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In metaphysics, the noumenon is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception. The term noumenon is used when contrasted with, or in relation to, the term phenomenon, which refers to anything that can be apprehended by or is an object of the senses. Modern philosophy has been skeptical of the possibility of knowledge independent of the senses, Immanuel Kant gave this point of view its canonical expression: that the noumenal world may exist, but it is unknowable through human sensation. In Kantian philosophy, the unknowable noumenon is linked to the unknowable "thing-in-itself", although how to characterize the nature of the relationship is a question still open to some controversy; the Greek word νοούμενoν nooúmenon is the neuter middle-passive present participle of νοεῖν noeîn "to think, to mean", which in turn originates from the word νοῦς noûs, an Attic contracted form of νόος nóos "perception, mind." A rough equivalent in English would be "something, thought", or "the object of an act of thought".

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy writes "Platonic Ideas and Forms are noumenon, phenomena are things displaying themselves to the senses. That noumena and the noumenal world are objects of the highest knowledge and values is Plato's principal legacy to philosophy." However, that noumena and the noumenal world were objects of the highest knowledge and values, was disputed from the start, beginning with Democritus, his follower Pyrrho, founder of Pyrrhonism, in the Academy starting with Arcesilaus and the introduction of Academic Skepticism. In these traditions of philosophical skepticism, noumena are suspected of being delusions. Plato's allegory of the cave may be interpreted as an illustration of the noumenal/phenomenal distinction; as expressed in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, human understanding is structured by "concepts of the understanding", or pure categories of understanding found prior to experience in the mind, which make outer experiences possible as counterpart to the rational faculties of the mind.

By Kant's account, when one employs a concept to describe or categorize noumena, one is employing a way of describing or categorizing phenomena. Kant posited methods by which human understanding makes sense of and thus intuits phenomena that appear to the mind: the concepts of the transcendental aesthetic, as well as that of the transcendental analytic, transcendental logic and transcendental deduction. Taken together, Kant's "categories of understanding" are the principles of the human mind which are brought to bear in attempting to understand the world in which we exist. In each instance the word "transcendental" refers to the process that the human mind must exercise to understand or grasp the form of, order among, phenomena. Kant asserts that to "transcend" a direct observation or experience is to use reason and classifications to strive to correlate with the phenomena that are observed. Humans can make sense out of phenomena in these various ways, but in doing so can never know the "things-in-themselves", the actual objects and dynamics of the natural world in their noumenal dimension - this being the negative correlate to phenomena and that which escapes the limits of human understanding.

By Kant's Critique, our minds may attempt to correlate in useful ways even accurate ways, with the structure and order of the various aspects of the universe, but cannot know these "things-in-themselves" directly. Rather, we must infer the extent to which the human rational faculties can reach the object of "things-in-themselves" by our observations of the manifestations of those things that can be perceived via the physical senses, that is, of phenomena, by ordering these perceptions in the mind infer the validity of our perceptions to the rational categories used to understand them in a rational system, this rational system, being the categories of the understanding as free from empirical contingency. According to Kant, objects of which we are cognizant via the physical senses are representations of unknown somethings—what Kant refers to as the transcendental object—as interpreted through the a priori or categories of the understanding; these unknown somethings are manifested within the noumenon—although we can never know how or why as our perceptions of these unknown somethings via our physical senses are bound by the limitations of the categories of the understanding and we are therefore never able to know the "thing-in-itself".

