The Gregorian mission or Augustinian mission was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons. The mission was headed by Augustine of Canterbury. By the time of the death of the last missionary in 653, the mission had established Christianity in southern Britain. Along with the Irish and Frankish missions it converted other parts of Britain as well and influenced the Hiberno-Scottish missions to Continental Europe. By the time the Roman Empire recalled its legions from the province of Britannia in 410, parts of the island had been settled by pagan Germanic tribes who in the century, appear to have taken control of Kent and other coastal regions no longer defended by the Roman Empire. In the late 6th century Pope Gregory sent a group of missionaries to Kent to convert Æthelberht, King of Kent, whose wife, Bertha of Kent, was a Frankish princess and practising Christian. Augustine had been the prior of Gregory's own monastery in Rome and Gregory prepared the way for the mission by soliciting aid from the Frankish rulers along Augustine's route.
In 597, the forty missionaries arrived in Kent and were permitted by Æthelberht to preach in his capital of Canterbury. Soon the missionaries wrote to Gregory telling him of their success, of the conversions taking place; the exact date of Æthelberht's conversion is unknown but it occurred before 601. A second group of monks and clergy was dispatched in 601 bearing books and other items for the new foundation. Gregory intended Augustine to be the metropolitan archbishop of the southern part of the British Isles, gave him power over the clergy of the native Britons, but in a series of meetings with Augustine the long-established Celtic bishops refused to acknowledge his authority. Before Æthelberht's death in 616, a number of other bishoprics had been established. However, after that date, a pagan backlash set in and the see, or bishopric, of London was abandoned. Æthelberht's daughter, Æthelburg, married Edwin, the king of the Northumbrians, by 627 Paulinus, the bishop who accompanied her north, had converted Edwin and a number of other Northumbrians.
When Edwin died, in about 633, his widow and Paulinus were forced to flee back to Kent. Although the missionaries could not remain in all of the places they had evangelised, by the time the last of them died in 653, they had established Christianity in Kent and the surrounding countryside and contributed a Roman tradition to the practice of Christianity in Britain. By the 4th century the Roman province of Britannia was converted to Christianity and had produced its own heretic in Pelagius. Britain sent three bishops to the Synod of Arles in 314, a Gaulish bishop went to the island in 396 to help settle disciplinary matters. Lead baptismal basins and other artefacts bearing Christian symbols testify to a growing Christian presence at least until about 360. After the Roman legions withdrew from Britannia in 410 the natives of Great Britain were left to defend themselves, non-Christian Angles and Jutes—generally referred to collectively as Anglo-Saxons—settled the southern parts of the island.
Though most of Britain remained Christian, isolation from Rome bred a number of distinct practices—Celtic Christianity—including emphasis on monasteries instead of bishoprics, differences in calculation of the date of Easter, a modified clerical tonsure. Evidence for the continued existence of Christianity in eastern Britain at this time includes the survival of the cult of Saint Alban and the occurrence of eccles—from the Latin for church—in place names. There is no evidence; the Anglo-Saxon invasions coincided with the disappearance of most remnants of Roman civilisation in the areas held by the Anglo-Saxons, including the economic and religious structures. Whether this was a result of the Angles themselves, as the early medieval writer Gildas argued, or mere coincidence is unclear; the archaeological evidence suggests much variation in the way that the tribes established themselves in Britain concurrently with the decline of urban Roman culture in Britain. The net effect was that when Augustine arrived in 597 the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms had little continuity with the preceding Roman civilisation.
In the words of the historian John Blair, "Augustine of Canterbury began his mission with an clean slate." Most of the information available on the Gregorian mission comes from the medieval writer Bede his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, or Ecclesiastical History of the English People. For this work Bede solicited help and information from many people including his contemporary abbot at Canterbury as well as a future Archbishop of Canterbury, who forwarded Bede copies of papal letters and documents from Rome. Other sources are biographies of Pope Gregory, including one written in Northern England around 700 as well as a 9th-century life by a Roman writer; the early Life of Gregory is believed to have been based on oral traditions brought to northern England from either Canterbury or Rome, was completed at Whitby Abbey between 704 and 714. This view has been challenged by the historian Alan Thacker, who argues that the Life derives from earlier written works. Gregory's entry in the Liber Pontificalis is short and of little use, but he himself was a writer whose work sheds light on the mission.
