to the prophetic hadith, appears once every century to restore the faith of the ummah, his works were so acclaimed by his contemporaries that al-Ghazali was awarded the honorific title "Proof of Islam". Al-Ghazali believed that the Islamic spiritual tradition had become moribund and that the spiritual sciences taught by the first generation of Muslims had been forgotten; that resulted in his writing his magnum opus entitled Ihya'ulum al-din. Among his other works, the Tahāfut al-Falāsifa is a significant landmark in the history of philosophy, as it advances the critique of Aristotelian science developed in 14th-century Europe; the believed date of al-Ghazali's birth, as given by Ibn al-Jawzi, is AH 450. Modern estimates place it at AH 448, on the basis of certain statements in al-Ghazali's correspondence and autobiography.
He was a Muslim scholar, law specialist and spiritualist of Persian descent. He was born in Tabaran, a town in the district of Tus, not long after Seljuk captured Baghdad from the Shia Buyid and established Sunni Caliphate under a commission from the Abbasid Dynasty in 1055 AD. A posthumous tradition, the authenticity of, questioned in recent scholarship, is that his father, a man "of Persian descent," died in poverty and left the young al-Ghazali and his brother Ahmad to the care of a Sufi. Al-Ghazali's contemporary and first biographer,'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi, records that al-Ghazali began to receive instruction in fiqh from Ahmad al-Radhakani, a local teacher, he studied under al-Juwayni, the distinguished jurist and theologian and "the most outstanding Muslim scholar of his time," in Nishapur after a period of study in Gurgan. After al-Juwayni's death in 1085, al-Ghazali departed from Nishapur and joined the court of Nizam al-Mulk, the powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans, centered in Isfahan.
After bestowing upon him the titles of "Brilliance of the Religion" and "Eminence among the Religious Leaders," Nizam al-Mulk advanced al-Ghazali in July 1091 to the "most prestigious and most challenging" professorial at the time: in the Nizamiyya madrasa in Baghdad. He underwent a spiritual crisis in 1095, abandoned his career and left Baghdad on the pretext of going on pilgrimage to Mecca. Making arrangements for his family, he adopted an ascetic lifestyle. According to biographer Duncan B. Macdonald, the purpose of abstaining from scholastic work was to confront the spiritual experience and more ordinary understanding of "the Word and the Traditions." After some time in Damascus and Jerusalem, with a visit to Medina and Mecca in 1096, he returned to Tus to spend the next several years in'uzla. The seclusion consisted in abstaining from teaching at state-sponsored institutions, but he continued to publish, receive visitors and teach in the zawiya and khanqah that he had built. Fakhr al-Mulk, grand vizier to Ahmad Sanjar, pressed al-Ghazali to return to the Nizamiyya in Nishapur.
Al-Ghazali reluctantly capitulated in 1106, fearing rightly that he and his teachings would meet with resistance and controversy. He returned to Tus and declined an invitation in 1110 from the grand vizier of the Seljuq Sultan Muhammad I to return to Baghdad, he died on 19 December 1111. According to'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi, he had several daughters but no sons. Al-Ghazali contributed to the development of a systematic view of Sufism and its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam; as a scholar of orthodox Islam, he belonged to the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence and to the Asharite school of theology. Al-Ghazali received many titles such as Zayn-ud-dīn and Ḥujjat-ul-Islām, he is viewed as the key member of the influential Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy and the most important refuter of the Mutazilites. However, he chose a slightly-different position in comparison with the Asharites, his beliefs and thoughts differ in some aspects from the orthodox Asharite school. A total of about 60 works can be attributed to Al-Ghazali.
