Disability in the arts
Disability in the arts is an aspect within various arts disciplines of inclusive practices involving disability. It manifests itself in the output and mission of some stage and modern dance performing-arts companies, as the subject matter of individual works of art, such as the work of specific painters and those who draw. Disability in the arts is distinguished from disability art in that it refers to art that includes people with disabilities, whether in themes, performance, or the creation of the artwork, rather than works focusing on disability as the central theme, it can refer to work, made as a political act toward shaping a new community, fostering disability culture: Disability culture is the difference between being alone and individuated with a physical, emotional or sensory difference that in our society invites discrimination and reinforces that isolation – the difference between all that and being in community. Naming oneself part of a larger group, a social movement or a subject position in modernity can help to focus energy, to understand that solidarity can be found – precariously, in improvisation, always on the verge of collapse.
People with disabilities sometimes participate in artistic activities as part of expressive therapy. Expressive therapy may take the form of writing therapy, music therapy, drama therapy, or another artistic method. While creativity and artistic expression are parts of expressive therapy, they are secondary to the goal of achieving a therapeutic benefit; this article describes disability in the arts. The physically integrated dance movement is part of the disability culture movement, which recognizes the first-person experience of disability; this means disability is integrated not as a medical model construct but as a social phenomenon, through artistic and other creative means. Beethoven is remembered for his ability to compose classic music after losing his hearing, he tried several ways of using his deteriorating hearing before it disappeared. He had the legs of his pianoforte cut off. By lying on the floor in front of the keyboard, he could feel vibrations while he played, helping him to compose.
Different attempts were made to help Beethoven with assistive technology. Thomas Broadwood, the Streichers, Conrad Graf were all piano manufacturers who tried different methods of adapting the instrument to make it louder for Beethoven: ear trumpets were attached to the soundboard, resonance plates were added to the underside of a piano, using four strings for every key were all tried. Beethoven lost all hearing, could no longer rely on an instrument to help him compose. Beethoven composed his Ninth Symphony at this time in his life. Belgian jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt was a 20-year-old, accomplished guitarist when his left hand was burned in a house fire, leaving him with only the use of two fingers for playing the fretboard on the neck of the guitar. While he recovered from his burns, his brother gave him a new guitar. Reinhardt devised his own physical therapy, he invented new techniques to compensate for the lost fingers: Instead of playing scales and arpeggios horizontally across the fretboard as was the norm, he searched out fingerings that ran vertically up and down the frets as they were easier to play with just two fingers.
He created new chord forms using a minimum of notes—often just triads with his two good fingers on the bass strings. He pushed his paralyzed fingers to grip the guitar as well, his smallest digit on the high E string, his ring finger on the B, sometimes barring his index finger to fashion chords of four to five notes, he slid his hand up and down the fretboard, employing these chord forms to craft a fluent vocabulary. Reinhardt continued to work as a guitarist, became world-famous as a recording artist. Reinhardt's creative techniques became part of the jazz guitar repertoire. Melody Gardot, a jazz vocalist, suffered a traumatic brain injury after she was hit by a car while riding a bicycle. Gardot's injury impaired her memory, including her ability to speak, she spent a year recovering in hospital. While in hospital, her therapy required her to relearn the process of completing simple tasks, such as remembering to shut off a water tap after brushing her teeth. Remembering words to complete sentences was a challenge for Gardot.
A doctor suggested that Gardot try singing sentences as an alternative to speaking them, as a way of improving her ability to remember longer sentences. Gardot discovered. Gardot gained a music following by adding recordings of her music to Myspace in 2006. Gardot is now a world-famous recording artist, in both French and English, gives concerts around the globe, she sometimes still has memory lapses while performing, Gardot needs to wear sunglasses to protect her light-sensitive eyes. She carries a cane as she experiences vertigo. In 2011, British composer Charles Hazlewood formed the British Paraorchestra, an orchestra that aims to consist of skilled disabled musicians to counter his belief that orchestras do not contain enough disabled musicians; the formation of the orchestra was the subject of a Channel 4 documentary, it performed during the closing ceremony of the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London. In the UK the One Handed Musical Instrument Trust has the objective of removing the barriers to music-making faced by the physically disabled.