In addition, over 850 of Gregory's letters survive. A few writings, such as letters from Boniface, an 8th-century Anglo-Saxon missionary, royal letters to the papacy from the late 8th century, add additional detail; some of these letters, are only preserved in Bede's w
Lambeth Palace is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in England, in north Lambeth, on the south bank of the River Thames, 400 yards south-east of the Palace of Westminster, which houses the Houses of Parliament, on the opposite bank. Lambeth Palace has been – for nearly 800 years – the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose original residence was in Canterbury, Kent. Called the Manor of Lambeth or Lambeth House, the site was acquired by the archbishopric around 1200 AD and has the largest collection of records of the Church in its library, it is bounded by Lambeth Palace Road to the west and Lambeth Road to the south, but unlike all surrounding land is excluded from the parish of North Lambeth. The garden park resembles Archbishop's Park, a neighbouring public park; the former church in front of its entrance has been converted to the Garden Museum. The south bank of the Thames along this reach, not part of historic London, developed because the land was low and sodden: it was called Lambeth Marsh, as far downriver as the present Blackfriars Road.
The name "Lambeth" embodies "hithe", a landing on the river: archbishops came and went by water, as did John Wycliff, tried here for heresy. In the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, the Palace was attacked; the oldest remaining part of the palace is the Early English chapel. Lollards' Tower, which retains evidence of its use as a prison in the 17th century, dates from 1435 to 1440; the front is an early Tudor brick gatehouse built by Cardinal John Morton and completed in 1495. Cardinal Pole lay in state in the palace for 40 days after he died there in 1558; the fig tree in the palace courtyard is grown from a slip taken from one of the White Marseille fig trees here for centuries. In 1786, there were three ancient figs, two "nailed against the wall" and still noted in 1826 as "two uncommonly fine... traditionally reported to have been planted by Cardinal Pole, fixed against that part of the palace believed to have been founded by him. They are of the white Marseilles sort, still bear delicious fruit....
On the south side of the building, in a small private garden, is another tree of the same kind and age." By 1882, their place had been taken by several massive offshoots. The notable orchard of the medieval period has somewhat given way to a mirroring public park adjoining and built-up roads of housing and offices; the great hall was ransacked, including the building material, by Cromwellian troops during the English Civil War. After the Restoration, it was rebuilt by archbishop William Juxon in 1663 with a late Gothic hammerbeam roof; the choice of a hammerbeam roof was evocative, as it reflected the High-Church Anglican continuity with the Old Faith and served as a visual statement that the Interregnum was over. As with some Gothic details on University buildings of the same date, it is debated among architectural historians whether this is "Gothic survival" or an early work of the "Gothic Revival"; the diarist Samuel Pepys recognised it as "a new old-fashioned hall." The building is listed in the highest category, Grade I for its architecture – its front gatehouse with its tall, crenellated gatehouse resembles Hampton Court Palace's gatehouse, of the Tudor period, however Morton's Gatehouse was at its start, in the 1490s, rather than in the same generation as Cardinal Wolsey's wider partially stone-dressed deep red brick façade.
While this is the most public-facing bit, it is not the oldest at north-west corner, the Water Tower or Lollards' Tower mentioned above is made of Kentish Ragstone with ashlar quoins and a brick turret is much older. Among the portraits of the archbishops in the Palace are works by Hans Holbein, Anthony van Dyck, William Hogarth and Sir Joshua Reynolds. New construction was added to the building in 1834 by Edward Blore, who rebuilt much of Buckingham Palace in neo-Gothic style and it fronts a spacious quadrangle; the buildings form the home of the Archbishop, ex officio a member of the House of Lords and is regarded as the first among equals in the Anglican Communion. Lambeth Palace is home to the Community of Saint Anselm, an Anglican religious order, under the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Within the palace is Lambeth Palace Library, the official library of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the principal repository of records of the Church of England, it was founded as a public library by Archbishop Richard Bancroft in 1610.
