Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, the main city of the European Metropolis of Lille; as of 2015, Lille had a population of 232,741 within its administrative limits. Lille is the first city of the Métropole Européenne de Lille with a population of 1,182,127, making it the fourth largest urban area in France after Paris and Marseille. Archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC, most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives and Vieux Lille; the original inhabitants of this region were the Gauls, such as the Menapians, the Morins, the Atrebates, the Nervians, who were followed by Germanic peoples: the Saxons, the Frisians and the Franks. The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of Lille at 640. In the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research.
Lille's Dutch name is Rijsel. The French equivalent has the same meaning: Lille comes from l'île. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes; the first mention of the town dates from 1066: apud Insulam. At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders; the County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe. A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs. There was an important Battle of Lille in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur; the counts of Flanders and Hainaut came together with England and East Frankia and tried to regain territory taken by Philip II of France following Henry II of England's death, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines in 1214.
Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople, who ruled the city. She was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. In 1225, the street performer and juggler Bertrand Cordel, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople, who had disappeared at the battle of Adrianople, he pushed the counties of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. She called her cousin, Louis VIII, he unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne had hanged. In 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, his daughter Marie soon after. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler. On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital, which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille.
It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century. The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette; the rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders to Margaret's son, Guy of Dampierre. Lille fell under the rule of France after the Franco-Flemish War; the county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said along with Brussels and Dijon. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was more powerful than the King of France, made Lille an administrative and financial capital. On 17 February 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, Philip the Good organised a Pantagruelian banquet at his Lille palace, the still-celebrated "Feast of the Pheasant". There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity.
In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders. The 16th and 17th centuries were marked by a boom in the regional textile industry, the Protestant revolts, outbreaks of the Plague. Lille came under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519; the Low Countries fell to his eldest son Philip II of Spain in 1555. The city remained under Spanish Habsburg rule until 1668. Calvinism first appeared in the area in 1542. In 1566 the countryside around Lille was affected by the Iconoclastic Fury. In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron, they were removed four months by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time, at the call of Elizabeth I of England, the north of the Seventeen Provinces, having gained a Protestant majority, su
Austria national football team
The Austria national football team is the association football team that represents Austria in international competition and is controlled by the Austrian Football Association. Austria has qualified for seven FIFA World Cups, most in 1998; the country played in the UEFA European Championship for the first time in 2008, when it co-hosted the event with Switzerland, most qualified in 2016. The Austrian Football Association was founded on 18 March 1904 in the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the team enjoyed success in the 1930s under coach Hugo Meisl, becoming a dominant side in Europe and earning the nickname "Wunderteam". The team's star was Matthias Sindelar. On 16 May 1931, they were the first continental European side. In the 1934 FIFA World Cup, Austria finished fourth after losing 1–0 to Italy in the semi-finals and 3–2 to Germany in the third place play-off, they were runners-up in the 1936 Olympics, again losing to Italy 2–1, despite having been beaten in the quarter-finals by Peru, following the Peruvians' withdrawal.
However, according to an investigation, the surprise victory by Peru was deliberately annulled by Adolf Hitler to favour the Austrians. The team qualified for the 1938 World Cup finals, but Austria was annexed to Germany in the Anschluss on 12 March of that year. On 28 March, FIFA was notified that the OFB had been abolished, resulting in the nation's withdrawal from the World Cup. Instead, the German team would represent the former Austrian territory. Theoretically, a united team could have been an stronger force than each of the separate ones, but German coach Sepp Herberger had little time and few matches to prepare and merge the different styles of play and attitude; the former Austrian professionals outplayed the rather athletic yet amateur players of the "Old Empire" in a "reunification" derby, supposed to finish as a draw, yet in the waning minutes, the Austrians scored twice, with Matthias Sindelar demonstratively missing the German goal, subsequently declining to be capped for Germany.