It comments: "There is no orchestral instrument that can be played without two functioning hands and arms, denying unlimited p
National Telecommuting Institute
National Telecommuting Institute, Inc. is a 501 non-profit organization focused on placing Americans with Disabilities and Disabled Veterans in jobs since 1995. NTI is headquartered in Downtown Boston with virtual personnel across the United States; as the pioneers in the industry, NTI has initiated the evolution of telecommuting, helping Americans with Disabilities and has set the standards for a work-at-home environment for over 20 years. Since the inception of NTI, the non-profit has expanded into 3 Divisions: NTI@Home, LandAjob, The Staffing Connection; the Medical Transcription division was disbanded at the end of 2014. The NTI@Home division is dedicated to placing Disabled Veterans and Americans with Disabilities in Work at Home positions; the primary roles NTI fulfills include Call Centers, Customer Service, Tier I and Tier II Help Desk roles for Fortune 500 companies such as IBM, Meijer and Sykes. In addition, NTI has provided third party services to staffing agencies to help with their 508 needs.
Not only does NTI supply the people, but the call center technology as well. On June 23, 1995, NTI was started by the 3 founders, Dr. Paul Corcoran, Chairman of the Rehabilitation Department at the Tufts New England Medical Center. J. Willard, Behavioral Psychologist who had spent the prior 15 years working with individuals with severe physical disabilities function within their home environment. Prior to NTI, Dr. Willard had spent three years as a research assistant to famed psychologist B. F. Skinner and concluded that his behavior-modification methods could be used to train monkeys to help the disabled. Dr. Willard focused her efforts on a non-profit called Helping Hands: Simian Aides for the Disabled, started in 1977, she spearheaded the concept of using moneys to assist quadriplegics in daily tasks.. In the early 90’s Dr. Willard further explored existing work opportunities for individuals with physical disabilities who wanted to work from their homes. In her quest, Dr. Willard discovered.
At the time, work at home positions were scarce and she was able to place individuals only on a one on one basis. The original work at home positions consisted of appointment reminder calls for medical practices and hospitals, data entry, book indexing and medical or legal transcription services. However, Dr. Willard was faced with a dilemma having too many individuals with disabilities to place and not enough work-from-home positions in the workforce. With research funding from the Department of Education, Dr Willard interviewed experts in the employment field, who recommended she look at the areas of customer service and the call center industry. Industry experts felt. Forty years ago, virtual call center agents did not exist. Today the industry employs over 3 million Americans. 53% of call centers in the US employ remote call center agents. Experts predict. Software and hardware technology has improved to where call center managers have many options that let them monitor and escalate calls to remote agents with the same ease as if the agent was located in a physical call center facility.
The call center environment did indeed prove a good source of jobs for people with disabilities who needed to work from home. NTI's trained virtual agents meet the business needs of both government and commercial call centers. NTI places between 500 and 600 people with disabilities into call center jobs every year. National Telecommuting Institute has developed partnerships with government and commercial entities. NTI receives its primary funding from participating state vocational rehabilitation agencies, competitive grant programs, charitable donations, the Social Security Administration's Ticket to Work program as a participating Employment Network. Organizations and programs that have generously provided grants and donations to NTI include The AT&T Foundation, the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, The Fidelity Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation the U. S. Department of Education: RSA Project With Industries, the U. S. Department of Labor: Office of Disability Employment Policy; the fields such as indexing, medical billing and medical transcription and appointment reminder services were amenable to telecommuting.
However, over the past 14 years most of these positions have faded away due to the evolution of cloud based services and technology such as Dragon Dictate that have revolutionized transcription. Now, the greatest opportunity to employ individuals with disabilities in at home positions exists within the fields of Customer Service and Technology Services. Customer Service Representatives handling the inbound customer service calls within over 30,000 call centers throughout the country. Over 90% of NTI's work-at-home placements within the past three years have been within call centers and help desks. Previous NTI work-at-home agents with disabilities have been hired by employers including the IRS, Ticket Master, Home Shopping Network, Lens Express, GE Financial Services, AT&T, 1-800-Flowers, The GAP, California Pizza Kitchen, AAA Roadside Assistance. In 2004, NTI was awarded a JWOD contract with the Internal Revenue Service, placing hundreds of employees for tax forms assistance; the 70-year-old federal/state VR system is the largest network providing help to the 1.2 million Americans in the disability community who request government assistance in finding work each year.
