National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
St. Joseph's Orphanage (Fall River, Massachusetts)
St. Joseph's Orphanage is an historic former orphanage and school located at 56 St. Joseph Street in Fall River, Massachusetts; the orphanage was built in 1892 as part of the parish of Notre Dame de Lourdes, a large French-Canadian congregation located in the city's Flint Village neighborhood. Two large wings were added about 1917; the building housed an elementary school, known as Mount Saint Joseph. Between 1982 and 1986, the school's chapel was used as a temporary place of worship by Notre Dame after its magnificent 1895 church was destroyed by a massive fire on May 11, 1982; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1989, the building was converted into residential apartments, with a large addition to the north side. A statue of Saint Joseph was removed from the alcove atop the front of the building and placed on the nearby grounds of Notre Dame Church. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts Notre Dame School Jesus Marie Convent Notre Dame de Lourdes Church, Fall River Massachusetts
Jesus Marie Convent (Fall River, Massachusetts)
The Jesus Marie Convent is a historic former convent located at 138 St. Joseph's Street in Fall River, Massachusetts, it was built in 1887 and designed by local architect and parish member Louis G. Destremps, who designed the nearby orphanage and church; the four story Second Empire brick convent was built as part of Notre Dame Parish. The west facing central tower with its Italianate window lintels is blocked forward and dentils adorn the cornice line. A detached auditorium was added in 1939 to the north of the main structure; until 1871, the building housed Jesus Marie Academy, a private high school for girls. In the mid-1970s, the academy was renovated into a retirement center-infirmary for retired religious; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Shortly after, the property was converted into apartments, known as Lafayette Place. Several new buildings were added on the grounds to the west of the historic convent. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts Notre Dame School St. Joseph's Orphanage
Our Lady of Lourdes
Our Lady of Lourdes is a Roman Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated in honour of the Marian apparitions that occurred in 1858 in the vicinity of Lourdes in France. The first of these is the apparition of 11 February 1858, when 14-year old Bernadette Soubirous told her mother that a "lady" spoke to her in the cave of Massabielle while she was gathering firewood with her sister and a friend. Similar apparitions of the "Lady" were reported on seventeen occasions that year, until the climax revelation of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception took place. In 18 January 1862, Pope Pius IX authorized Bishop Bertrand-Sévère Laurence to permit the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Lourdes. On 3 July 1876, the same Pontiff granted a Canonical Coronation to the image that used to be in the courtyard of what is now part of the Rosary Basilica; the image of Our Lady of Lourdes has been copied and reproduced in shrines and homes in garden landscapes. Soubirous was canonized as a Catholic saint.
In 1858, Bernadette Soubirous reported a vision of Our Lady of Lourdes. A simple 14-year-old peasant girl of no significant educational experience, Soubirous claimed she saw “uo petito damizelo”, "a petite damsel," in white, with a golden rosary and blue belt fastened around her waist, two golden roses at her feet. In subsequent visitations she heard the lady speak to her, saying Que soy Immaculada Concepcion, asking that a chapel be built there. At first ridiculed and belittled by Church officials and other contemporaries, Soubirous insisted on her vision; the Church believed her and she was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1933. After church investigations confirmed her visions, a large church was built at the site. Lourdes is now a major Marian pilgrimage site: within France, only Paris has more hotels than Lourdes. On 11 February 1858, Soubirous went with her sister Toinette and neighbor Jeanne Abadie to collect some firewood and bones in order to buy some bread. After taking off her shoes and stockings to wade through the water near the Grotto of Massabielle, she said she heard the sound of two gusts of wind but the trees and bushes nearby did not move.
A wild rose in a natural niche in the grotto, did move. ``... I started taking off my stockings. I had hardly taken off the first stocking. I turned my head towards the meadow. I saw the trees quite still: I went on taking off my stockings. I heard the same sound again; as I raised my head to look at the grotto, I saw a lady dressed in white, wearing a white dress, a blue girdle and a yellow rose on each foot, the same color as the chain of her rosary. From the niche, or rather the dark alcove behind it, came a dazzling light…”. Soubirous tried to make the sign of the Cross but she could not, because her hands were trembling; the lady smiled, invited Soubirous to pray the rosary with her. Soubirous tried to keep this a secret. After parental cross-examination and her sister received corporal punishment for their story. Three days 14 February, Soubirous returned to the Grotto, she had brought holy water as a test that the apparition was not of evil origin/provenance: "The second time was the following Sunday....