Many accounts of Kant's philosophy treat "noumenon" and "thing-in-itself" as synonymous, there is textual evidence for this relationship. However, Stephen Palmquist holds that "noumenon" and "thing-in-itself" are only loosely synonymous, inasmuch as they represent the same concept viewed from two different perspectives, other scholars argue that they are not identical. Schopenhauer criticised Kant for changing the meaning of "noumenon". However, this opinion is far from unanimous. Kant's writings show points of difference between noumena and things-in-themselves. For instance, he regards things-in-themselves as existing:...though we cannot know these objects as things in themselves, we must yet be in a position at least to think them as things in themselves. He is much more

American Patriot Supercruiser

The American Patriot Supercruiser called the Patriot II, is an American amateur-built aircraft, designed and produced by American Patriot Aircraft of Westfield, Wisconsin. The aircraft was intended to be supplied as a kit for amateur construction. While the aircraft was still offered for sale in April 2011 the company appears to have gone out of business in late 2011, having completed only the prototype; the Supercruiser features a strut-braced high-wing, two-seats in side-by-side configuration in an enclosed egg-shaped cockpit accessed via doors, a twin tail, fixed tricycle landing gear and a single engine in pusher configuration. The aircraft is made from aluminum sheet, its 30 ft span wing has an area of 137 sq mounts flaperons. The aircraft's recommended engine power range is 80 to 175 hp and standard engines used include the 115 hp Subaru EA 81 automotive conversion four-stroke powerplant; the cabin width is 49 in and construction time from the supplied kit was to be 400 hours. The company had indicated that they were pursuing light-sport aircraft certification in 2011, but as of September 2016, the design does not appear on the Federal Aviation Administration's list of approved special light-sport aircraft.

By December 2011 only one example, the prototype, was listed as completed. The US Federal Aviation Administration indicates that its registration expired on 30 September 2012 and was not renewed. Data from Kitplanes and American Patriot AircraftGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 21 ft Wingspan: 30 ft Wing area: 137 sq ft Empty weight: 760 lb Gross weight: 1,320 lb Fuel capacity: 40 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Subaru EA 81 four cylinder, air-cooled, four stroke automotive conversion, 115 hp Propellers: 3-bladed compositePerformance Cruise speed: 135 mph Stall speed: 50 mph flaperons up, 44 mph flaperons down Range: 850 mi Rate of climb: 1,400 ft/min Wing loading: 9.6 lb/sq ft Archives of the company website on

Indonesia national basketball team

The Indonesia men's national basketball team represents the Republic of Indonesia in international basketball competitions. The governing body of the team is the Persatuan Bola Basket Seluruh Indonesia, its biggest success was the gold medal at the 1996 South East Asian Championship. Team Indonesia is one of the major teams in Southeast Asia; the team finished among the top-four teams in Asia at the 1967 Asian Basketball Championship. At the 1996 Southeast Asian Basketball Championship, Indonesia was the dominant country and won the gold medal. Indonesia participated at the 2009 FIBA Asia Championship as well, held 6–16 August 2009, in Tianjin, China, they were able to qualify for the said tournament by placing second in the 2009 SEABA Championship held from 6–9 June 2009. The team finished 15th out of 16 competing teams at the FIBA Asia Championship, where only the top-3 qualified for the World Basketball Championships. For these events, the head coach of the team was Rastafari Horongbala. At the FIBA Asia Championship 2009, Indonesia finished 15th.

On individual performances, Kelly Purwanto and Isman Thoyib finished among the tournament's top performers. Purwanto finished in the top ten in steals per game, Thoyib finished in the top ten in blocks per game. Indonesian basketball-icon Mario Wuysang was not able to represent his country at that event due scheduling conflicts.. Indonesia will co-host the 2023 FIBA Basketball World Cup along with Japan. There, they will make their FIBA Basketball World Cup debut. In the 1930s though it had not become an independent country, several cities in Indonesia had local basketball clubs, and after the proclamation of independence, 17 August 1945, basketball games began to be known in the cities that became the basis of struggle such as Yogyakarta and Solo. The basketball game was played for the first time at the national level, in 1948 in Solo at the National Sports Week I. Although this organization does not yet have a national sports master, it can get a quite lively welcome, both in terms of viewers and from the participants themselves.