His 11th century book titled The Incoherence of the Philosophers marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. The encounter with skepticism led al-Ghazali to embrace a form of theological occasionalism, or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God. In the next century, Averroes drafted a lengthy rebuttal of al-Ghazali's Incoherence entitled The Incoherence of the Incoherence. Al-Ghazali gave as an example of the illusion of independent laws of cause the fact that cotton burns when coming into contact with fire. While it might seem as though a natural law was at work, it happened each and every time only because God willed it to happen—the event was "a direct product of divine intervention as any more attention grabbing miracle". Averroes, by contrast insisted while God created the natural law, humans "could more usefully say that fire caused cotton to burn—because creation had a pattern that they could discern."The Incoherence marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy in its
Abu Ali Muhammad Bal'ami called Amirak Bal'ami and Bal'ami-i Kuchak, was a Persian historian and vizier to the Samanids. He was from the influential Bal'ami family, he was born in Lashjerd in the district of Merv part of the Samanid Empire. He was the son of Abu'l-Fadl al-Bal'ami. Muhammad Bal'ami was appointed vizier during the late reign of Abd al-Malik I and kept holding the office under Abd al-Malik's successor Mansur I. According to Gardizi, Bal'ami died in March 974 while serving in office, but according to the Persian historian al-Utbi, he was from removed the vizierate office, was reappointed as the vizier of Nuh II, but chose to retire in 992, dying in an unknown date before 997. Bal'ami most famous work is Tarikh-i Bal'ami, a Persian translation and alteration of al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings. Bal ` ami. Contrary to al-Tabari, Bal'ami's version is presented from a Persian point of view. Having been written in 963, the Tarikh-i Bal'ami is the oldest New Persian prose work after the preface of the Shahnama-yi Abu Mansuri by Abu Mansur Muhammad.
The 12th-century poet Nizami Aruzi makes mention of a book composed by Bal'ami named Tawqi'at, two lines by Bal'ami are cited in the Farhang-e Jahangiri by Jamal al-Din Hosayn Enju Shirazi. However, it is not known if this refers to Bal'ami or his father, Bal'ami the Elder. Ashraf, Ahmad. "Iranian identity iii. Medieval Islamic period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XIII, Fasc. 5. Pp. 507–522. Frye, R. N.. "The Sāmānids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 136–161. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Khalegi-Motlagh, Dj.. "AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 9. Pp. 971–972. Archived from the original on 2012-11-17. Zadeh, Travis. "al-Balʿamī". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume III. Leiden and New York: BRILL. ISBN 90-04-09419-9. Yarshater, Ehsan. Persian Historiography: History of Persian Literature A, Volume 10. I. B. Tauris. Pp. 1–400. ISBN 9780857721402. Media related to Muhammad Bal'ami at Wikimedia Commons
Kar-Namag i Ardashir i Pabagan
The Kār-Nāmag ī Ardašīr ī Pābagān, is a short Middle Persian prose tale written in the Sassanid period. The story narrates the story of the founder of the Sassanid dynasty, his own life story—his rise to the throne, battle against the Parthian king Ardawān, conquest of the empire by the scion of the House of Sāsān, as well as episodes concerning his heir Šābuhr and the latter’s son, OhrmazdWhen Ardashir was born he spent his childhood in the court of Artabanus IV of Parthia and ran away with a servant of the King. After several wars with Artabanus, Ardashir I defeated and killed the king, thus could found the new empire; the Karnamag is permeated with Zoroastrian doctrine. The sole independent manuscript of this text to have been identified so far is codex MK, copied in 1322 in Gujarat by Mihrābān ī Kay-Husraw, a gifted copyist belonging to a well known family of scribes; the book narrates the epic adventures of the founder of the Sassanid Empire. The story relates how Ardashir's father Papak, dreamed that his father Sassan would be reborn as Ardashir.
According to the story, Ardashir I was the natural son of Sassan. A rescension of the same story is found in the Shahnama. However, The contents of the text draw from more ancient Iranian lore, since some traits of Ardashir’s life as narrated in this work reflect themes known from the legend of Cyrus the Great. Mary Boyce, a British scholar of Iranian languages, commented that "This is a short prose work, simple in style written in Pars towards the end of the Sasanian period, it too was evidently the work of priests, a comparison of it with Firdausi's rendering shows how Zoroastrian elements were obliterated in the Muslim redaction. The Kârnâmag contains some historical details; the story starts with the favorite maid of the Parthian king Ardavan, who fell in love with Ardashir and informed him of a prophecy, announced to the sovereign by the chief astrologer. The maid escaped Ardavand's domain and together with Ardashir, they escape on two horses stolen from the stables of Ardavan. Ardavan and his troops follow on the trail of Ardashir.