I started to throw holy water in her direction, at the same time I said that if she came from God she was to stay, but if not, she must go. She started to smile, bowed... This was the second time."Soubirous's companions are said to have become afraid when they saw her in ecstasy. She remained ecstatic as they returned to the village. On 18 February, she spoke of being told by the Lady to return to the Grotto over a period of two weeks, she quoted the apparition: "The Lady only spoke to me the third time.... She told me that she did not promise to make me happy in this world, but in the next."Soubirous was ordered by her parents to never go there again. She went anyway, on 24 February, Soubirous related that the apparition asked for prayer and penitence for the conversion of sinners; the next day, she said the apparition asked her to dig in the ground and drink from the spring she found there. This made her dishevelled and some of her supporters were dismayed, but this act revealed the stream that soon became a focal point for pilgrimages.
Although it was muddy at first, the stream became clean. As word spread, this water was given to medical patients of all kinds, many reports of miraculous cures followed. Seven of these cures were confirmed as lacking any medical explanations by Professor Verges in 1860; the first person with a "certified miracle" was a woman whose right hand had been deformed as a consequence of an accident. Several miracles turned out to be short-term improvement or hoaxes, Church and government officials became concerned; the government fenced off the Grotto and issued stiff penalties for anybody trying to get near the off-limits area. In the process, Lourdes became a national issue in France, resulting in the intervention of Emperor Napoleon III with an order to reopen the grotto on 4 October 1858; the Church had decided to stay away from the controversy altogether. Soubirous, knowing the local area well, managed to visit the barricaded grotto under cover of darkness. There, on 25 March, she said she was told: "I am the Immaculate Conception".
On Easter Sunday, 7 April, her examining doctor stated that Soubirous, in ecstasy, was observed to have held her hands over a lit candle without sustaining harm. On 16 July, Soubirous went for the last time to the Grotto. "I have never se
St. Patrick's Church (Fall River, Massachusetts)
St. Patrick's Church is a historic church building at 1588 South Main Street in Fall River, Massachusetts, it was built in 1881 from local Fall River granite, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. St. Patrick's Parish was established in 1873, as a division of St. Mary's Parish, a predominantly Irish congregation. In 2002, the church was part of a three-parish merger between St. Patrick's, Blessed Sacrament, Our Lady of the Angels; the new parish is named Good Shepherd. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts
Louis G. Destremps
Louis G. Destremps was a Canadian-born American architect who worked extensively with the Roman Catholic Church and other clients in Fall River, Massachusetts, he is the father of Louis E. Destremps, who designed notable buildings in the New Bedford, Massachusetts area. Destremps, was born in St. Cuthbert, Berthier county, Province of Quebec, Canada May 9, 1851, he received his early educational training in his native town finishing in 1866 and for two years studied at the Trade School of the City of Montreal. In 1868, he came to the United States and worked for about seven years as a cabinet maker, returning in 1875 to Montreal, where he was employed in the engineering construction department of the grand Trunk Railroad between Montreal and Quebec City. In 1880, he went to New York City to study architecture at Sixth Avenue High School, from which he graduated, completing the 4-year course. In 1874, Destremps married Celina Mary Millet of Fall River. Together they had six children, including Louis E. Destremps who would follow his father's profession and establish his own practice in the New Bedford area.