Three years after that, on 23 October 1951, Indonesian basketball association was formed and named Persatuan Basketball Seluruh Indonesia, in 1955, due to the improvement of the name in accordance with Indonesian rules, the basket basket was renamed Persatuan Bola Basket Seluruh Indonesia. Perbasi was accepted as a member of FIBA in 1953, a year for the first time Indonesia sent a team to compete in the Asian Games in Manila at that time. 2015-Now: Hype Clothes 2016: Hi-Test yet to qualify Opposition: Philippines Venue: The BritAma Arena, Jakarta Roster at 2019 SEA Games Scroll down to see more. Indonesian Basketball Association Indonesia women's national basketball team Indonesia national under-19 basketball team Indonesia national under-17 basketball team Indonesia national 3x3 team Indonesia Basketball Records at FIBA Archive Asia-basket - Indonesia Men National Team Indonesian Basketball Association "PERBASI" Official Website Basketball Men's Malaysia vs Indonesia | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015 video

Williston Basin

The Williston Basin is a large intracratonic sedimentary basin in eastern Montana, western North Dakota, South Dakota, southern Saskatchewan, known for its rich deposits of petroleum and potash. The basin is a geologic structural basin but not a topographic depression; the oval-shaped depression extends 475 miles north-south and 300 miles east-west. The Williston Basin lies above an ancient Precambrian geologic basement feature, the Trans-Hudson Orogenic Belt that developed in this area about 1.8-1.9 billion years ago, that created a weak zone that led to sagging to produce the basin. The Precambrian basement rocks in the center of the basin beneath the city of Williston, North Dakota lie about 16,000 feet below the surface. Deposition of sediments began in the Williston area during Cambrian time, but subsidence and basin filling were most intense during the Ordovician and Devonian Periods, when thick accumulations of limestone and dolomite, with lesser thicknesses of sandstones, siltsones and evaporites were laid down.

Subsidence continued on a reduced scale into the Mississippian and was ended by Pennsylvanian time. Regional subsidence returned during the Mesozoic Era, although total sediment thicknesses were much less than during the Paleozoic. Near the end of the Cretaceous, tectonic activity during the Laramide Orogeny rejuvenated several basement structures in the Williston Basin to produce anticlines that serve as oil traps today; the long history of sedimentary deposition in the Williston Basin included deposition of rocks well suited to serve as hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. The basin's oil and gas fields are found in a wide range of geologic ages, as indicated by the generalized stratigraphic column. Oil was first found in the Williston Basin along the Cedar Creek Anticline in southeastern Montana, in the 1920s and 1930s; the basin did not become a major oil province until the 1950s when large fields were discovered in North Dakota. Amerada, the largest independent oil firm, began the search in 1946.

After four years of testing and mapping they started drilling at a promising lease 30 miles north-east of Williston, ND and on April 4, 1951 found a large field of oil underground. Other oil firms rushed in to buy up leases on farm land to explore for oil and by 1954 80% of the possible oil producing areas were under lease. Shell at that time had leases over 8 million acres. Many local farmers and area speculators became instant millionaires, leasing land at an average of $25 an acre and selling those leases back at a much higher cost per acre. Production peaked in 1986, but in the early 2000s significant increases in production began because of application of horizontal drilling techniques in the Bakken Formation. Cumulative basin production totals about 3.8 billion barrels of oil and 470 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The largest oil fields are listed in the following table. Potash produced from the Williston Basin makes Canada the world's leading producer of that commodity. Major potash-producing companies include Mosaic.

