Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
An image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical object—and thus provides a depiction of it. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram, they may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, lenses, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word'image' is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, a painting or a banner. In this wider sense, images can be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one; this may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube.
A fixed image called a hard copy, is one, recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one imagines; the subject of an image need not be real. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs; the development of synthetic acoustic technologies and the creation of sound art have led to a consideration of the possibilities of a sound-image made up of irreducible phonic substance beyond linguistic or musicological analysis. There are Two Types of Images a. Still Image b. Moving Image A still image is a single static image; this phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies, or in precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard. A moving image is a movie or video, including digital video, it could be an animated display such as a zoetrope. A still frame is a still image derived from one frame of a moving one.
In contrast, a film still is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production, used for promotional purposes. In literature, imagery is a "mental picture", it can both be literal. Aniconism Avatar Cinematography Computer animation Computer-generated imagery Digital image Digital imaging Fine art photography Graphics Imago camera Image editing Pattern recognition Photograph Media related to Images at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Image at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of image at Wiktionary The B-Z Reaction: The Moving or the Still Image? Library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case
Rotoscoping is an animation technique that animators use to trace over motion picture footage, frame by frame, to produce realistic action. Animators projected photographed live-action movie images onto a glass panel and traced over the image; this projection equipment is referred to as a rotoscope, developed by Polish-American animator Max Fleischer. This device was replaced by computers, but the process is still called rotoscoping. In the visual effects industry, rotoscoping is the technique of manually creating a matte for an element on a live-action plate so it may be composited over another background. Rotoscoping has been used as a tool for visual effects in live-action movies. By tracing an object, the moviemaker creates a silhouette that can be used to extract that object from a scene for use on a different background. While blue- and green-screen techniques have made the process of layering subjects in scenes easier, rotoscoping still plays a large role in the production of visual effects imagery.
Rotoscoping in the digital domain is aided by motion-tracking and onion-skinning software. Rotoscoping is used in the preparation of garbage mattes for other matte-pulling processes. Rotoscoping has been used to create a special visual effect, guided by the matte or rotoscoped line. A classic use of traditional rotoscoping was in the original three Star Wars movies, where the production used it to create the glowing lightsaber effect with a matte based on sticks held by the actors. To achieve this, effects technicians traced a line over each frame with the prop enlarged each line and added the glow. Eadweard Muybridge had some of his famous chronophotographic sequences painted on glass discs for the zoopraxiscope projector that he used in his popular lectures between 1880 and 1895; the first discs were painted on the glass in dark contours. Discs made between 1892 and 1894 had outlines drawn by Erwin Faber photographically printed on the disc and coloured by hand, but these discs were never used in the lectures.
By 1902, Nuremberg toy companies Gebrüder Bing and Ernst Plank were offering chromolithographed film loops for their toy kinematographs. The films were traced from live-action film footage; the rotoscope technique was invented by animator Max Fleischer in 1915, used in his groundbreaking Out of the Inkwell animated series. It was known as the "Fleischer Process" on the early screen credits, was exclusive to Fleischer for several years; the live-movie reference for the character known as Koko the Clown, was performed by his brother dressed in a clown costume. Conceived as a short-cut to animating, the rotoscope process proved time consuming due the precise and laborious nature required in tracing. Rotoscoping is achieved by rear projection and front surface projection. In either case, the results can have slight deviations from the true line due to the separation of the projected image and the surface used for tracing. Misinterpretations of the forms cause the line to wiggle, the roto tracings must be reworked over an animation disc, using the tracings as a guide where consistency and solidity are important.
Fleischer ceased to depend on the rotoscope for fluid action by 1924, when Dick Huemer became the animation director and brought his animation experience from his years on the Mutt and Jeff series. Fleischer returned to rotoscoping in the 1930s for referencing intricate dance movements in his Popeye and Betty Boop cartoons; the most notable of these are the dance routines originating from jazz performer Cab Calloway in Minnie the Moocher, Snow White, The Old Man of the Mountain. In these examples, the roto tracing were used as a guide for timing and positioning, while the cartoon characters of different proportions were drawn to conform to those positions. Fleischer's last applications of rotoscope were for the realistic human animation required for the lead character—among others—in Gulliver's Travels, the human characters in his last feature, Mr. Bug Goes to Town, his most effective use of rotoscoping was in the action-oriented film noir Superman series of the early 1940s, where realistic movement was achieved on a level unmatched by conventional cartoon animation.
