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A noun is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, places, qualities, states of existence, or ideas. However, noun is not a semantic category, so that it cannot be characterized in terms of its meaning, thus and states of existence can be expressed by verbs, qualities by adjectives, places by adverbs. Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. Lexical categories are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions; the syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language. In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase. "As far as we know, every language makes a grammatical distinction that looks like a noun verb distinction." Word classes were described by Sanskrit grammarians from at least the 5th century BC.

In Yāska's Nirukta, the noun is one of the four main categories of words defined. The Ancient Greek equivalent was ónoma, referred to by Plato in the Cratylus dialog, listed as one of the eight parts of speech in The Art of Grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax; the term used in Latin grammar was nōmen. All of these terms for "noun" were words meaning "name"; the English word noun is derived through the Anglo-Norman noun. The word classes were defined by the grammatical forms that they take. In Sanskrit and Latin, for example, nouns are categorized by gender and inflected for case and number; because adjectives share these three grammatical categories, adjectives are placed in the same class as nouns. The Latin nōmen includes both nouns and adjectives, as did the English word noun, the two types being distinguished as nouns substantive and nouns adjective. Many European languages use a cognate of the word substantive as the basic term for noun. Nouns in the dictionaries of such languages are demarked by the abbreviation s. or sb. instead of n. which may be used for proper nouns or neuter nouns instead.

In English, some modern authors use the word substantive to refer to a class that includes both nouns and noun phrases. It can be used as a counterpart to attributive when distinguishing between a noun being used as the head of a noun phrase and a noun being used as a noun adjunct. For example, the noun knee can be said to be used substantively in my knee hurts, but attributively in the patient needed knee replacement. Nouns have sometimes been defined in terms of the grammatical categories; such definitions tend to be language-specific, since nouns do not have the same categories in all languages. Nouns are defined in informal contexts, in terms of their semantic properties. Nouns are described as words that refer to a person, thing, substance, quantity, etc; however this type of definition has been criticized by contemporary linguists as being uninformative. There have been offered several examples of English-language nouns which do not have any reference: drought, finesse, behalf and sake. Moreover, there may be a relationship similar to reference in the case of other parts of speech: the verbs to rain or to mother.

There are placeholder names, such as the legal fiction reasonable person, an experimental artifact, or personifications such as gremlin. Linguists prefer to define nouns in terms of their formal properties; these include morphological information, such as what prefixes or suffixes they take, their syntax – how they combine with other words and expressions of particular types. Such definitions may nonetheless still be language-specific since syntax as well as morphology varies between languages. For example, in English, it might be noted that nouns are words that can co-occur with definite articles, but this would not apply in Russian, which has no definite articles. There have been several attempts, sometimes controversial, to produce a stricter definition of nouns on a semantic basis; some of these are referenced in the § Further reading section below. In some languages, genders are assigned to nouns, such as masculine and neuter; the gender of a noun will entail agreement in words that modify or are related to it.

For example, in French, the singular form of the definite article is le with masculine nouns and la with feminines. Grammatical gender correlates with the form of the noun and the inflection pattern it follows. Gender can correlate with the sex of the noun's referent in the case of nouns denoting people. Nouns arguably do not have gender in Modern English, although m

Vida Yeboah

Vida Amaadi Yeboah was a former Ghanaian educator and civic leader. Deputy Minister of Education and Culture from 1988 to 1993, Yeboah helped found the Forum for African Women Educationalists in 1992. Elected member of parliament in 1992, Yeboah became a member of Jerry Rawlings' government, serving as tourism minister from 1997 to 2001. Via Yeboah was born on 27 July 1944 at her maternal family village in the Eastern Region, the daughter of Kate Oye Ntow Ofosu and Eric Perigrino Nelson, she was educated at Wesley Girls High School before gaining her BA in French from the University of Ghana. She studied for a MA in French from the University of Bordeaux in France, a post-graduate diploma in education from the University of Cape Coast, she taught for fourteen years at girls schools in Ghana, becoming headmistress of Mfantsiman Girls' Secondary School, before being appointed a Deputy Secretary for Education in 1985. From 1988 to 1993 Vida Yeboah was Deputy Minister of Culture. Yeboah overhauled the pre-university schooling system.