In a rematch, the Germans took revenge, winning 9–1. In early April, Herberger inquired whether two separate teams could enter anyway, but "Reichssportführer" Hans von Tschammer und Osten made clear that he expected to see a 5:6 or 6:5 ratio of players from the two hitherto teams; as a result, five players from Austria Wien, Rapid Wien and Vienna Wien were part of the team that only managed a 1–1 draw in Round 1 against Switzerland, which required a rematch. With Rapid Wien's forward Pesser having been sent off, not satisfied with two others, Herberger had to alter the line-up on six positions to fulfill the 6:5 quota again; the all-German team led the Swiss 2–0 after 15 minutes, but lost 4–2 in Paris in front of a rather anti-German French and Swiss crowd, as few German supporters were able to travel to France due to German restrictions on foreign currency exchange. After World War II, Austria was again separated from Germany. Austria's best result came in 1954 with a team starring midfielder Ernst Ocwirk.
They lost in the semi-finals 6–1 to eventual champions Germany, but finished third after beating defending champions Uruguay 3–1. Over the years, a strong yet lopsided rivalry with Germany developed. At the 1958 World Cup in Sweden, the Austrian team was a disappointment. Defeats to the eventual champions Brazil, the emerging Soviet Union and a draw against a weakened England prevented the team from reaching the next round. Still holding to the great popularity in the country, under new coach Decker they again made an international sensation in the era. In front of a record crowd of over 90,000 spectators, made possible by the expansion of Prater Stadium, the team could beat the Soviet Union 3–1 and Spain 3–0. However, due to lack of money, Austria decided not to participate at the 1962 World Cup in Chile, the team fell apart; the abrupt end of Austria's success in the post-war period led to the clear 0–6 loss against Czechoslovakia in 1962, from which many players and Karl Decker did not recover.
After the end of Decker era, the team was unable for a long time to connect to the old successes. Due to the great popularity of the Austrian team, on 20 October 1965, Austria succeeded as the third team of the continent to defeat England at home. Two goals in a 3–2 victory were achieved by Toni Fritsch, nicknamed "Wembley Toni". However, in the same year, Austria failed for the first time to qualify for the World Cup in the 1966 edition, ending third against a still-strong Hungary and East Germany. In the summer of 1968, Leopold Šťastný, the successful Slovak coach of Wacker Innsbruck, took over the national team. Despite failing to qualify for the 1970 World Cup, the new coach emphasized developing new players rather than relying on the old guard. Supported by a large football euphoria, Austria came close to qualifying for the 1974 World Cup in Germany; the qualifying round was tied for first place between Austria and Sweden, despite tiebreakers based on points and goal difference, therefore a playoff was needed for qualifying, held in Gelsenkirchen.
In order to have enough time to prepare, the championship round was suspended and the stadium in Gelsenkirchen was prepared five days before the playoff. On snow-covered ground, Austria lost 1–2, but with numerous missed chances such as hitting the crossbar. Anchored by Herbert Prohaska and striker Hans Krankl, backed up by Bruno Pezzey, Austria reached the World Cup in 1978 and 1982 and both times reached the s
The Stade Pierre-Mauroy is a multi-use, retractable roof stadium in Villeneuve-d'Ascq, Hauts-de-France. It is located in the Hôtel de Ville quarter of Villeneuve d'Ascq and is the home stadium of Lille OSC. Named Grand Stade Lille Métropole, the stadium was renamed on 21 June 2013, just after the death of the former Mayor of Lille and former Prime Minister of France Pierre Mauroy. In 1975, Lille OSC began playing at a 21,128-seat facility; when the club began to play European Competitions, the venue did not match UEFA standards, prompting the club to play its UEFA Champions League games at the Stade Félix-Bollaert, home of rival RC Lens, in 2001. Plans were soon made to build a new stadium which would match UEFA demands, but the project was postponed and cancelled due to struggle with preservationists who stated that the location chosen for the new stadium was too close to the 17th Century Citadel; the club, left without a place to play, moved to the Stadium Nord, smaller than Grimonprez-Jooris and did not fulfill UEFA demands.
