Add Violence is the sixth extended play by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails. Released through The Null Corporation and Capitol Records on July 19, 2017, it is the second in a trilogy of releases, following the EP Not the Actual Events and preceding the band's ninth studio album Bad Witch, it was produced by Atticus Ross. Moving away from the more aggressive nature of Not The Actual Events, the EP focused more on soundscapes and textures alongside their traditional elements, similar to that of The Fragile, which resulted in more longform compositions; the release was promoted with two singles: "Less Than" and "This Isn't the Place", along with their accompanying music videos. Add Violence received a positive response from critics, reached No. 17 on the U. S. charts. In an interview with Zane Lowe, Reznor said: Critical reception for the EP was positive. At Metacritic, which assigns a rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the EP received an average score of 77, based on 11 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
Gavin Miller from Drowned in Sound gave the EP a score of 8 out of 10, writing that "it's a little light on substance, but what we do get is a fascinating insight into where Reznor is at with NIN at the moment". Kory Grow of Rolling Stone gave the album a positive review, saying that it "contains all the aggression and self-loathing that solidified Reznor's position as alt-rock's Original Angster but with the measured restraint of a man his age". All tracks written by Atticus Ross. Credits adapted from liner notes. Nine Inch NailsTrent Reznor – songwriting, production, performance Atticus Ross – songwriting, production, performanceAdditional musiciansSharlotte Gibson – additional vocals Allison Iraheta – additional vocals Technical42 Entertainment – world integration and execution Tom Baker – mastering John Crawford – art direction Corey Holms – additional design Chris Holmes – engineering Church Lieu – additional concept development Dustin Mosley – engineering Alan Moulder – mixing Jun Murakawa – engineering Geoff Neal - engineering Chris Richardson – engineering
Before the Flood (film)
Before the Flood is a 2016 documentary film about climate change directed by Fisher Stevens. The film was produced as a collaboration between Stevens, Leonardo DiCaprio, James Packer, Brett Ratner, Trevor Davidoski, Jennifer Davisson Killoran. Martin Scorsese is an executive producer; the film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2016, was released theatrically on October 21, before airing on the National Geographic Channel on October 30. As part of National Geographic's commitment to covering climate change, the documentary was made available and free of charge on various platforms, the film can be streamed for free on National Geographic Channels through November 7, 2017. At the European premiere in London in October 2016, DiCaprio introduced the film as follows: Before The Flood is the product of an incredible three-year journey that took place with my co-creator and director Fisher Stevens. We went to every corner of the globe to document the devastating impacts of climate change and questioned humanity's ability to reverse what may be the most catastrophic problem mankind has faced.
There was a lot to take in. All that we witnessed on this journey shows us that our world's climate is interconnected and that it is at urgent breaking point.... We wanted to create a film that gave people a sense of urgency, that made them understand what particular things are going to solve this problem. We bring up the issue of a carbon tax, for example. Sway a capitalist economy to try to invest in renewables, to bring less money and subsidies out of oil companies; these are the things that are going to make a massive difference.... We need to use our vote... We cannot afford to have political leaders out there that do not believe in modern science or the scientific method or empirical truths... We cannot afford to waste time having people in power that choose to believe in the 2 percent of the scientific community, bought off by lobbyists and oil companies; the film shows DiCaprio visiting various regions of the globe exploring the impact of global warming. As a narrator, DiCaprio comments these encounters as well as archive footages.
DiCaprio references a 15th-century triptych by Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, which, he explains, hung above his crib as an infant, which he uses as an analogy of the present course of the world toward potential ruin as depicted on its final panel. The film documents, in part, the production of DiCaprio's 2015 film The Revenant. DiCaprio's comments and inquiries focus extensively on climate change denial among corporate lobbyists and politicians of the United States. Along with DiCaprio, the documentary's subjects include Barack Obama, Pope Francis, Sunita Narain, Anote Tong, John Kerry, Elon Musk, Alejandro González Iñárritu, Piers Sellers, Johan Rockström, Greg Mankiw, Gidon Eshel, Farwiza Farhan, Ian Singleton, Lindsey Allen, Jeremy Jackson, Thomas Esang Remengesau Jr. Alvin Lin, Ma Jun, Michael E. Mann, Philip Levine, Jason E. Box, Dr. Enric Sala, Michael Brune, Ban Ki-Moon. Subjects for the DVD's extra or deleted scenes include: Steven Z. Jacobson, Steven Chu, Andrew Baker, Ben Kirtman, Enric Sala.