In 1992 she cofounded the Forum for African Women Educationalists with four other African women ministers of education: Fay Chung in Zimbabwe, Simone Testa in the Seychelles, Paulette Moussavon-Missambo in Gabon, Alice Tiendrebengo in Burkina Faso. In the 1992 Ghanaian parliamentary election Yeboah was elected MP for Akwapim South, she was re-elected with 48% of the vote in the 1996 elections. From 1993 to around 1997 she was Minister without Portfolio in the Office of the President. From 1997 to 2001 she was Minister of a ministerial position outside the Cabinet. Vida Yeboah is remembered as one of the four founders of Forum for African Women Educationalists Ghana's Chapter. Vida Amaadi Yeboah at the African People Database

Tommy G. Warren

Tommy G. Warren is an American Screenwriter, Award Winning Director and Producer. Warren began working in video in the 1970s. Tommy has officed at Paramount Studios in Hollywood. In 2004 Tommy G. Warren founder of Spiderwood Productions & - began creating feature Films / Videos / TV, Music and Media. In 2009 Warren opened Spiderwood Studios a full service Motion Picture & TV Studios and Back- Lot along the Lower Colorado River just outside Austin, Texas. Warren is the founder and owner of T. Warren Investment,inc. / Other businesses includes: Director at Austin & Seattle. Award Winning Director Tommy G. Warren, born Thomas Glenwood Warren, was born in Poplar Bluff, Missouri but grew up in Southern, Arkansas; when Warren was 20 years old he bought his first motion picture camera. It was an 8mm wind-up film camera that he used to film documentaries and home Movies of his children. Warren started commercial shoots in the late 1960s, he worked on documentaries in the 1970s. Before segueing into filmmaking, Tommy was well known as a pioneer in the development of State and Federal correctional facilities.

His concepts in land and real estate development left its mark on the global community and gave Tommy the reputation he still carries with him today as a fair man, but an immovable force in business. He has interests in banking management, he is a notable author of several publications, as well as magazine and newspaper articles on productivity, economic development, labor and management relations, has been interviewed about these topics with appearances on several television and radio talk shows. Warren has worked with major motion picture studios, such as DreamWorks and MGM, as Production Design Consultant, his years of involvement with both domestic and foreign relations made him an invaluable asset on such films as "Red Corner" with Richard Gere. He produced and wrote several documentary films. In 1996 Warren moved to Hollywood to work on a film with MGM. By 2001 Warren had an office at Paramount Studios. During that time tommy co-wrote and produced the feature film *The Inner Circle; the film takes a dramatic focus on the healing that one relationship goes through after surviving breast cancer and as Tommy says, "it is another story that needed telling."

Warren developed "StoryWorld" a Media and Entertainment World that's trademarked, involved with storytelling through all sorts of Media form with /.net and /.net In 2009 Spiderwood Studios Inc. was formed just outside Austin. The studio sits on 200 acres of land along the Colorado River and contains the only groomed for production back-lot in the state of Texas. Association Internationale du Film d'Animation International Animated Film Association Annual "Annie" Awards Will Rogers Hollywood Foundation The Flight of Magic 2012 Indie Fest, Award of Merit for Original Song "Believe" 2012 California International Animation Festival, Audience Favorite 2012 Park City Film Music Festival, Finalist for Original Music from the film "Flight of Magic" 2012 Newport Beach Film Festival, Official Selection 2012 The 33rd Annual Telly Award, Silver Award, Non-Broadcast Productions for Use of Animation 2012 The 33rd Annual Telly Award, Bronze Award, Non-Broadcast Productions for Children's Audience 2011 The Accolade Competition, Award of Excellence in Animation 2011 The Prestige Film Award, Gold Award for Short Film/Video 2011 The Prestige Film Award, Gold Award for Holiday Film 2011 The Prestige Film Award, Silver Award for Animation 2011 The Prestige Film Award, Bronze Award for Original Song "Believe""The Inner Circle" 2005'The Inner Circle 2009 Exceptional Merit in Media Award Darker Than Night2014 The Accolade Competition, Award of Excellence for Movie Trailer 2014 The Accolade Competition, Award of Merit for Special Effects, non-animation/stunts 2014 The Accolade Competition, Award of Merit for Lighting 2014 IndieFest Award winner for Dramatic Drama Scene 2014 IndeFest Award Winner for Visual Effects in a 2018 Margarita Man 2016 "So You Want To Make A Movie" 2016 Unhinged 2015 Terror Birds 2015 Hot Air 2013'Darker Than Night' 2014 Templar: Honor Among Thieves 2012 Bad Kids Go to Hell 2012 Doonby 2013 Flight of Magic 2010 Something's Gonna Live 2006/I Mafiosa 2006 Teed Off Too 2005 Teed Off: Behind the Tees 2005 Teed Off 2005 The Inner Circle 2003 Hip Hop Get Down 2003 Inside the Inner Circle 2013 "Darker Than Night" Thriller 2013 Flight of Magic 2006 Teed Off Too 2005 Teed Off 2005 Teed Off: Behind the Tees 2005 The Inner Circle 2006 Night After Christmas 2005 The Orphans 2013'Darker Than Night' 2013 Flight of Magic 2005 Teed Off: Behind the Tees 2003 Inside the Inner Circle 2005 The Inner Circle Various Commercials and Promo videos 2013'Escape Plan' 2005 The Inner Circle (m