This situation forced the team, who had qualified for 2005–06 UEFA Champions League, to play at the Stade de France for its European matches. This solution was abandoned after two young LOSC fans lost their lives when they got hit by an incoming train after a game against Olympique Lyonnais. While LOSC was struggling with its stadium problems, the administrative landscape of the Lille area changed; the city was now included in a vast association with its enclosed neighbours, forming the Urban Community of Lille Métropole. The new administration, now in charge of the whole area, decided to launch a new stadium project. On 5 December 2006, an industrial bid for a 50,000-seat multi-purpose stadium, able to receive sport competitions, cultural shows and hold seminars, was launched; the following January, three worldwide construction companies answered the call, each one with ambitious projects: Eiffage: a 50,000-seat capacity multi-purpose stadium, Meeting HQE standards with a retractable roof. The stadium has a particularity: it can become a functional arena of 30,000 seats in only one hour: the Boite à spectacle.
Bouygues: The project proposed by the company was effective in energy saving. The structure was geothermic and most of its power was produced by Renewable energy; the stadium would have a 50,127-seat capacity. Vinci: The project proposed by Vinci was the largest of the competition with a 50,921-seat capacity and a retractable roof, it would have been powered by 8000 m² of Solar panelsOn February 2008, Eiffage was selected during a general meeting to build the stadium. The contract was signed between the two parties on October of the same year. Eiffage was given 45 months to complete the project On 10 July 2009, Eiffage received the building permit and authorisation to start preparatory works for the construction at the Borne de l'Espoir location in Villeneuve-d'Ascq. In December 2009, the final two cities of the Lille Métropole who had yet to sign the building permit joined the project and gave their authorisation. In February 2010, France became a candidate to organize the UEFA Euro 2016; the Grand Stade become the symbol of the candidature.
In March 2010, construction of access infrastructure began followed one week after by the beginning of the construction of the arena itself. On 28 May 2010, France was chosen to organize the Euro 2016. Martine Aubry, who succeeded Pierre Mauroy at the head of LCMU and a big supporter of LOSC and the Grand Stade, expressed her wish to see the Grand Stade given a prominent amount of competition for the upcoming competition. Construction accelerated, with the first brick laid by the Eiffage CEO in September 2010. In 2011, the structure supporting the roof was put in place and constructions of the northern stand was completed by the end of that year. In 2012, the retractable roof, constructed in one piece, was put in place in one day. Despite some legal delays, the stadium was delivered on schedule during the summer of 2012, in time for the 2012–13 LOSC season; the total cost of the Eiffage project was €618 million, including €282 million for the stadium, €42 million for additional development such as parking and restaurants, €96 million to ensure seismic standards were met.
This latter requirement was introduced in 2011, following a new law passed in the wake of the massive Japan earthquake and tsunami. The cost was spread between the city of the LOSC and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional council; the cost of the project spurred considerable controversy. On one hand, Martine Aubry and her First Deputy Pierre de Saintignon, in charge of the project, highlighted the Grand Stade as "a splendid ambassador of the technologies of our region, a great tool of attractivity". On the other hand, opponents pointed to a lack of long term viability, since part of the public investments were bound to sporting events, whose results are of random nature; this could lead to some new kind of toxic loans. Stade Pierre-Mauroy has main levels; the full stadium level or Grand Stade reaches a height of 31 m and has a total capacity of 50,186 seats including 4,965 business seats, 1,842 luxury-box seats, 448 protocol seats and 326 reserved for the press. The stadium has a peculiarity: half of the Grand Stade field is situated on hydraulics lift and massive tracks that raise and slide it above the other half of the field in three hours.
This creates a second lower level floor plan and surrounding seats called Boîte à Spectacles, where bask
Herzog & de Meuron
Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd. or Herzog & de Meuron Architekten, BSA/SIA/ETH, is a Swiss architecture firm with its head office in Basel, Switzerland. The careers of founders and senior partners Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron paralleled one another, with both attending the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, they are best known for their conversion of the giant Bankside Power Station in London to the new home of Tate Modern. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron have been visiting professors at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design since 1994 and professors at ETH Zürich since 1999. Herzog & de Meuron was founded in Basel in 1978. In 2001, Herzog & de Meuron were awarded the highest of honours in architecture. Jury chairman J. Carter Brown commented, "One is hard put to think of any architects in history that have addressed the integument of architecture with greater imagination and virtuosity." This was in reference to HdM's innovative use of exterior materials and treatments, such as silkscreened glass.
Architecture critic and Pritzker juror Ada Louise Huxtable summarized HdM's approach concisely: "They refine the traditions of modernism to elemental simplicity, while transforming materials and surfaces through the exploration of new treatments and techniques." In 2006, The New York Times Magazine called them "one of the most admired architecture firms in the world." HdM's early works were reductivist pieces of modernity that registered on the same level as the minimalist art of Donald Judd. However, their recent work at Prada Tokyo, the Barcelona Forum Building and the Beijing National Stadium for the 2008 Olympic Games, suggest a changing attitude; the shapes and forms of some of the works suggest art glass and objects d'art that one would see on a coffee table, like an art deco ashtray or quirky container for chocolates - a building becomes a blown-up version of desk art because the computer can do it, mimic the plasticity of the medium, make it possible as a feat of engineering. HdM's commitment of articulation through materiality is a common thread through all their projects.
Their formal gestures have progressed from the purist simplicity of rectangular forms to more complex and dynamic geometries. The architects cite Joseph Beuys as an enduring artistic inspiration and collaborate with different artists on each architectural project, their success can be attributed to their skills in revealing unfamiliar or unknown relationships by utilizing innovative materials. Completed1992 Goetz Collection, Germany 1997: Rudin House, France 1998 Dominus Winery, Napa Valley, California 1999 Swiss Federal Railways switchtower, Switzerland 2000 Tate Modern, London, UK 2002 St. Jakob-Park, Switzerland 2003 Laban Dance Centre, Deptford Creek, London, UK 2003 Prada Aoyama, Japan 2004 Forum Building, Barcelona 2004 IKMZ, Germany 2005 M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California 2005 Walker Art Center expansion, Minnesota 2005 Allianz Arena football stadium, Munich 2007 40 Bond Street, New York City, USA 2008 Beijing National Stadium, China 2008 CaixaForum Madrid, Spain 2008 Tenerife Espacio de las Artes, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 2009 VitraHaus, Weil am Rhein, Germany 2010 1111 Lincoln Road parking garage, Miami Beach, Florida, USA 2010 Museum der Kulturen, Switzerland 2012 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, London, UK 2012 Parrish Art Museum, Water Mill, New York 2013 Pérez Art Museum Miami, Florida 2013 Messe Basel, Switzerland 2015 Roche Tower Basel, Switzerland 2015 Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, UK 2015 Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux, France 2015 BBVA headquarters, Spain 2015 Unterlinden Museum, France 2016 Tate Modern 2, London 2016 Feltrinelli Porta Volta, Italy 2016 Elbe Philharmonic Hall, GermanyCurrentBerggruen Institute, Los Angeles, California El Punto Religious-Community Center, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico Contemporary Art Museum Barranca de Huentitán, Mexico Plaza de España, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife Kinderspital Zürich, Switzerland 56 Leonard Street, New York City Beirut Terraces, Lebanon M+, Hong Kong – with TFP Farrells National Library of Israel Roche tower, the 2º tallest Swiss skyscraper with 178m, Switzerland Vancouver Art Gallery Tai Kwun, Hong Kong – with Purcell and Rocco Design 1999 Schock Prize 2001 Prix de l'Équerre d'Argent, Rue Des Suisses, Paris 2001 Pritzker Prize 2003 Stirling Prize, for the Laban Dance Centre 2007 RIBA Royal Gold Medal and Praemium Imperiale 2009 Lubetkin Prize for the Beijing National Stadium Herzog & de Meuron Official Website Pritzker Architecture Prize profile Herzog & de Meuron: archeology of the mind exhibition at the Canadian Centre for Architecture Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 Rue des Suisses in Paris
Germany national football team
The Germany national football team is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association, founded in 1900. Since the DFB was reinaugurated in 1949 the team has represented the Federal Republic of Germany. Under Allied occupation and division, two other separate national teams were recognised by FIFA: the Saarland team representing the Saarland and the East German team representing the German Democratic Republic. Both have been absorbed along with their records by the current national team; the official name and code "Germany FR" was shortened to "Germany" following the reunification in 1990. Germany is one of the most successful national teams in international competitions, having won four World Cups, three European Championships, one Confederations Cup, they have been runners-up three times in the European Championships, four times in the World Cup, a further four third-place finishes at World Cups. East Germany won Olympic Gold in 1976.
Germany is the only nation to have won both the FIFA Women's World Cup. At the end of the 2014 World Cup, Germany earned the highest Elo rating of any national football team in history, with a record 2205 points. Germany is the only European nation that has won a FIFA World Cup in the Americas; the manager of the national team is Joachim Löw. Between 1899 and 1901, prior to the formation of a national team, there were five unofficial international matches between German and English selection teams, which all ended as large defeats for the German teams. Eight years after the establishment of the German Football Association, the first official match of the Germany national football team was played on 5 April 1908, against Switzerland in Basel, with the Swiss winning 5–3. Gottfried Fuchs scored a world record 10 goals for Germany in a 16–0 win against Russia at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm on 1 July, becoming the top scorer of the tournament, he was Jewish, the German Football Association erased all references to him from their records between 1933 and 1945.
As of 2016, he was still the top German scorer for one match. The first match after World War I in 1920, the first match after World War II in 1950 when Germany was still banned from most international competitions, the first match in 1990 with former East German players were all against Switzerland as well. Germany's first championship title was won in Switzerland in 1954. At that time the players were selected by the DFB; the first manager of the Germany national team was Otto Nerz, a school teacher from Mannheim, who served in the role from 1926 to 1936. The German FA could not afford travel to Uruguay for the first World Cup staged in 1930 during the Great Depression, but finished third in the 1934 World Cup in their first appearance in the competition. After a poor showing at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Sepp Herberger became coach. In 1937 he put together a squad, soon nicknamed the Breslau Elf in recognition of their 8–0 win over Denmark in the German city of Breslau, Lower Silesia.
After Austria became part of Germany in the Anschluss of March 1938, that country's national team – one of Europe's best sides at the time due to professionalism – was disbanded despite having qualified for the 1938 World Cup. Nazi politicians ordered five or six ex-Austrian players, from the clubs Rapid Vienna, Austria Vienna, First Vienna FC, to join the all-German team on short notice in a staged show of unity for political reasons. In the 1938 World Cup that began on 4 June, this "united" German team managed only a 1–1 draw against Switzerland and lost the replay 2–4 in front of a hostile crowd in Paris, France; that early exit stands as Germany's worst World Cup result, one of just two occasions the team failed to progress the group stage. During World War II, the team played over 30 international games between September 1939 and November 1942. National team games were suspended, as most players had to join the armed forces. Many of the national team players were gathered together under coach Herberger as Rote Jäger through the efforts of a sympathetic air force officer trying to protect the footballers from the most dangerous wartime service.
After World War II, Germany was banned from competition in most sports until 1950. The DFB was not a full member of FIFA, none of the three new German states — West Germany, East Germany, Saarland — entered the 1950 World Cup qualifiers; the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to as West Germany, continued the DFB. With recognition by FIFA and UEFA, the DFB continued the record of the pre-war team. Switzerland was once again the first team that played West Germany in 1950. West Germany qualified for the 1954 World Cup; the Saarland, under French control between 1947 and 1956, did not join French organisations, was barred from participating in pan-German ones. It sent their own team to the 1954 World Cup qualifiers. In 1957, Saarland acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1949, the communist German Democratic Republic was founded. In 1952 the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR was established and the East Germany national football team took to the field, they were the only team to beat the 1974 FIFA World Cup winning West Germans in the onl
Hungary national football team
The Hungary national football team represents Hungary in international football and is controlled by the Hungarian Football Federation. Hungary has a respectable football history, having won three Olympic titles, finishing runners-up in the 1938 and 1954 World Cups, third in the 1964 UEFA European Football Championship. Hungary revolutionised the sport in the 1950s, laying the tactical fundamentals of Total Football and dominating international football with the remarkable Golden Team which included legend Ferenc Puskás, top goalscorer of the 20th century, to whom FIFA dedicated its newest award, the Puskás Award; the side of that era has the all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2230 in 1954, one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games, spanning over four years and including matches such as the Match of the Century. Despite these achievements, the Hungarian team faced a severe drought starting from their elimination at the 1986 World Cup, failing to qualify to a major tournament for 30 years and reaching their lowest FIFA ranking in 1996 as well as finishing sixth in their group of Euro 2008 qualifiers before qualifying to Euro 2016, where they made their best European Championship performance in over 40 years after reaching the round of 16.