Contemporary uses of the rotoscope and its inherent challenges have included surreal effects in music videos such as Klaatu's "Routine Day", A-ha's "Take On Me", Kansas' "All I Wanted", the live performance scenes in Dire Straits' "Money for Nothing", the animated TV series Delta State. Fleischer's patent expired by 1934, other producers could use rotoscoping freely. Walt Disney and his animators used the technique in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs during 1937. Leon Schlesinger Productions, which produced the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons for Warner Bros. used rotoscoping. The 1939 MGM cartoon "Petunia Natural Park" from The Captain and the Kids featured a rotoscope version of Jackie. Rotoscoping was used extensively in China's first animated feature film, Princess Iron Fan, released under difficult conditions during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II; the technique was used extensively in the Soviet Union from the late 1930s to the 1950s, where it was known as "Éclair" and its historical use was enforced as a realization of Socialist Realism.
Most of the movies produced with it were adaptations of folk tales or poems—for example, The Night Before Christmas or The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish. Only during the early 1960s, after the "Khrushchev Thaw", did animators start to explore different aesthetics; the makers of the Beatles' Yellow Submarine used rotoscoping in
Composition (visual arts)
In the visual arts, composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or'ingredients' in a work of art, as distinct from the subject. It can be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art; the composition of a picture is different from its subject, what is depicted, whether a moment from a story, a person or a place. Many subjects, for example Saint George and the Dragon, are portrayed in art, but using a great range of compositions though the two figures are the only ones shown; the term composition means'putting together' and can apply to any work of art, from music to writing to photography, arranged using conscious thought. In the visual arts, composition is used interchangeably with various terms such as design, visual ordering, or formal structure, depending on the context. In graphic design for press and desktop publishing, composition is referred to as page layout; the various visual elements, known as elements of design, formal elements, or elements of art, constitute the vocabulary with which the visual artist composes.
These elements in the overall design relate to each other and to the whole art work. The elements of design are: Line — the visual path that enables the eye to move within the piece Shape — areas defined by edges within the piece, whether geometric or organic Color — hues with their various values and intensities Texture — surface qualities which translate into tactile illusions Value — Shading used to emphasize form Form — 3-D length, width, or depth Space — the space taken up by or in between objects Lines are optical phenomena that allow the artist to direct the eye of the viewer; the optical illusion of lines do exist in nature and visual arts elements can be arranged to create this illusion. The viewer unconsciously reads near continuous arrangement of different elements and subjects at varying distances; such elements can be of dramatic use in the composition of the image. These could rigging on boats. Lines can derive from the borders of areas of differing color or contrast, or sequences of discrete elements.
Movement is a source of lines, where the blurred movement renders as a line. Subject lines contribute to both mood and linear perspective, giving the viewer the illusion of depth. Oblique lines convey a sense of movement and angular lines convey a sense of dynamism and tension. Lines can direct attention towards the main subject of picture, or contribute to organization by dividing it into compartments; the artist may exaggerate or create lines as part of their message to the viewer. Many lines without a clear subject point suggest chaos in the image and may conflict with the mood the artist is trying to evoke. Straight left lines add affection to visual arts. A line's angle and its relationship to the size of the frame influence the mood of the image. Horizontal lines found in landscape photography, can give the impression of calm and space. An image filled with strong vertical lines tends to have the impression of grandeur. Angled convergent lines give a dynamic and active effect to the image.
Angled diagonal lines produce tension in the image. The viewpoint of visual art is important because every different perspective views different angled lines; this change of perspective elicits a different response to the image. By changing the perspective only by some degrees or some centimetres lines in images can change tremendously and a different feeling can be transported. Straight lines are strongly influenced by tone and repetition in relation to the rest of the image. Compared to straight lines, curves provide a greater dynamic influence in a picture, they are generally more aesthetically pleasing, as the viewer associates them with softness. In photography, curved lines can give graduated shadows when paired with soft-directional lighting, which results in a harmonious line structure within the image. There are three properties of color. Hue, brightness or chroma, value. Hue is the name of a color and chroma refer to the intensity and strength of the color. A high chroma color is less greyed than a low chroma color.