National Students Federation

The National Students Federation Pakistan is a left-wing student federation in Pakistan. In the late 1960s, NSF adopted the political ideologies of Marxism -- Mao Zedong Thought, its predecessor, the DSF, had links to the Communist Party of Pakistan. It had power base among progressive students from DJ Science Colleges, it dominated student politics in Karachi the Federal Capital of the country. In a convention at the national level of students, held in Khaliqdina Hall, the DSF renamed itself to NSF in the late 1960s, laying claim to being a national movement and hoping to spread the Student Revolution to the whole country. Demonstrations and strikes had paralyzed the Karachi for several days; the government gave in by sacrificing the Minister for Education, Mr Fazlur Rahman, who hailed from East Pakistan. He was sacked from his post, it was not much of a victory for the students. APSO was banned and the leaders were thrown in the Karachi Central Jail. NSF a small nationalist and right-wing group, propped up by the help of Karachi University Vice Chancellor to counter DSF's activities, was invaded overnight by the now-banned DSF party members, who were still outside.

The former DSF members had enough muscle and organisational skills to take over the control of NSF in 1956, thus its new "left" leaning profile emerged. Due to its links with communist movement, DSF was infested with the presence of double agents/informers from the secret service. NSF saw its first major split in 1965, between the pro-China and pro-Moscow factions, better known as the NSF-Meraj Group and the NSF-Kazmi Group. While the NSF-Meraj group supported the PPP, the NSF Kazmi group was the student arm of the National Awami Party, which today is the ANP; because this particular faction hold most backward views within the progressive movement they soon loose the ground. Mr Ameer Haider Kazmi took position in PPP and his faction was liquidated. NSF remained active in many Pakistani universities and colleges and won the elections of Students Unions, it played a major role in the popular student and labour uprising against the pro-US dictatorship of Field Marshal Ayub Khan in 1967 and 1968.

NSF activists were among the first major supporters of future Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and his populist/socialist Pakistan Peoples Party to advance the democratic process and to weaken the religious fundamentalists. One of the leading leaders of NSF, Meraj Muhammad Khan, was made a minister in Bhutto's first cabinet but both NSF and Meraj fell out with the Bhutto government in 1973 when Bhutto started to compromise on his socialist agenda. Meraj Mohammad Khan remained president of NSF till 1967 and was replaced by Rasheed Hassan Khan in a council session held in Lahore in 1970; the following are the main reasons which contributed in withdrawing NSF support from the PPP. After PPP won the 1970 election and emerged as the single largest party in West Pakistan, it refused to acknowledge the mandate of the Awami League and their demands of greater autonomy and furthermore its policies regarding army operation in East Pakistan; the NSF and Mazdoor Kissan Party were the main left organizations who opposed army operation against Bengalis.