Although Austria and Hungary were constituent countries of the dual monarchy known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, they formed separate football associations and teams around the start of the 20th century. The national side first appeared at the Summer Olympic Games in 1912 in Sweden; the team had to ask for donations in order to be able to go to the games. Hungary thus were eliminated. After the Olympic Games Hungary played two matches against Russia in Moscow; the first match was won 9–0 and the second 12–0, still a record for the national side. The top scorer of the two matches was Imre Schlosser; the beginning of World War I had a deep impact on the thriving Hungarian football. Both the country and the clubs were suffering financial problems. During World War I Hungary played Austria 16 times. In 1919 England claimed the exclusion of the Central Powers from FIFA; when FIFA refused England's plea, the British and Irish associations decided to resign from FIFA. Budapest was denied the opportunity to host the 1920 Summer Olympics.
The countries of the Central Powers were excluded from the Olympics. During this period the Fogl brothers played in the national team; the formation the Hungarians used was 2–3–5, unique at that time. The national team played at the 1924 Summer Olympics in France. In the first match Hungary beat Poland but in the second round they lost to Egypt; as a consequence, both the head coach and the head of the Hungarian Football Federation resigned. Between 1927 and 1930, Hungary participated in the Europa Cup, considered to be the first international tournament, with Austria, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. In the final, Hungary lost to Russia. On 12 June 1927, Hungary beat France by 13–1, still a record. József Takács scored six goals; the first FIFA World Cup was held in Uruguay in 1930, but Hungary were not invited and did not take part in the tournament. Hungary first appeared in the 1934 World Cup in Italy. Hungary's first World Cup match was against Egypt on 27 May 1934, a 4–2 win; the goals were scored by Géza Toldi and Jenő Vincze.
In the quarter-finals, Hungary faced neighbouring arch-rivals Austria but lost 2–1, the only Hungarian goal coming from György Sárosi. Hungary entered the 1936 Olympics, where in the first round they were eliminated by Poland, 0–3; the 1938 World Cup was held in France. The first match was played against Dutch East Indies and Hungary won 6–0. Sárosi and Gyula Zsengellér each scored twice while Vilmos Toldi scored one goal each. In the quarter-finals, Hungary beat Switzerland 2 -- 0 with goals by Zsengellér. In the semi-final at the Parc des Princes, Hungary beat Sweden 5–1 with goals by Ferenc Sas and Sárosi and a hat-trick by Zsengellér. In the final, Hungary faced Italy at the Stade Olympique de Colombes, but lost 4–2; the Hungarian goals were scored by Pál Sárosi. This Hungarian team was best known as one of the most formidable and influential sides in football history, which revolutionised the play of the game. Centred around the dynamic and potent quartet of strikers Ferenc Puskás, Sándor Kocsis, attacking half-back József Bozsik and withdrawn striker Nándor Hidegkuti, the Aranycsapat of the "Magnificent Magyars" captivated the football world with an exciting brand of play with innovative tactical nuances.
Excluding the 1954 World Cup Final, they achieved a remarkable record of 43 victories, 6 draws, 0 defeats from 14 May 1950 until they lost 3–1 to Turkey on 19 February 1956. In the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Hungary beat Romania 2–1 with a goal each from Czibor and Kocsis in the preliminary round. In the first round Hungary beat Italy 3–0. In the final, Hungary beat Yugoslavia 2–0 with a goal each from Puskás and Czibor and thus won the Olympic title for the first time. On 25 November 1953, England played Hungary at Wembley Stadium, London in a match dubbed as "the match of the century"; the English team were unbeaten for 90 years at home. In front of 105,000 spectators Nándor Hidegkuti scored the first Hungarian goal in the first minute. A