Topics include education, coral and urgency. The film was made available on the internet between October 30 and November 6, 2016, the run up to US Election Day, having aired on the National Geographic Channel in 171 countries and on some countries' national television channels; the film is subtitled in 45 languages. The film had been watched more than 2 million times on the day following its release; the film takes a closer look into the possibility of a carbon tax benefiting the American nation. In addition, they state that, "the carbon emissions from Before the Flood were offset through a voluntary carbon tax." The film received positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, it has a 72% approval rating, based on 29 reviews. On Metacritic, it has a score of 63 out of 100, based on 10 critics, indicating "Generally favorable reviews."Before the Flood was described as "surprisingly moving" in W and as "a heartfelt, educational documentary about the most important issue of our time" by The Guardian.
Variety praised the fact that "given the sincerity of its message, its ability to assemble such a watchable and comprehensive account gives it an undeniable urgency," stating that "where the film succeeds the most is by focusing on the ground-level victims of climate change, whether the polar bears of the Arctic, or the inhabitants of island nations like Kiribati." The film's soundtrack was written and performed by Mogwai, Trent Reznor, Atticus Ross, Gustavo Santaolalla. Official website Before the Flood on Dailymotion National Geographic's Free to Watch Site hosting'Before the Flood' until November 7, 2017 - http://natgeotv.com/ Before the Flood on IMDb Before the Flood at Rotten Tomatoes Before the Flood at Metacritic
Industrial rock is a musical genre that fuses industrial music and rock music. Experimental'60s group Cromagnon are said to have been one of the bands that helped foresee the birth of industrial rock, their song "Caledonia" has been noted for its "pre-industrial stomp". Krautrock musicians Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger included industrial noise in their track "Negativland". Neu! Inspired the opening track "Speed of Life" on David Bowie's Low recorded in Berlin. Bowie collaborated with Iggy Pop on his 1977 solo debut The Idiot; the closing track "Mass Production" features mechanical sounds sampled on tape loops which influenced Joy Division who were signed to the industrially themed label Factory Records, founded in 1978. Chrome has been credited as the "beginning of industrial rock" and their 1978 Half Machine Lip Moves was listed on Wire's 100 Records that set the world on fire. Industrial rock was created in the mid- to late 1970s, amidst the punk rock revolution and disco fever. Prominent early industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, NON, SPK and Z'EV.
Many other artists have been cited as influences such as Kraftwerk and Gary Numan and Tubeway Army as well as Einstürzende Neubauten and Fad Gadget. Many other musical performers were incorporating industrial music elements into a variety of musical styles; some post-punk performers developed styles parallel to industrial music's defining attributes. Pere Ubu's debut, The Modern Dance, was described as "industrial". Killing Joke, considered by Simon Reynolds as "a post-punk version of heavy metal". According to Chris Connelly, Foetus "is the instigator when it comes to the marriage of machinery to hardcore punk."Others followed in their wake. The New York City band Swans were inspired by the local No Wave scene, as well as punk rock, noise music and the original industrial groups. Steve Albini's Big Black followed a similar path, while incorporating American hardcore punk. Big Black has been associated with post-hardcore and noise rock, though their ties to industrial music are apparent; the Swiss trio The Young Gods, who deliberately eschewed electric guitars in favor of a sampler took inspiration from both hardcore and industrial, being indebted to the Bad Brains and Foetus.
In the 1990s, industrial rock broke into the mainstream with artists and bands such as Nine Inch Nails, Rob Zombie, White Zombie, Marilyn Manson. In December 1992, Nine Inch Nails' EP Broken was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Nine Inch Nails gained further popularity with the release of their 1994 album The Downward Spiral; the Downward Spiral was certified 4x platinum by the RIAA in 1998. Nine Inch Nails' 1999 album The Fragile was certified 2x platinum in January 2000. With the success of Nine Inch Nails, the band's debut album Pretty Hate Machine was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA. In the 1990s, four Nine Inch Nails songs went on the Billboard Hot 100. Several industrial rock and industrial metal artists such as KMFDM, Fear Factory, Gravity Kills and Sister Machine Gun appeared on the 1995 Mortal Kombat: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack; the soundtrack was certified platinum by the RIAA in January 1996. Marilyn Manson released their album Antichrist Superstar in 1996.