During this pursuit, Ardavan questions passers-by, who tell them that had seen the couple on the run followed by a large ram. The king interrogates his Dastur about the meaning of this scene, the sage answers that the ram represents the royal xwarrah, which had not yet joined with Ardashir. In the Persian mythology, once a king possesses the divine xwarrah, he is invincible. During the second day of pursuit, Ardavan is told that the ram sat on the back of Ardashir I’s horse, he is advised by the Dastur to stop his pursuit since Ardashir I now possesses the divine xwarrah. The story follows with the description of Ardashir's triumph over Ardavan in the battle of Hormuzagān. Follows his campaign against a group of nomads and his victory against Haftobād through a stratagem suggested by the pious brothers Burzag and Burz-Ādur, he defeats Haftobād by pouring molten copper down the creature's throat. The last part of the story relates to the son of Ardashir, Shapur I, the life of the son of the latter, Ohrmazd.
Ardashir’s wife, the daughter of Ardawān, instigated by her brothers, makes an attempt on the king’s life. The plot fails and Ardashīr sentences her to death, notwithstanding her but the wise and compassionate Zoroastrian priest, without the knowledge of Ardashir, spares her life so that she may give birth to Shapur. Shapur is raised in the house of the Mowbed. Ardashir had no knowledge of the priest sparing the life of his son. According to the Shahnama, the holy man castrates himself. Years the Mowbed tells Ardashir that he saved Shapur I and is rewarded by Ardashir I. An Indian astrologer foretells that Iran will only be strong if Ardashir's family is united with that of his mortal enemy Mihrag. Ardashir, however had exterminated them. However, a girl from the family of Mihrag marries Shapur, thus the son of Shapur, Ohrmazd, is born and he unites the entire Eranshahr under his command and receives tribute and homage from the other kings of the time. The story has been translated to numerous languages.
The oldest English translation is translated by Darab Dastur Peshotan Sanjana, B. A. 1896. Middle Persian transliteration in Latin script: pad kārnāmag ī ardaxšīr ī pābagān ēdōn nibišt ēstād kū pas az marg ī alaksandar ī hrōmāyīg ērānšahr 240 kadag-xwadāy būd. spahān ud pārs ud kustīhā ī awiš nazdīktar pad dast ī ardawān sālār būd. pābag marzobān ud šahryār ī pārs būd ud az gumārdagān ī ardawān būd. ud pad staxr nišast. Ud pābag rāy ēč frazand ī nām-burdār nē būd. ud sāsān šubān ī pābag būd ud hamwār abāg gōspandān būd ud az tōhmag ī dārā ī dārāyān būd ud andar dušxwadāyīh ī alaksandar ō wirēg ud nihān-rawišnīh ēstād ud abāg kurdān šubānān raft. Modern Persian translation: در کارنامهٔ اردشیر بابکان ایدون نوشته شدهاست که پس از مرگ اسکندر رومی، ایرانشهر را ۲۴۰ کدخدای بود. اسپهان و پارس و سامانهای نزدیک به آنها در دست سالار اردوان بود. بابک شهریار و مرزبان پارس و از گماردگان اردوان بود و در استخر نشیمن داشت. بابک را هیچ فرزند نامبرداری نبود. و ساسان، شبانِ بابک بود، همواره همراه با گوسفندان بود و از تخمهٔ دارایِ دارایان بود.
و اندر دژخدایی اسکندر به گریز و نهانروش شده بود و با کُردهای شبان میرفت. Pahlavi literature The Middle Persian text English translation of the Book of the Deeds of Ardashir, Son of Babag C. G. CERETI, "KĀR-NĀMAG Ī ARDAŠĪR Ī
Ganj Name is an ancient inscription, 5 km south-west of Hamedan, on the side of Alvand Mountain in Iran. The inscriptions were carved in granite in two sections; the one on the left was ordered by the one on the right by Xerxes the Great. Both sections were carved in three ancient languages: Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Elamite; the inscriptions start with praise of the Zoroastrian God and describe the lineage and deeds of the mentioned kings. Generations who could not read the Cuneiform alphabets of the ancient Persian assumed that they contained the guide to an uncovered treasure; the name means "treasure epistle", but it has been called Jangnameh whose literal translation is "war epistle". The translation of the text on the right plate, attributed to Xerxes, is: "The Great God Ahuramazda, greatest of all the gods, who created the earth and the sky and the people. Two modern contemporary carved tablets have been placed in the site's parking lot with Persian explanation and its English translation
Abū'Abd Allāh Ja'far ibn Muḥammad al-Rūdhakī, better known as Rudaki, known as "Adam of Poets", was a Persian poet regarded as the first great literary genius of the Modern Persian language. Rudaki composed poems in the modern Persian alphabet and is considered a founder of classical Persian literature, his poetry contains many of the oldest genres of Persian poetry including the quatrain, only a small percentage of his extensive poetry has survived. As it seems, Rudaki was the first person to combine different roles that were yet distinguishable entitles in the 9th century royal court: musician and declaimer/reciter, copyist. Rudaki was born in 859 in Rudak, a village located in the Samanid Empire, now Panjakent, located in modern-day Tajikistan. Though most of his biographers assert that he was blind, some early biographers are silent about this, or do not mention him as having been born blind, his accurate knowledge and description of colors, as evident in his poetry, renders this assertion doubtful.