The Williston Basin holds large coal deposits in the Fort Union Formation of Paleogene age. Several confirmed impact craters are located in Williston Basin such as Viewfield, Red Wing Creek, Eagle Butte while the Dumas and Hartney craters are still unconfirmed. List of possible impact structures on Earth Discovery of oil in the Williston Basin

Behsat √úvez

Behsat Üvez, was a Turkish singer and teacher. He was the founder of Barana. Üvez was born in Ankara. On February 22, 2013, Behsat Üvez died of lung cancer in Groningen. Barana Co. İleriye Anılar Gül ve Bülbül Şarap Xenopolis Electro Shaman Female Factory 5-May project with the Metropol Orchestra Music Meeting Foundation Jazz Utrecht The Culture Factory Amsterdam Foundation Kulsan Circus Colourful City in Nijmegen Global Village Orchestra Festival "Klap op de Vuurpijl"-NPS/Radio 4 with Alan Laurrilard's Seafood plus Raiz met Fernando Lamerinihas Made in Holland Xenopolis Barana Festival Barana Official Website Cazkolik Interview Radikal Newspaper Interview Carlama Interview

113th Ohio Infantry

The 113th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 113th Ohio Infantry was organized at Camp Chase in Columbus and Camp Dennison near Cincinnati, Ohio October 10 through December 12, 1862, mustered in for three years service under the command of Colonel James A. Wilcox. Company K was February 1864 at Rossville, Georgia; the regiment was attached to District of Western Kentucky, Department of the Ohio, to February 1863. Reed's Brigade, Baird's Division, Army of Kentucky, Department of the Cumberland, to June 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Reserve Corps, Department of the Cumberland, to October 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to July 1865. The 113th Ohio Infantry mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky. Moved to Louisville, Ky. December 27. January 3, 1863, to Nashville, Tenn. January 28. Moved from Nashville to Franklin, Tenn. February 12, 1863, duty there until June. Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Duty at Wartrace until August 25.

Chickamauga Campaign August 25-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19–21. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn. September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23–27. Orchard Knob November 23. Tunnel Hill November 24–25. Missionary Ridge November 25. Chickamauga Station November 26. March to relief of Knoxville November 28-December 8. Return to Chattanooga and duty in that vicinity until May 1864. Demonstration on Dalton, Ga. February 22–27, 1864. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap, Rocky Faced Ridge February 23–25. Atlanta Campaign May 1 to September 8. Tunnel Hill May 6–7. Demonstration on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8–11. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8–9. Battle of Resaca May 14–15. Advance on Dallas May 18–25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church, Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kennesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11–14. Lost Mountain June 15–17. Assault on Kennesaw June 27. Ruff's Station July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5–17.

Peachtree Creek July 19–20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Utoy Creek August 5–7. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25–30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Operations against Forrest and Hood in northern Georgia and northern Alabama September 29-November 3. March to the sea November 15-December 10, Sandersville November 26. Siege of Savannah December 10–21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April 1865. Two League Cross Roads, near Lexington, S. C. February 15. Taylor's Hole Creek, Averysboro, N. C. March 16. Battle of Bentonville March 19–21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10–14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D. C. via Richmond, D. C. April 29-May 19. Grand Review of the Armies May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky. June; the regiment lost a total of 269 men during service. Colonel James Andrew Wilcox Lieutenant Colonel Darius B. Warner - commanded at the battle of Chickamauga Major Lyne Starling Sullivant - commanded during the Chattanooga Campaign List of Ohio Civil War units Ohio in the Civil War Dyer, Frederick Henry.

A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. McAdams, Francis Marion. Every-day Soldier Life. McAdams, Francis Marion. Our Knapsack: Sketches for the Boys in Blue, 1884. Ohio Roster Commission. Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War on the Rebellion, 1861–1865, Compiled Under the Direction of the Roster Commission, 1886-1895. Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Reunion of the 113th Reg't. O. V. I. Held at Worthington, Sept. 2, 1902, 1902. Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, Soldiers, 1868. ISBN 978-1-154-80196-5 Willett, Alfred C. A Union Soldier Returns South: The Civil War Letters and Diary of Alfred C. Willett, 113th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 1994. ISBN 1-57072-005-3Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. Ohio in the Civil War: 113th Ohio Volunteer Infantry by Larry Stevens National flag of the 113th Ohio Infantry Regimental flag of the 113th Ohio Infantry