The lightness and darkness to a color is the value. Color has the ability to work within our emotions. Given that, we can use color to create mood, it can be used as tone, light, symbol, form and contrast. Texture refers to how it looks like it may feel if it were touched. There are two ways we experience texture and optically. Different techniques can be used to create physical texture, which allows qualities of visual art to be seen and felt; this can include surfaces such as metal and wood. Optical texture is. Photography and drawings use visual texture to create a more realistic appearance. Lightness and darkness are known as value in visual art. Value deals with how we see it; the more light, reflected, the higher the value. White is the lightest value while black is the lowest or darkest value. Colors have value, for example, yellow has a high value while blue and red have a low value. If you take a black and white picture of a colorful scene, all you are left with are the values; this important element of design in painting and drawing, allows the artist to create the illusion of light through value contrast.
The term form can mean different things in visual art. Form sugges
Gestalt psychology or gestaltism is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology. Gestalt psychology is an attempt to understand the laws behind the ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an chaotic world; the central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. This principle maintains that when the human mind forms a percept or "gestalt", the whole has a reality of its own, independent of the parts; the original famous phrase of Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, "the whole is something else than the sum of its parts" is incorrectly translated as "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts", thus used when explaining gestalt theory, further incorrectly applied to systems theory. Koffka did not like the translation, he corrected students who replaced "other" with "greater". "This is not a principle of addition" he said. The whole has an independent existence. In the study of perception, Gestalt psychologists stipulate that perceptions are the products of complex interactions among various stimuli.
Contrary to the behaviorist approach to focusing on stimulus and response, gestalt psychologists sought to understand the organization of cognitive processes. Our brain is capable of generating whole forms with respect to the visual recognition of global figures instead of just collections of simpler and unrelated elements. In psychology, gestaltism is opposed to structuralism. Gestalt theory, it is proposed, allows for the deconstruction of the whole situation into its elements; the concept of gestalt was first introduced in philosophy and psychology in 1890 by Christian von Ehrenfels. The idea of gestalt has its roots in theories by David Hume, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Immanuel Kant, David Hartley, Ernst Mach. Max Wertheimer's unique contribution was to insist that the "gestalt" is perceptually primary, defining the parts it was composed from, rather than being a secondary quality that emerges from those parts, as von Ehrenfels's earlier Gestalt-Qualität had been. Both von Ehrenfels and Edmund Husserl seem to have been inspired by Mach's work Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen, in formulating their similar concepts of gestalt and figural moment, respectively.
On the philosophical foundations of these ideas see Foundations of Gestalt Theory. Early 20th century theorists, such as Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler saw objects as perceived within an environment according to all of their elements taken together as a global construct. This'gestalt' or'whole form' approach sought to define principles of perception—seemingly innate mental laws that determined the way objects were perceived, it is based on the here and now, in the way things are seen. Images can be divided into ground; the question is what is perceived at first glance: the background. These laws took several forms, such as the grouping of similar, or proximate, objects together, within this global process. Although gestalt has been criticized for being descriptive, it has formed the basis of much further research into the perception of patterns and objects, of research into behavior, problem solving and psychopathology; the founders of Gestalt therapy and Laura Perls, had worked with Kurt Goldstein, a neurologist who had applied principles of Gestalt psychology to the functioning of the organism.
Laura Perls had been a Gestalt psychologist before she became a psychoanalyst and before she began developing Gestalt therapy together with Fritz Perls. The extent to which Gestalt psychology influenced Gestalt therapy is disputed, however. In any case it is not identical with Gestalt psychology. On the one hand, Laura Perls preferred not to use the term "Gestalt" to name the emerging new therapy, because she thought that the gestalt psychologists would object to it. Thus, though recognizing the historical connection and the influence, most gestalt psychologists emphasize that gestalt therapy is not a form of gestalt psychology. Mary Henle noted in her presidential address to Division 24 at the meeting of the American Psychological Association: "What Perls has done has been to take a few terms from Gestalt psychology, stretch their meaning beyond recognition, mix them with notions—often unclear and incompatible—from the depth psychologies and common sense, he has called the whole mixture gestalt therapy.