Early in his life, the fame of his accomplishments reached the ear of the Samanid king Nasr II ibn Ahmad, the ruler of Khorasan and Transoxiana, who invited the poet to his court. Rudaki became his daily companion. Over the years, Rudaki amassed great wealth and became honored; some feel he deserves the title of "father of Persian literature", or the Adam or the Sultan of poets though he had various predecessors, because he was the first who impressed upon every form of epic and didactic poetry its peculiar stamp and its individual character. He is said to have been the founder of the diwan, the typical form of the complete collection of a poet's lyrical compositions in a more or less alphabetical order, which all Persian writers use today, he was a adept singer and player on the chang. He was the court poet to the Samanid ruler Nasr II in Bukhara, although he fell out of favour in 937 CE, his life was in poverty in ending years, at the same time his poetic style gained a touching melancholy.
He died in 940/941 CE, leaving behind an approximate of 100,000 couplets, out of which only fewer than 1,000 have survived. His poems are written in a simple style, having optimism and charm, but as he gets close to end of his life, a touching melancholy gets developed in his poetry. A sample of his poetry, translated into English: Look at the cloud, how it cries like a grieving man Thunder moans like a lover with a broken heart. Now and the sun peeks from behind the clouds Like a prisoner hiding from the guard; the high frequency of Shu'ubiyya thoughts in Rudaki poems is to such an extent that he can be seen as a comprehensive representative of Shu'ubiyya thoughts among Persian-language poets. He has relied more on those thoughts that the foundations of Shu'ubiyya thoughts were established over, like: racial equality. Of the 1,300,000 verses attributed to him, only 52 qasidas and rubais survived. However, the most serious loss is that of his translation of Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa's Arabic version of the old Indian fable book Kalila and Dimna, which he put into Persian verse at the request of his royal patron.
Numerous fragments, are preserved in the Persian lexicon of Asadi Tusi. In his qasidas – all of which are devoted to the praise of his sovereign and friend – unequaled models of a refined and delicate taste different from the bombastic compositions of Persian encomiasts, have survived, his didactic odes and epigrams expressed in well-measured lines a type of Epicurean philosophy of life and human happiness, more charming still are the purely lyrical pieces that glorify love and wine. There is a complete edition of all the extant poems of Rudaki that were known at the end of the 19th century, in Persian text and metrical German translation, together with a biographical account, based on forty-six Persian manuscripts, in Hermann Ethé's Rudagi der Samanidendichter. More in 1963, Saʻīd Nafīsī identified more fragments to be attributed to Rudaki and has assembled them, together with an extensive biography, in Muḥīṭ-i zindagī va aḥvāl va ashʻār-i Rūdakī; the common opinion was that Rudaki was blind from his childhood.
However, some of early biographies, including Samani and Nezami Aruzi, do not characterize his blindness as natural-born. Ferdowsi mentions in his Shahnameh that they recited Kelileh o Demneh to him and he rendered it into a poem; some of his poems seem to support the idea that he had sight: پوپک دیدم به حوالی سرخس بانگک بر بُرده به ابر اندرا چادرکی رنگین دیدم بر او رنگ بسی گونه بر آن چادرا pupak didam be havâli Saraxs bângak bar barde be abr anedrâ čâdorki-ye rangin didam bar u rang-e basi gune bar ân čâdrâ I saw a bird near the city of S