Differences further deepened when the NSF realized that Bhutto was backing off from his promises of radical economical and social changes which he made to students and the working class. Bhutto wanted to silence his dissidents so he cracked down on the students; the breaking point between Bhutto and the NSF came when Bhutto crushed the labour movement in Site on 7–8 June and in Landhi on 17–18 October in 1972. Several workers were killed and hundreds arrested. Rasheed Hassan Khan a Central President of NSF, had to go underground; the NSF withdrew its support from the PPP and exposed Bhutto's hypocrisy and opportunistic politics. Miraj Mohamed khan decided to remain in the PPP. Miraj was in view that it was the establishment, trying to create conflicts among workers and that PPP and its policies are clean but he was proved wrong later. In years to come, the gulf of difference between ZA Bhutto and Meraj khan widened and Meraj Mohd Khan has no choice other than to leave PPP and form his own political organisation which he named as Qomi Mahaz-e-Azadi and his own faction of NSF.

In mid 90's Miraj dissolved the Qomi Mahaz-e-Azadi and joined hand with cricketer turn politician Imran Khan and become Secretary General of PTI. He soon fell out with Khan and resigned from PTI. Once, a flamboyant student leader, Meraj fell into political isolation and he never regained his position as a representative leader of working class, a position he enjoyed once. NSF saw another split in the 1980s. A majority faction condemned the soviet invasion, believed, it was said that this will provide opportunity to imperialist powers to use religious extremist to curb progressive movements. Within Afghanistan various Marxist parties and groups were divided over the issue; the small faction headed by Zahid Hussain took the position that criticizing so called'Afghan saur revolution' would meant to be supporting the Mujahideen and see this as support to the Army Junta and dictatorship of General Zia-ul-Haq, playing into the hands of the USA. That gave birth to a small dissident group headed by Zahid Hussain.

This faction liquidated soon and member of this faction joined various pro soviet groups or took positions in establishment. These Opportunist wolves in sheep's clothing done damage to NSF in particular and to the progressive and workers movemen

Lisa Hardaway

Lisa Hardaway was an American aerospace engineer and program manager for an instrument on the New Horizons spacecraft to Pluto and Beyond. Among her awards, she was named Engineer of the Year for 2015–2016 by the Colorado American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Hardaway graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, University of Colorado, she worked for Ball Aerospace. She was program manager for RALPH, on the New Horizons mission. In the summer of 2017, NASA renamed the LEISA channel in her honor. Lisa made incredible contributions to New Horizons and our success in exploring Pluto, we wanted to celebrate those contributions in a special way by dedicating the LEISA spectrometer in her honor Lisa Hardaway was named "Engineer of the Year" for 2015–2016 by Colorado American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Asteroid 161699 Lisahardaway was named in her memory; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 25 September 2018.


Kendujhargarh railway station

Not to be confused with Jajpur Keonjhar Road railway station on the Kharagpur-Khurda Road section of Howrah-Chennai main lineKendujhargarh railway station, located in the Indian state of Odisha, serves Kendujhar in Kendujhar district. It is on the Padapahar-Jakhapura branch line. Construction of the line between Jakhapura and Daitari was sanctioned in 1976-77, it was commissioned in 1981. The 152 km long Daitari-Banspani line was sanctioned in 1992-93 to facilitate transportation of iron ore for export through Paradip Port; the Banspani-Kendujhar section was operational in 2004. The Kendujhar-Tomka section was operational in 2007. Passenger trains started plying on this route in 2009; the area is a forested plateau. Among the trains available at Kendujhar are Barbil-Puri Express and Kendujhar-Bhubaneswar Fast Passenger which are now running daily. A VSKP-TATA-VSKP weekly Express is added on this route. More number of passenger and Express trains is the requirement of Keonjhar. Comparison to other populated areas it has only one daily train to Bhubaneswar.

With the existing rush there is requirement of three more daily trains to Bhubaneswar from here it can either passenger or Express. Local trains are need to connect KDJR to Joda and Barbil which are nearest towns and popular destinations of this district. Running train list: 1.18416/18415 PURI-BARBIL-Rourkela - PURI intercity 2. 58425/ 58426 KDJR-BBS Fast Passenger 3. 20816/20815 VSKP-TATA-VSKP Superfast Express 4. 07438/07439 Kacheguda -Tatanagar-Kacheguda special fare special 5. 08189/08190 Tatanagar-Visakhapatnam-Tatanagar Special Fare Special