The album was certified platinum by the RIAA two months after its release date. In the United States, Antichrist Superstar sold at least 1,900,000 units. Marilyn Manson's EP Smells Like Children was certified platinum in May 1998. Marilyn Manson's album Mechanical Animals went to number 1, selling 223,000 copies in its first week in stores, knocking The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill by Lauryn Hill off of the top spot. Mechanical Animals was certified platinum by the RIAA in February 1999 and sold at least 1,409,000 copies in the United States. Orgy experienced mainstream success during the 1990s; the band's 1998 album Candyass was certified platinum by the RIAA in July 1999. Orgy's cover of New Order's song "Blue Monday" went to number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 2 on the Dance Club Songs chart. White Zombie experimented with industrial metal on its 1995 album Astro-Creep 2000, certified 2x platinum by the RIAA in March 1996. White Zombie's vocalist Rob Zombie began creating pure industrial metal albums in his solo career.
Rob Zombie's solo debut studio album Hellbilly Deluxe was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA less than two years after its release date. In November 1999, Powerman 5000's album Tonight the Stars Revolt! was certified platinum by the RIAA. The album sold at least 1,316,172 units in the United States. Wax Trax! Records Nothing Records Industrial rock musical groups Industrial rock sales and awards List of industrial music bands Blush, Steven. American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Los Angeles, CA: Feral House. Chantler, Chris. "Splitting heirs". Terrorizer, 96: 54-5. Connelly, Chris. Concrete, Invisible + Fried: My Life as a Revolting Cock. London: SAF Publishing. Irvin, Jim; the Mojo Collection: The greatest albums of all time. Edinburgh: Canongate. Licht, Alan. "Tunnel vision". The Wire, 233: 30-37. Mörat. "Ye gods!" Kerrang!, 411: 12. Reynolds, Simon. Rip it up and start again: Postpunk 1978-1984. London: Faber and Faber Limited. Sharp, Chris. "Atari Teenage Riot: 60 second wipe out". The Wire, 183: 48-49. Stud, B.
& Stud, T.. "Heaven up here". Melody Maker: 26-27. Vale, Vivian. RE/Search #6-#7: Industrial culture handbook. San Francisco, CA: RE/SEARCH PUBLICATIONS. Reed, S. Ale
Industrial metal is the fusion of heavy metal music and industrial music employing repeating metal guitar riffs, synthesizer or sequencer lines, distorted vocals. Prominent industrial metal acts include Godflesh, KMFDM and Nine Inch Nails. Industrial metal developed in the late 1980s, as industrial and metal began to fuse into a common genre. In the early years of the 21st century, groups from the black metal scene began to incorporate elements of industrial music. Industrial metal did well in the early 1990s in North America, with the success of groups such as Nine Inch Nails; the industrial metal movement began to fade in the latter half of the 1990s. Though electric guitars had been used by industrial artists since the early days of the genre, archetypal industrial groups such as Throbbing Gristle displayed a strong anti-rock stance. British post-punk band Killing Joke pioneered the crossing over between styles, was an influence on major acts associated with industrial metal such as Ministry and Nine Inch Nails.
Another pioneer industrial rock group, Big Black impacted some groups. By the late 1980s industrial and heavy metal began to fuse into a common genre, with Godflesh's self-titled EP and Ministry's The Land of Rape and Honey at the forefront. Godflesh was founded by former Napalm Death guitarist Justin Broadrick. Drawing from a wide array of influences—power electronics forefathers Whitehouse, noise rock band Swans, ambient music creator Brian Eno and fellow Birmingham hard rockers Black Sabbath—the Godflesh sound was once described as "Pornography-era Cure on Quaaludes". Though not a top-seller, Godflesh nonetheless became an influential act, their name mentioned by Korn, Danzig, Faith No More, Fear Factory. Ministry emerged from the scene surrounding Wax Trax! Records, a Chicago label dedicated to industrial music. Ministry's initial foray into guitar rock happened during a recording session of The Land of Rape and Honey on Southern Studios, in London; the band's frontman, the Cuban-born Al Jourgensen, explained this transition: Rediscovering the guitar on this record was like the first day I got my Fairlight.