It contains a vast collection of material relating to ecclesiastical history, including archbishops' and bishops' archives and papers relating to various Anglican missionary and charitable societies. The collection of manuscripts contains important material, some dating as far back as the 9th century. Other collections contain material on a variety of topics from the history of art and architecture to colonial and Commonwealth history, innumerable aspects of English social and economic history; the library is a significant resource for local history and genealogy. The library contains over 120,000 books as well as the archives of the Archbishops of Canterbury and other church bodies dating back to the 12th century; these can be found via the online catalogues. Highlights include the Romanesque Lambeth Bible. Other notable manuscripts include: Lambeth Choirbook Lambeth Homilies Mac Durnan Gospels Book of Howth In front of the entrance stands the former parish church of St Mary-at-Lambeth; the tower dates from 1377.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
Withington is a Cotswold village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, about 6 1⁄2 miles southeast of Cheltenham and 8 miles north of Cirencester. The River Coln runs through the village; the parish includes the hamlets of Hilcot and Cassey Compton. The parish population taken at the 2011 census was 532; the site of a Roman villa lies to the south of the village. Remains of the villa were rediscovered in 1811, investigations by the Time Team television programme in 2006 found further Romano-British buildings east of the villa, towards the river; the origin of the name is unclear but it is found in records as early as 737 AD. The other English places called. In his 1955 work, H. P. R. Finberg argued for continuity between Anglo-Saxon Withington and an earlier Roman settlement. During Saxon times there was an important monastery at Withington; the parish church of St Michael and All Angels dates from the 12th century and is a Grade I listed building. The church was altered in the 15th century when the Perpendicular clerestory and higher tower were added, has been described as "a typical example of an important Cotswold church".
From 1891 to 1961, Withington had a railway station on the Midland and South Western Junction Railway which ran between Cirencester and Cheltenham. The Mill Inn, now the only public house in Withington, is credited with creating the popular fried chicken and chips meal, served in a basket, in the 1960s; the 2000 Trees music festival is held annually near the village. Withington Parish Council Withington at GenUKI Victoria County History
St Augustine's Abbey
St Augustine's Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Canterbury, England. The abbey was founded in 598 and functioned as a monastery until its dissolution in 1538 during the English Reformation. After the abbey's dissolution, it underwent dismantlement until 1848. Since 1848, part of the site has been used for educational purposes and the abbey ruins have been preserved for their historical value. In 597, Augustine arrived in Anglo-Saxon England, having been sent by the missionary-minded Pope Gregory I to convert the Anglo-Saxons; the King of Kent at this time was Ethelbert. Although he worshipped in a pagan temple just outside the walls of Canterbury to the east of the city, Ethelbert was married to a Christian, Bertha. According to tradition, the king not only gave his temple and its precincts to St Augustine for a church and monastery, he ordered that the church to be erected be of "becoming splendour, dedicated to the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, endowed it with a variety of gifts." One purpose of the foundation was to provide a residence for his brother monks.
As another, both King Ethelbert and Augustine foresaw the abbey as a burial place for abbots and kings of Kent. William Thorne, the 14th century chronicler of the abbey, records 598 as the year of the foundation; the monastic buildings were most wooden in the manner of Saxon construction, so they could be built. However, building a church of solid masonry, like the churches Augustine had known in Rome, took longer; the church was completed and consecrated in 613. Ca. 624 a short distance to the east, Eadbald and successor of Ethelbert, founded a second church, dedicated to Saint Mary which buried Kentish royalty. The abbey became known as St Augustine's after the founder's death. For two centuries after its founding, St Augustine's was the only important religious house in the kingdom of Kent; the historian G. F. Maclear characterized St Augustine's as being a "missionary school" where "classical knowledge and English learning flourished." Over time, St Augustine's Abbey acquired an extensive library that included both religious and secular holdings.
In addition, it had a scriptorium for producing manuscripts. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury from 959 to 988, influenced a reorganisation of the abbey to conform to Benedictine rule. Buildings were enlarged and the church rebuilt. Dunstan revised the dedication of the abbey, from the original Saints Peter and Paul, by adding Saint Augustine in 978. Since the abbey has been known as St Augustine's; the invading Danes not only spared St Augustine's, but in 1027 King Cnut made over all the possessions of Minster-in-Thanet to St Augustine's. These possessions included the preserved body of Saint Mildred. Belief in the miraculous power of this relic had spread throughout Europe, it brought many pilgrims to St Augustine's, whose gifts enriched the abbey. Following the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, William the Conqueror confiscated landed estates, but he respected Church property. At St Augustine's Abbey, the Anglo-Saxon buildings were reconstructed in the form of a typical Norman Benedictine monastery.