In 1885, Destremps set up his architectural firm. Between 1888 and 1889, he relocated temporarily to Newport, Rhode Island, where he was architect for the State Agricultural College at Kingston, Rhode Island. In years he would design many notable structures in Fall River. Destremps was employed as supervising architect for the work of other architects, including Napoléon Bourassa and Joseph Venne, his own masterpiece, Notre Dame De Lourdes Church in Fall River, Massachusetts was destroyed in a 4-alarm fire in 1982. The event was reported in the news media throughout New England. St. Mathieu's Church, Fall River Massachusetts St. Mathieu's rectory and school Fall River, Massachusetts Jesus of Mary Convent, 1887, Fall River, Massachusetts Convent for Dominican Sisters, Fall River, Massachusetts St. Joseph's Orphanage, 1892, Fall River, Massachusetts Fall River armory, 1896, Fall River, Massachusetts supervising architect for Wait & Cutter St. Anthony of Padua Church, 1896, New Bedford, Massachusetts supervising architect for Joseph Venne Notre Dame School, 1899, Fall River, Massachusetts Brick Apartment House, 1901, Massachusetts Bark Street School, 1905, Massachusetts Notre Dame de Lourdes Church, 1906, Fall River, Massachusetts St. Anne's Church, 1906, Fall River, Massachusetts supervising architect for Napoléon Bourassa District Courthouse, 1908, Fall River, Massachusetts
Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg
The Trinity Cathedral, sometimes called the Troitsky Cathedral, in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is a late example of the Empire style, built between 1828 and 1835 to a design by Vasily Stasov. It is located due south of the Admiralty on Izmaylovskiy Prospekt, not far from the Tekhnologichesky Institut Metro station; the cathedral, which can accommodate up to 3,000 visitors, has only begun to be restored to its pre-Revolutionary splendor after years of neglect. In honor of the victory in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, when the Russians liberated Bulgaria from the Ottoman domination, a memorial column was constructed in front of the northern facade of the cathedral in 1886; the cathedral became a part of the Saint Petersburg World Heritage Site in 1990. On August 25, 2006, with reconstruction work underway, the main dome of the Cathedral collapsed after a fire, as did one of the smaller domes; the cathedral was restored and reopened in 2010. According to the Russian tradition, each regiment of the imperial guards had its own cathedral.
The Trinity Cathedral was the regimental church of the Izmailovsky regiment of Imperial guards, which takes its name from a royal residence in Izmailovo, near Moscow. On July 12, 1733, a large field tent operating as a church was consecrated in St. Petersburg, with icons painted on a dark blue satin. However, the church functioned only in the summer, in winter the soldiers and officers had to attend other parish churches. In 1754–1756, a wooden church was built on the site on order of Empress Elizabeth; the church had two altars, the main one of, consecrated in the name of the Trinity. It suffered heavy damage as a result of the flood of 1824 and had to be rebuilt, a commission given by Emperor Nicholas I to Vasily Stasov. Construction of the new church began in May 1828, the cathedral was consecrated in May 1835; the cathedral rises to a height of more than 80 meters, dominates the skyline of the surrounding area. Memorial plaques to regimental officers killed in battle were mounted on the cathedral's wall.
After the cathedral's opening, keys from forts and other trophies that the regiment won in campaigns in 1854–1855 and 1877–1878 were housed in the cathedral. The Trinity Cathedral was renowned for its collection of icons; the main section of the cathedral housed the Nativity icon, while the southern section housed the Jesus Christ icon. Empress Elizabeth presented the church with the Beginning of Life Trinity icon in 1742. Other holy objects housed in the cathedral included a large ark made in the form of a cross in 1753 from silver, a large silver cross presented to the cathedral by Nicholas I in 1835, two large Gospels in valuable bindings. In 1922, most of the cathedral's valuables were looted, the thievery continued for several more years until the cathedral was closed in 1938. There were rumors of plans to demolish the cathedral and use the remaining material for a district workers' theatre. However, the cathedral was transferred to the Soviet Ministry of Telecommunications, for which it became a warehouse.
Only in 1990 did the cathedral return to the hands of the Russian Orthodox Church, when restoration began. By that time, the interior was bare, compared to the splendor and majesty of its pre-Revolutionary past. On August 24, 2006, while the cathedral was under reconstruction, a fire originating on restorers' scaffolding collapsed the main dome, destroyed one of the four smaller domes and damaged the interior; the fire burned through scaffolding outside the central dome of the cathedral. The central dome collapsed and one of four smaller cupolas surrounding it was destroyed. Firefighters battled to save the other three cupolas as emergency workers removed icons and other religious articles. A helicopter dumped water on the historic structure. About four hours after the blaze broke out, one of the three remaining cupolas had been damaged but the fire was contained. A department spokesman confirmed that the fire had been extinguished; the blaze started on scaffolding on the outside of the church, undergoing restoration.
The most valuable icons and other items were saved, structural damage beneath the roof area was minor. Fire officials tried hard to play down the damage; the St. Petersburg emergency directorate refuted earlier media reports that claimed that at least two domes of the Cathedral had been destroyed. Governor Valentina Matviyenko pledged to restore the cathedral within the shortest time possible, pledging to allocate 30 million rubles that year on preparations to rebuild the cathedral. Restoration was completed, the cathedral reopened, in 2010. Another Trinity Cathedral in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery complex Helsinki Cathedral BBC: Several pictures of the fire