The possibilities just seemed endless on something. That's funny. I started out as a guitarist, but I hadn't touched a guitar in five years. I heard that first feedback come out of the Marshall stack and all of a sudden it was like there was a whole new parameter within guitar playing itself – in combination with sounds that you get out of a keyboard. Jourgensen seemed fond of thrash metal. After the release of Land, he recruited guitarist Mike Scaccia from Texas thrashers Rigor Mortis. On one occasion, Jourgensen told the press, he expressed the desire to produce a Metallica album. Jourgensen's interest in dance-oriented electronic music did not fade, however. German band KMFDM was another seminal industrial metal group. Although not a metal fan, KMFDM leader Sascha Konietzko's "infatuation with ripping off metal licks" stemmed from his experiments with E-mu's Emax sampler in late 1986, he told Guitar World that, It was just interesting to use it as a kind of white noise reinforcement for our music.
All of a sudden heavy metal was free from all those tempo changes and boring attitudes it always had. What I always hated most about heavy metal was that the best riffs came only once and were never repeated. So the fascination was to sample a great riff, loop it, play it over and over again. A Swiss trio, The Young Gods, brushed with the style on L'Eau Rouge. Prior to its release, singer Franz Treichler declared: We just wanted to hear guitars. We missed the attack of'Envoyé'. That's, pure power. A metal sound that isn't revivalist, isn't biker style, speed metal style, any style, just WHAP! Canadian thrash metal band Malhavoc became another early pioneer of the genre when they began to mix thrash metal with industrial music in the late 1980sPigface, formed by Martin Atkins and including Ministry drummer Bill Rieflin, emerged as an industrial metal collective of sorts, participating with many figures from the noise rock and industrial worlds. Nine Inch Nails, the "one-man-band" formed by Trent Reznor, brought the genre to mainstream audiences with albums such as the Grammy-winning Broken and the best-selling The Downward Spiral, accompanied by their groundbreaking performance at Woodstock'94.
The rivethead subculture developed at this time, along with the so-called "coldwave" subgenre, which encompassed Chemlab, 16 Volt, Acumen Nation. Some electro-industrial groups adopted industrial metal techniques in this period, including Skinny Puppy, Front Line Assembly. British band Pitchshifter, formed in 1989 by brothers Jon and Mark Clayden started as an industrial metal band; the band included elements of drum and bass. Frontman JS mentions: In the early days we were inspired by bands like Head of David and Swans and the like... coming out of punk into the weird, total noise, kind of pre-industrial music. It gets called industrial but I don't know if it is. Industrial metal's popularity led a number of successful thrash metal groups, including Megadeth and Anthrax, to request remixes by "industrial" artists; some musicians emerging from the death metal scene, such as Fear Factory, Nailbomb and Meathook Seed began to experiment with industrial. Fear Factory, from Los Angeles, were influenced by the Earache roster (namely Godflesh
Bad Witch is the ninth studio album by American industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, released on June 22, 2018, by The Null Corporation and Capitol Records. Their first album since Hesitation Marks, it is the last of a trilogy of releases, following their two previous EPs Not The Actual Events and Add Violence. Like with their previous releases, it was produced by frontman Trent Atticus Ross; the record diverges from the style of previous Nine Inch Nails work, notably by the inclusion of jazz instrumentation in the music, including saxophone performances by Reznor. The album is reminiscent to David Bowie's final studio album Blackstar, whom Reznor had collaborated with two decades prior. At just over half an hour long, the record is Nine Inch Nails' shortest full-length release to date; the Cold and Black and Infinite North America 2018 Tour was announced alongside its release to promote the album, in addition to the album's sole single, "God Break Down the Door". Upon release, Bad Witch was well-received by critics.