Collectively, state VR agencies operate with a budget of $2.8 billion. Th
Terri Schiavo case
The Terri Schiavo case was a right-to-die, legal case in the United States from 1990 to 2005, involving Theresa Marie Schiavo, a woman in an irreversible persistent vegetative state. Schiavo's husband and legal guardian argued that Schiavo would not have wanted prolonged artificial life support without the prospect of recovery, elected to remove her feeding tube. Schiavo's parents disputed her husband's assertions and challenged Schiavo's medical diagnosis, arguing in favor of continuing artificial nutrition and hydration; the publicized and prolonged series of legal challenges presented by her parents, which involved state and federal politicians up to the level of President George W. Bush, caused a seven-year delay before Schiavo's feeding tube was removed. On February 25, 1990, at age 26, Schiavo sustained a cardiac arrest at her home in St. Petersburg, Florida, she was resuscitated, but had massive brain damage due to lack of oxygen to her brain and was left comatose. After two and a half months without improvement, her diagnosis was changed to that of a persistent vegetative state.
For the next two years, doctors attempted speech and physical therapy and other experimental therapy, hoping to return her to a state of awareness, without success. In 1998, Schiavo's husband, petitioned the Sixth Circuit Court of Florida to remove her feeding tube pursuant to Florida law, he was opposed by Terri's parents and Mary Schindler. The court determined that Schiavo would not have wished to continue life-prolonging measures, on April 24, 2001, her feeding tube was removed for the first time, only to be reinserted several days later. On February 25, 2005, a Pinellas County judge again ordered the removal of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube. Several appeals and federal government intervention followed, which included U. S. President George W. Bush returning to Washington D. C. to sign legislation moving the case to the federal courts. After appeals through the federal court system that upheld the original decision to remove the feeding tube, staff at the Pinellas Park hospice facility disconnected the feeding tube on March 18, 2005, Schiavo died on March 31, 2005.
The Schiavo case involved 14 appeals and numerous motions and hearings in the Florida courts. S. Congress, President George W. Bush; the case spurred visible activism from the pro-life movement, the right-to-die movement, disability rights groups. Since Schiavo's death, both her husband and her family have written books on their sides of the case, both have been involved in activism over its larger issues. Terri Schiavo was born Theresa Marie Schindler on December 3, 1963, in Lower Moreland Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, she attended Bucks County Community College, where she met Michael Schiavo in 1982. The two began dating and were married on November 10, 1984, they moved to Florida following Terri's parents. Michael worked as a restaurant manager, while Terri took up a bookkeeping job with an insurance company. In the early morning of February 25, 1990, Terri Schiavo collapsed in a hallway of her St. Petersburg, Florida apartment. Firefighters and paramedics, arriving in response to her husband Michael's 9-1-1 call, found her face-down and unconscious.
She had no pulse. They attempted to resuscitate her and she was transported to the Humana Northside Hospital. Paramedics ventilated; the cause of Terri Schiavo's collapse was determined to be cardiac arrest. Her medical chart contained a note that "she has been trying to keep her weight down with dieting by herself, drinking liquids most of the time during the day and drinking about 10–15 glasses of iced tea". Upon admission to the hospital, she was noted as suffering from hypokalemia: her serum potassium level was an abnormally low 2.0 mEq/L. Her sodium and calcium levels were normal. Electrolyte imbalance is caused by drinking excessive fluids. A serious consequence of hypokalemia can be heart rhythm abnormalities, including sudden arrhythmia death syndrome. Terri was switched from being fed by a nasogastric feeding tube to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube. Dr. Garcia J. DeSousa, board-certified neurologist in St. Petersburg, who treated Terri Schiavo, cared for her during her initial admission to Humana Northside.
From 1990 to 1993, Michael Schiavo and the Schindlers enjoyed an amicable relationship, with the Schindlers allowing Michael to live rent-free in their condominium for several months. In November 1990, Michael Schiavo took Terri to the University of California, San Francisco for experimental nerve stimulation with a thalamic stimulator; the treatment was unsuccessful. He returned to Florida with her in January 1991 and admitted her as an inpatient to the Mediplex Rehabilitation Center in Bradenton, Florida. On July 19, 1991, Terri Schiavo was transferred to the Sabal Palms Skilled Care Facility, where she received neurological testing and regular speech and occupational therapy until 1994. In mid-1993, Michael Schiavo requested a do not resuscitate order for her after she contracted a urinary tract infection. In 1992, Michael filed a
Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities or elderly population while including the process used in selecting and using them. People who have disabilities have difficulty performing activities of daily living independently, or with assistance. ADLs are self-care activities that include toileting, eating, bathing and grooming. Assistive technology can ameliorate the effects of disabilities that limit the ability to perform ADLs. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks they were unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. For example, wheelchairs provide independent mobility for those who cannot walk, while assistive eating devices can enable people who cannot feed themselves to do so. Due to assistive technology, people with disabilities have an opportunity of a more positive and easygoing lifestyle, with an increase in "social participation," "security and control," and a greater chance to "reduce institutional costs without increasing household expenses."
The term adaptive technology is used as the synonym for assistive technology. Assistive technology refers to "any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, or customized, used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities", while adaptive technology covers items that are designed for persons with disabilities and would be used by non-disabled persons. In other words, "assistive technology is any object or system that increases or maintains the capabilities of people with disabilities," while adaptive technology is "any object or system, designed for the purpose of increasing or maintaining the capabilities of people with disabilities." Adaptive technology is a subset of assistive technology. Adaptive technology refers to electronic and information technology access. Wheelchairs are devices that can be manually propelled or electrically propelled, that include a seating system and are designed to be a substitute for the normal mobility that most people have.
Wheelchairs and other mobility devices allow people to perform mobility-related activities of daily living which include feeding, dressing and bathing. The devices come in a number of variations where they can be propelled either by hand or by motors where the occupant uses electrical controls to manage motors and seating control actuators through a joystick, sip-and-puff control, or other input devices. There are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing or input devices for caregivers. Wheelchairs are used by people for whom walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. People with both sitting and walking disability need to use a wheelchair or walker. Patient transfer devices allow patients with impaired mobility to be moved by caregivers between beds, commodes, chairs, shower benches, swimming pools, other patient support systems; the most common devices are Patient lifts, Transfer benches, stretcher or convertible chairs, sit-to-stand lifts, air bearing inflatable mattresses, sliding boards.
Dependent patients who cannot assist their caregiver in moving them require a Patient lift which though invented in 1955 and in common use since the early 1960s is still considered the state-of-the-art transfer device by OSHA and the American Nursing Association. A walker or walking frame or Rollator is a tool for disabled people who need additional support to maintain balance or stability while walking, it consists of a frame, about waist high twelve inches deep and wider than the user. Walkers are available in other sizes, such as for children, or for heavy people. Modern walkers are height-adjustable; the front two legs of the walker may or may not have wheels attached depending on the strength and abilities of the person using it. It is common to see caster wheels or glides on the back legs of a walker with wheels on the front. A prosthesis, prosthetic, or prosthetic limb is a device, it is part of the field of biomechatronics, the science of using mechanical devices with human muscle and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease, or defect.
Prostheses are used to replace parts lost by injury or missing from birth or to supplement defective body parts. Inside the body, artificial heart valves are in common use with artificial hearts and lungs seeing less common use but under active technology development. Other medical devices and aids that can be considered prosthetics include hearing aids, artificial eyes, palatal obturator, gastric bands, dentures. Prostheses are not orthoses, although given certain circumstances a prosthesis might end up performing some or all of the same functionary benefits as an orthosis. Prostheses are technically the complete finished item. For instance, a C-Leg knee alone is not a prosthesis, but only a
Million Dollar Baby
Million Dollar Baby is a 2004 American sports drama film directed, co-produced, scored by Clint Eastwood, starring Eastwood, Hilary Swank, Morgan Freeman. This film is about an underappreciated boxing trainer, the mistakes that haunt him from his past, his quest for atonement by helping an underdog amateur boxer achieve her dream of becoming a professional. Million Dollar Baby opened to wide acclaim from critics, won four Academy Awards, including Best Picture, its screenplay was written by Paul Haggis, based on short stories by F. X. Toole, the pen name of fight manager and cutman Jerry Boyd. Published under the title Rope Burns, the stories have since been republished under the film's title. Margaret "Maggie" Fitzgerald, a waitress from a Missouri town in the Ozarks, shows up in the Hit Pit, a run-down Los Angeles gym owned and operated by Frankie Dunn, an old, cantankerous boxing trainer. Maggie asks Frankie to train her, but he refuses. Maggie works out tirelessly each day in his gym after Frankie tells her she's "too old" to begin a boxing career at her age.
Eddie "Scrap-Iron" Dupris, Frankie's friend and employee—and the film's narrator—encourages and helps her. Frankie's prize prospect, "Big Willie” Little, signs with successful manager Mickey Mack after becoming impatient with Frankie rejecting offers for a championship bout. With prodding from Scrap and impressed with her persistence, Frankie reluctantly agrees to train Maggie, he warns her that he will teach her only the basics and find her a manager. Other than Maggie and his employees, the only person Frankie has contact with is a local priest, with whom he spars verbally at daily Mass. Before her first fight, Frankie leaves Maggie with a random manager in his gym, much to her dismay. A natural, she fights her way up in the women's amateur boxing division with Frankie's coaching, winning many of her lightweight bouts with first-round knockouts. Earning a reputation for her KOs, Frankie must resort to bribery to get other managers to put their trainee fighters up against her. Frankie takes a risk by putting her in the junior welterweight class, where her nose is broken in her first match.
Frankie comes to establish a paternal bond with Maggie. Scrap, concerned when Frankie rejects several offers for big fights, arranges a meeting for her with Mickey Mack at a diner on her 33rd birthday. Out of loyalty, she declines. Frankie begrudgingly accepts a fight for her against a top-ranked opponent in the UK, where he bestows a Gaelic nickname on her; the two travel to Europe. Frankie is willing to arrange a title fight, he secures Maggie a $1 million match in Las Vegas, Nevada against the WBA women's welterweight champion, Billie "The Blue Bear" Osterman, a German ex-prostitute who has a reputation as a dirty fighter. Overcoming a shaky start, Maggie begins to dominate the fight, but after a round has ended, Billie knocks her out with an illegal sucker punch from behind after the bell has sounded to indicate the end of the round. Before Frankie can pull the corner stool out of the way, Maggie lands hard on it, breaking her neck and leaving her a ventilator-dependent quadriplegic. Frankie is shown experiencing the first three of the five stages of grief: first seeking multiple doctors' opinions in denial blaming Scrap in anger and trying to bargain with God through prayer.
In a medical rehabilitation facility, Maggie looks forward to a visit from her family, but they arrive accompanied by an attorney. She orders them to leave, threatening to sell the house and inform the IRS of her mother's welfare fraud if they show their faces again; as the days pass, Maggie undergoes an amputation for an infected leg. She asks a favor of Frankie: to help her die, declaring that she got everything she wanted out of life. A horrified Frankie refuses, Maggie bites her tongue in an attempt to bleed to death, but the medical staff saves her and takes measures to prevent further suicide attempts; the priest Frankie has harassed for 23 years, Father Horvak, warns him that he would never find himself again if he were to go through with Maggie's wishes. Frankie sneaks into the hospital one night, unaware. Just before administering a fatal injection of adrenaline, he tells Maggie the meaning of a nickname he gave her, Mo Chuisle: Irish for "my darling, my blood", he never returns to the gym.
Scrap's narration is revealed to be a letter to Frankie's daughter, informing her of her father's true character. The last shot of the film shows Frankie sitting at the counter of a diner where Maggie once took him, after having a homemade lemon meringue pie with her, said "Now I can die and go to heaven". Clint Eastwood as Frankie Dunn, a gruff but well-meaning elderly boxing trainer. Hilary Swank as Mary Margaret "Maggie" Fitzgerald, a determined, aspiring boxer trained up by Frankie Dunn. Morgan Freeman as Eddie "Scrap-Iron" Dupris, Dunn's gym assistant. Jay Ba
Occupational therapy is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists and Occupational Therapy Assistants. OTs work with people with mental health problems, injuries, or impairments; the American Occupational Therapy Association defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities. Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation, providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes."Typically, occupational therapists are university-educated professionals and must pass a licensing exam to practice. Occupational therapists work with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, clinical psychology, medicine.
The earliest evidence of using occupations as a method of therapy can be found in ancient times. In c. 100 BCE, Greek physician Asclepiades treated patients with a mental illness humanely using therapeutic baths, massage and music. The Roman Celsus prescribed music, travel and exercise to his patients. However, by medieval times the use of these interventions with people with mental illness was rare, if not nonexistent. In 18th-century Europe, revolutionaries such as Philippe Pinel and Johann Christian Reil reformed the hospital system. Instead of the use of metal chains and restraints, their institutions used rigorous work and leisure activities in the late 18th century; this was the Moral Treatment era, developed in Europe during the Age of Enlightenment, where the roots of occupational therapy lie. Although it was thriving in Europe, interest in the reform movement fluctuated in the United States throughout the 19th century, it re-emerged in the early decades of the 20th century as Occupational Therapy.
The Arts and Crafts movement that took place between 1860 and 1910 impacted occupational therapy. In the US, a industrialized country, the arts and crafts societies emerged against the monotony and lost autonomy of factory work. Arts and crafts were used as a way of promoting learning through doing, provided a creative outlet, served as a way to avoid boredom during long hospital stays. Eleanor Clarke Slagle is considered to be the “mother” of occupational therapy. Slagle, one of the founding members of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, proposed habit training as a primary occupational therapy model of treatment. Based on the philosophy that engagement in meaningful routines shape a person's wellbeing, habit training focused on creating structure and balance between work and leisure. Although habit training was developed to treat individuals with mental health conditions, its basic tenets are apparent in modern treatment models that are utilized across a wide scope of client populations.
In 1915 Slagle opened the first occupational therapy training program, the Henry B. Favill School of Occupations, at Hull House in Chicago. Slagle went on to serve as secretary. In 1954, AOTA created the Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lectureship Award in her honor; each year, this award recognizes a member of AOTA “who has who has creatively contributed to the development of the body of knowledge of the profession through research, and/or clinical practice.” The health profession of occupational therapy was conceived in the early 1910s as a reflection of the Progressive Era. Early professionals merged valued ideals, such as having a strong work ethic and the importance of crafting with one's own hands with scientific and medical principles; the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, now called the American Occupational Therapy Association, was founded in 1917 and the profession of Occupational Therapy was named in 1921. William Rush Dunton, one of the founders of NSPOT and visionary figure in the first decades of the profession struggled with "the cumbersomeness of the term occupational therapy", as it lacked the "exactness of meaning, possessed by scientific terms".
Other titles such as "work-cure","ergo therapy", "creative occupations" were discussed as substitutes, but none possessed the broad meaning that the practice of occupational therapy demanded in order to capture the many forms of treatment that existed from the beginning. The emergence of occupational therapy challenged the views of mainstream scientific medicine. Instead of focusing purely on the medical model, occupational therapists argued that a complex combination of social and biological reasons cause dysfunction. Principles and techniques were borrowed from many disciplines—including but not limited to physical therapy, psychiatry, self-help and social work—to enrich the profession's scope. Between 1900 and 1930, the founders developed supporting theories. By the early 1930s, AOTA had established educational guidelines and accreditation procedures; the early twentieth century was a time in which the rising incidence of disability related to industrial accidents, World War I, mental illness brought about an increasing social awareness of the issues involved.
The entry of the United States into World War I was a crucial event in the history of the profession. Up until this time, occupational therapy had been concerned primaril
Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities and physical disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to 5 million athletes and Unified Sports partners in 172 countries. Special Olympics competitions are held every day, all around the world—including local and regional competitions, adding up to more than 100,000 events a year. Like the International Paralympic Committee, the Special Olympics organization is recognized by the International Olympic Committee; the Special Olympics World Games is a major event put on by the Special Olympics. The World Games alternate between summer and winter games, in two-year cycles, recurring every fourth year; the first games were held on July 20, 1968 in Chicago, with about 1000 athletes from the U. S. and Canada. International participation expanded in subsequent games. In 2003, the first summer games held outside the United States were in Dublin, Ireland with 7000 athletes from 150 countries.
The most recent World Summer Games were held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, from March 14 to 21 2019. This was the first Special Olympics; the next World Summer Games will be held in Berlin, Germany in 2023. This will be the first time that Germany has hosted the Special Olympics World Games; the first World Winter Games were held in 1977 in Colorado. Austria hosted the first Winter Games outside the United States in 1993; the most recent Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in Graz and Ramsau, Austria from March 14, 2017 to March 25, 2017. During the World Winter Games of 2013 in Pyeongchang, South Korea the first Special Olympics Global Development Summit was held on "Ending the Cycle of Poverty and Exclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities," gathering government officials and business leaders from around the world; the next World Winter Games will be held in Åre and Östersund, Sweden between February 2 to 13 2021. This will be the first time that Sweden has hosted the Special Olympics.
In June 1962, Eunice Kennedy Shriver started a day camp called Camp Shriver for children with intellectual and physical disabilities at her home in Potomac, Maryland. The camp sought to address the concern that children with disabilities had little opportunity to participate in organised athletic events. With Camp Shriver as an example, Kennedy Shriver, head of the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation and a member of President John F. Kennedy's Panel on Mental Retardation, promoted the concept of involvement in physical activity and other opportunities for people with intellectual disabilities. Camp Shriver became an annual event, the Kennedy Foundation gave grants to universities, recreation departments, community centers to hold similar camps. In the early 1960s, Kennedy Shriver wrote an article in the Saturday Evening Post, revealing that her sister Rosemary President John F. Kennedy's sister, was born with intellectual disabilities; this frank article about the President's family was seen as a "watershed" in changing public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities.
Rosemary's disability provided Kennedy Shriver with an overall vision that people with intellectual disabilities could compete and at the same time unify in public. It has been said that Rosemary's disability was Eunice's inspiration to form Special Olympics, but she told The New York Times in 1995 that, not the case. "The games should not focus on one individual," she said. In 1958, Dr. James N. Oliver of England had conducted pioneering research, including a ground-breaking study showing that physical exercise and activities for children with intellectual disabilities had positive effects that carried over into the classroom. Dr. Oliver in 1964 served as a consultant to Camp Shriver; the 1964 research of Dr. Frank Hayden, a Canadian physical education professor from London, demonstrated that persons with intellectual disabilities can and should participate in physical exercise, he believed. With the help of a local school that offered space in its gym, Hayden started one of the first public organised sports programs, floor hockey for individuals with intellectual disabilities, in the fall of 1968.
In the mid-1960s, Hayden developed an idea for national games, his work brought him to the attention of the Kennedy Foundation. He shared his ideas for national games, while taking a teaching sabbatical and working for the foundation; the first Special Olympics games were held in July 1968 at Soldier Field in Chicago. About 1,000 athletes from the U. S. and Canada took part in the one-day event, a joint venture by the Kennedy Foundation and the Chicago Park District. Anne McGlone Burke a physical education teacher with the Chicago Park District, began with the idea for a one-time, city-wide, Olympic-style athletic competition for people with special needs. Burke approached the Kennedy Foundation in 1967 to fund the event. Kennedy Shriver, in turn, encouraged her to expand the idea beyond the city and the foundation provided a grant of $25,000; when Burke had approached another charity for funding, she was told, "You should be ashamed of yourself pu