His work has no substantive relation to scientific Gestalt psychology. To use his own language, Fritz Perls has done'his thing'. There have been clinical applications of Gestalt psychology in the psychotherapeutic field long before Perls'ian Gestalt therapy, in group psychoanalysis, Adlerian individual psychology, by Gestalt psychologists in psychotherapy like Erwin Levy, Abraham S. Luchins, by Gestalt psychologically oriented psychoanalysts in Italy, there have been newer developments foremost in Europe, e.g. Gestalt theoretical psychotherapy; the school of gestalt practiced a series of theoretical and methodological principles that attempted to redefine the approach to psychological research. This is in contrast to invest
Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint can be made or purchased in many colors—and in many different types, such as watercolor, etc. Paint is stored and applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid. In 2003 and 2004, South African archeologists reported finds in Blombos Cave of a 100,000-year-old human-made ochre-based mixture that could have been used like paint. Further excavation in the same cave resulted in the 2011 report of a complete toolkit for grinding pigments and making a primitive paint-like substance. Cave paintings drawn with red or yellow ochre, manganese oxide, charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago. Ancient colored walls at Dendera, which were exposed for years to the elements, still possess their brilliant color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago.
The Egyptians mixed their colors with a gummy substance, applied them separately from each other without any blending or mixture. They appear to have used six colors: white, blue, red and green, they first covered the area with white traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, of a dark tinge. Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, done prior to the foundation of Rome, he expresses great surprise and admiration after the lapse of so many centuries. Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and adhere to the surface it was applied to. Pigment was made from plants and different soils. Most paints used either water as a base. A still extant example of 17th-century house oil painting is Ham House in Surrey, where a primer was used along with several undercoats and an elaborate decorative overcoat; the process was done by hand by the painters and exposed them to lead poisoning due to the white-lead powder.
In 1718, Marshall Smith invented Engine for the Grinding of Colours" in England. It is not known how it operated, but it was a device that increased the efficiency of pigment grinding dramatically. Soon, a company called Emerton and Manby was advertising exceptionally low-priced paints, ground with labour-saving technology: One Pound of Colour ground in a Horse-Mill will paint twelve Yards of Work, whereas Colour ground any other Way, will not do half that Quantity. By the proper onset of the Industrial Revolution, paint was being ground in steam-powered mills and an alternative to lead-based pigments was found in a white derivative of zinc oxide. Interior house painting became the norm as the 19th century progressed, both for decorative reasons and because the paint was effective in preventing the walls rotting from damp. Linseed oil was increasingly used as an inexpensive binder. In 1866, Sherwin-Williams in the United States opened as a large paint-maker and invented a paint that could be used from the tin without preparation.
It was not until the stimulus of World War II created a shortage of linseed oil in the supply market that artificial resins, or alkyds, were invented. Cheap and easy to make, they held the color well and lasted for a long time; the vehicle is composed of the binder. In this case, once the paint has dried or cured nearly all of the diluent has evaporated and only the binder is left on the coated surface. Thus, an important quantity in coatings formulation is the "vehicle solids", sometimes called the "resin solids" of the formula; this is the proportion of the wet coating weight, binder, i.e. the polymer backbone of the film that will remain after drying or curing is complete. The binder is the film-forming component of paint, it is the only component, always present among all the various types of formulations. Many binders must be thinned; the type of thinner, if present, varies with the binder. The binder imparts properties such as gloss, durability and toughness. Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as alkyds, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene, polyesters, melamine resins, silanes or siloxanes or oils.
Binders can be categorized according to the mechanisms for film formation. Thermoplastic mechanisms include coalescence. Drying refers to simple evaporation of the thinner to leave a coherent film behind. Coalescence refers to a mechanism that involves drying followed by actual interpenetration and fusion of discrete particles. Thermoplastic film-forming mechanisms are sometimes described as "thermoplastic cure" but, a misnomer because no chemical curing reactions are required to knit the film. Thermosetting mechanisms, on the other hand, are true curing mechanism that involve chemical reaction among the polymers that make up the binder. Thermoplastic mechanisms: Some films are formed by simple cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax paints are liquid when warm, harden upon cooling. In many cases, they liquify if reheated. Paints that dry by solvent evaporation and contain the solid binder dissolved in a solvent are known as lacquers. A solid film forms; because no chemical crosslinking is involved, the film can re-dissolve in solvent.
Arthur Wesley Dow
Arthur Wesley Dow was an American painter, printmaker and influential arts educator. Dow went to Paris for his early art education, studying at the Académie Julian under the supervision of the academic artists, Gustave Boulanger and Jules Joseph Lefebvre, between 1880 and 1888, he accepted commissions for other commercial work. In 1895, he designed the poster to advertise the Journal of Modern Art and in 1896, he designed the poster for an exhibition of Japanese prints. After his return to the United States, over the course of his career Dow taught at three major American arts training institutions, beginning with the Pratt Institute from 1896-1903, he taught at the New York Art Students League from 1898-1903. In 1900, Dow founded and served as the director of the Ipswich Summer School of Art in Ipswich, Massachusetts. From 1904 to 1922, he was a professor of fine arts at Columbia University Teachers College, his ideas were quite revolutionary for the period. He wanted leaders of the public to see art is a living force for all in everyday life, not as a sort of traditional ornament for the few.
Dow suggested that the American lack of interest in art would improve if art was presented as a means of self-expression. He wanted people to be able to include personal experience in creating art, his ideas on art were published in his 1899 book Composition: A Series of Exercises in Art Structure for the Use of Students and Teachers. The following extracts are from the prefatory chapter "Beginnings" to the second edition of this book: Composition... expresses the idea upon which the method here presented is founded - the "putting together" of lines and colors to make a harmony.... Composition, building up of harmony, is the fundamental process in all the fine arts.... A natural method is of exercises in progressive order, first building up simple harmonies... Such a method of study includes all kinds of drawing and painting, it offers a means of training for the creative artist, the teacher or one who studies art for the sake of culture. In "Beginnings", he acknowledges his debt to Ernest Fenollosa: The history of this structural system of art teaching may be stated in a few words.
An experience of five years in the French schools left me dissatisfied with academic theory. In a search for something more vital I began a comparative study of the art of all nations and epochs. While pursuing an investigation of Oriental painting and design at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts I met the late Professor Ernest F. Fenollosa. After detailing some of Fenollosa's attributes and history, he continues: He at once gave me cordial support in my quest, for he felt the inadequacy of modern art teaching, he vigorously advocated a radically different idea, based as in music, upon synthetic principles. He believed music to be, in a sense, the key to the other fine arts, since its essence is pure beauty, he continues: Convinced that this new conception was a more reasonable approach to art, I gave much time to preparing with Professor Fenollosa a progressive series of synthetic exercises. My first experiment in applying these in teaching was made in 1889 in my Boston classes, with Professor Fenollosa as lecturer on the philosophy and history of art.
He taught many of America's leading artists and craftspeople, including Georgia O'Keeffe, Charles Sheeler, Charles J. Martin, two of the Overbeck Sisters and the Byrdcliffe Colony; the significance of Arthur Wesley Dow as an artist and teacher is becoming apparent. A champion of fine craftsmanship in a wide variety of art media, Dow was a leading figure in the Arts and Crafts revival that became prominent in America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, he advocated principles of pure design and promoted the creation of handmade rather than machine made objects. Dow played an important role in American art as his work bridged the gap between Eastern and Western art. Applying principles of Oriental design to depictions of commonplace locales, Dow created works that were ahead of their time, anticipating the East/West synthesis that would be sought by modernist artists as the twentieth century progressed. Born in Ipswich, Massachusetts into an old, established New England family, Dow received his first art training in 1880 from Anna K. Freeland of Worcester, Massachusetts.
The following year, Dow continued his studies in Boston with James M. Stone, a former student of Frank Duveneck and Gustave Bouguereau. In October 1884, Dow followed the path of many native painters of his era, departed for Paris. In the French capital, he enrolled at the Académie Julian where his instructors were Gustave Boulanger and Jules-Joseph Lefebvre. Among his fellow students were John Henry Twachtman, Willard Metcalf, Edmund Tarbell. While abroad, Dow spent his summers in Pont Aven, Brittany, in the company of the Americans, Benjamin Harrison, Arthur Hoeber and Charles Lazar. Dow returned to America in 1887. A year the first solo exhibition of his work was held at the J. Eastman Chase Gallery in Boston. After spending another summer in Pont-Aven, Dow settled in Ipswich in 1889 and began to hold private art classes. Soon, however, he moved to Boston, where he became interested in Egyptian and Aztec artifacts, which he saw at the Boston Public Library and the Museum of Fine Arts. At the same time, he began to study the prints of Hokusai.
He sought out the curator of Japanese art at the Museum, Ernest Fenollosa, who s