The album reached number 12 in the UK, as well as the top five of various Billboard charts. In 2016, Nine Inch Nails planned a trilogy of EPs, starting with Not the Actual Events; the second EP, Add Violence, was released in 2017. Regarding the third entry in the trilogy and its delayed production, frontman Trent Reznor said: Following a handful of concerts in support of Add Violence, Reznor was enthusiastic to begin work on the final part of the trilogy. After experiencing creative difficulty in the studio, he and bandmate Atticus Ross decided to focus on doing something "exciting" and "risky", which included the incorporation of saxophone; those sessions led to Bad Witch, a studio album inspired in part by David Bowie. While Bad Witch was set to be an EP, it developed into a full-length album. Reznor saw the trio of planned EPs as one long album with three smaller components, after seeing how EPs tend to be overlooked, Reznor decided to promote Bad Witch to a full album. Musically, Bad Witch is a concise album that utilizes aggressive instrumentation and vocals associated with industrial rock and quieter, more somber music most prominent in the two instrumental tracks on the record.
Reznor employs a saxophone at multiple points on the album, he sings in a way dissimilar to his normal manner, with some critics comparing the style to Bowie's. The album incorporates diverse sounds and instrumentation reminiscent of many different genres and musical styles. Reznor's saxophone performances play a prominent role in the album, making the album distinct from previous releases by Nine Inch Nails; the only song on the album to be released as a single is "God Break Down the Door." The album contains two instrumental songs, "Play the Goddamned Part" and "I'm Not from This World," described as "a discordant, freeform jazz jam amidst clashing electronics" and "droning and hypnotic," respectively. The album's sixth and final track, "Over and Out", begins as a upbeat electronic song but ends as a protracted segment of white noise that concludes Bad Witch; this may be compared to the closing track of the Add Violence EP, "The Background World," a song which ends on a repeated loop, compressed into white noise.
Several critics have compared Bad Witch to Ross' film scores. Others likened the album to Bowie's Blackstar, some to Reznor's soundtrack for the 1996 video game Quake. On June 22, 2018, the album was released to retailers worldwide, it entered on several international charts and at 12 on the Billboard 200. Bad Witch received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 77, based on 23 reviews. AllMusic's Neil Z. Yeung called the album "frustrating", but "the most cohesive and enveloping experience of this period". Terence Cawley of The Boston Globe gave Bad Witch a positive review, writing, "Reznor is still making records that crackle with restless energy. For an artist who once specialized in massive concept albums, the short-and-sweet approach of Bad Witch suits him well." Writing for NME, Tom Connick gave the album a perfect score, calling it the band's best release in a decade.
The Independent's Ilana Kaplan noted that despite being only thirty minutes long, the album was full of complexity and would be received as a sensory overload. Writing for Q, George Garner considered the album an "excellent reprisal" of Nine Inch Nails' "industrial aggression", concluding that after thirty years, the band sounded reinvigorated. Spencer Kornhaber of The Atlantic felt that Bad Witch does not reach the highs of 1992's Broken or 1994's The Downward Spiral, but it does not dishonor them either. Drowned in Sound's Christian Cottingham was more mixed on the album, criticizing it for relying too much on previous Nine Inch Nails sounds and material. Sam Sodomsky of Pitchfork wrote, "for the first time in a long time, Reznor sounds like he’s got his eye on the future." All tracks written by Atticus Ross. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Bad Witch. Nine Inch Nails Trent Reznor – arrangements, production, saxophone Atticus Ross – arrangements, production, programmingAdditional personnel Alan Moulder – mixing Tom Baker – mastering Chris Richardson – engineering Justin McGrath – engineering Ian Astbury – additional vocals Mariqueen Maandig – additional vocals
Michael Trent Reznor is an American singer, musician, record producer, film score composer. He is the founder, lead vocalist, principal songwriter of the industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, which he founded in 1988 and of which he was the sole official member until adding long-time collaborator Atticus Ross as a permanent member in 2016, his first release under the Nine Inch Nails name, the 1989 album Pretty Hate Machine, was a commercial and critical success. He has since released nine Nine Inch Nails studio albums, he left Interscope Records in 2007 and was an independent recording artist until signing with Columbia Records in 2012. Reznor was associated with the bands Option 30, The Urge, The Innocent, Exotic Birds in the mid-1980s. Outside of Nine Inch Nails, he has contributed to the albums of artists such as Marilyn Manson and Saul Williams, he and his wife, Mariqueen Maandig, are members of the post-industrial group How to Destroy Angels, with Atticus Ross and long-time Nine Inch Nails graphic designer Rob Sheridan.