By 1100, all the original buildings had disappeared under a Romanesque edifice. There was further rebuilding as a result of the great fire in 1168; the fire's destruction accounts for the paucity of historical records for the preceding period. From about 1250 onwards was a period of wealth in which "building succeeded building." Boggis' history calls this period a time of "worldly magnificence," marked by "lavish expenditures" on new buildings, royal visits, banquets with thousands of guests. In addition, the papacy imposed many levies on the abbey; the large debt, incurred by these expenditures might have swamped the abbey had it not been for generous benefactors who came to the rescue. The cloister and kitchen were rebuilt. A new abbot's lodging and a great hall were added. In the early 14th century, land was acquired for a cellarer's range, a brewhouse, a bakehouse, a new walled vineyard. A Lady chapel was built to the east of the church; the abbey gatehouse was rebuilt from 1301 to 1309 by Abbot Fyndon.
It has since been known as the Great Gate. The chamber above the entrance was the state bed-chamber of the Monastery. In 1625, Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria slept in this chamber, following their marriage in Canterbury Cathedral. In 1660, after the Restoration, Charles II and his brothers, the Dukes of York and Gloucester, stayed in the gatehouse on their way to London. Fyndon's gate suffered such damage by German bombs during the Second World War that it had to be rebuilt; the gate faces a small square known since the reign of Charles I as Lady Wootton's Green, after the widow of Edward, Lord Wootton of Marley who lived in the palace until her death in 1658. Statues of Æthelberht of Kent and Queen Bertha stand on the green. Boggis describes the early 16th century leading up to the Dissolution of the Monasteries as "days of decadence". Although the abbey owned estates throughout Kent amounting to 19,862 acres, Boggis holds that "historical evidence proves conclusively that if Henry VIII had never dissolved them, the English monasteries were doomed."
The "extortionate exactions" of the Papacy would lead to bankruptcy. However, the English Reformation accompanied by the Dissolution of the Monasteries happened before bankruptcy; the Reformation replaced the Pope with a Monarch. Actions by the Parliament's House of Commons strengthened the power of the laity versus the power of the clergy; these actions were part of the English Reformation’s "great transfer" of
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority, that the recipient admits a limited status within the relationship, it is within that sense that charters were granted, that sense is retained in modern usage of the term; the word entered the English language from the Old French charte, via Latin charta, from Greek χάρτης. It has come to be synonymous with a document that sets out a grant of privileges; the term is used for a special case to an institutional charter. A charter school, for example, is one that has different rules and statutes from a state school. Charter is sometimes used as a synonym for "tool" or "lease", as in the "charter" of a bus or boat or plane by an organization, intended for a similar group destination. A charter member of an organization is an original member. Anglo-Saxon charters are documents from the early medieval period in Britain which make a grant of land or record a privilege.
They are written on parchment, in Latin but with sections in the vernacular, describing the bounds of estates, which correspond to modern parish boundaries. The earliest surviving charters were drawn up in the 670s; the British Empire used three main types of colonies as it sought to expand its territory to distant parts of the earth. These three types were royal colonies, proprietary colonies, corporate colonies. A charter colony by definition is a "colony chartered to an individual, trading company, etc. by the British crown." Although charter colonies were not the most prevalent of the three types of colonies in the British Empire, they were by no means insignificant. A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs.
Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. This event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. Charters for chivalric orders and other orders, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. In project management, a project charter or project definition is a statement of the scope and participants in a project, it provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project. In medieval Europe, royal charters were used to create cities; the date that such a charter was granted is considered to be when a city was "founded", regardless of when the locality began to be settled. At one time a royal charter was the only way in which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means are now used instead.
A charter of "Inspeximus" is a royal charter, by which an earlier charter or series of charters relating to a particular foundation was recited and incorporated into a new charter in order to confirm and renew its validity under present authority. Where the original documents are lost, an inspeximus charter may sometimes preserve their texts and lists of witnesses. Articles of Incorporation Atlantic Charter Charter Roll Charter school Chartered company Earth Charter Freedom Charter Fueros General incorporation law Magna Carta Medieval Bulgarian royal charters Papal Bull United Nations Charter