Reznor and Ross scored the David Fincher films The Social Network, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Gone Girl, winning the Academy Award for Best Original Score for The Social Network and the Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media for The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. They scored the 2018 film Bird Box. In 1997, Reznor appeared in Time's list of the year's most influential people, Spin magazine described him as "the most vital artist in music". Michael Trent Reznor was born on May 17, 1965, in New Castle, the son of Nancy Lou and Michael Reznor, he has German and Irish ancestry and is a descendant of businessman George Reznor, who founded the heating and air conditioning manufacturer The Reznor Company in 1888. Reznor grew up in Pennsylvania. After his parents divorced, he lived with his maternal grandparents from the age of six, while his sister Tera lived with their mother, he showed an early aptitude for music. His grandfather, Bill Clark, told People magazine in February 1995 that Reznor was "a good kid... a Boy Scout who loved to skateboard, build model planes, play the piano".
He stated, "Music was his life, from the time. He was so gifted."Reznor has acknowledged that his sheltered life left him feeling isolated from the outside world. In a September 1994 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, he referred to his choices in the music industry: However, in April 1995, Reznor told Details magazine that he did not "want to give the impression it was a miserable childhood". At Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, he learned to play the tenor saxophone and tuba, was a member of both the jazz and marching band; the school's former band director remembered him as "very upbeat and friendly". Reznor became involved in theater while in high school, was voted "Best in Drama" by classmates for his roles as Judas in Jesus Christ Superstar and Professor Harold Hill in The Music Man, he graduated in 1983 and enrolled at Allegheny College in Meadville, where he studied computer engineering. While he was a student at Mercer Area Junior/Senior High School, Reznor joined local band Option 30 and played three shows a week with them.
After a year of college, Reznor dropped out and moved to Cleveland, Ohio, to pursue a career in music. His first band in Cleveland was a cover band. In 1985, he joined The Innocent as a keyboardist. In 1986, he joined local band Exotic Birds and appeared with them as a fictional band called The Problems in the 1987 film Light of Day. Reznor contributed on keyboards to the band Slam Bamboo during this time. Reznor got a job at Cleveland's Right Track Studio as janitor. Studio owner Bart Koster commented: "He was so focused in everything he did; when that guy waxed the floor, it looked great." Reznor asked Koster for permission to record demos of his own songs for free during unused studio time. Koster agreed, remarking that it cost him "just a little wear on his tape heads". While assembling the earliest Nine Inch Nails recordings, Reznor was unable to find a band that could articulate his songs as he wanted. Instead, inspired by Prince, he played all the instruments. Reznor has continued in this role on most of the band's studio recordings, though he has involved other musicians, assistants and rhythm experts.
Several labels responded favorably to the demo material and Reznor signed with TVT Records. Nine selections from the Right Track demos were unofficially released in 1988 as Purest Feeling and many of these songs appeared in revised form on Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor's first official release under the Nine Inch Nails name. Most of Reznor's work as a musician has been as founding and primary member of Nine Inch Nails. Pretty Hate Machine was released in 1989 and was a moderate commercial success, certified Gold in 1992. Amid pressure from his record label to produce a follow-up to Pretty Hate Machine, Reznor secretly began recording under various pseudonyms to avoid record company interference, resulting in an EP called Broken. Nine Inch Nails was included in the Lollapalooza tour in the summer of 1991, won a Grammy Award in 1993 under "Best Heavy Metal Performance" for the song "Wish". Nine Inch Nails' second full-length album, The Downward Spiral, entered the Billboard 200 chart in 1994 at number two, remains the highest-selling Nine Inch Nails release in America.
To record the album, Reznor rented and moved into the 10050 Cielo Drive mansion, where the 1969 Manson Family murders took place. He built a studio space in the house, whic
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth