Nоva is a science fiction novel by American writer Samuel R. Delany. Nominally space opera, it explores the politics and culture of a future where cyborg technology is universal, yet making major decisions can involve using tarot cards, it has strong mythological overtones, relating to both the Grail Quest and Jason's Argonautica for the golden fleece. Nova was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1969. David Pringle lists it as one of the 100 best science-fiction novels written since World War II. After Delany completed Nova at the age of 25, his published output stopped for several years, although his writing continued. Delany completed the first draft of Tides of Lust in September 1968, he first completed Hogg in June 1969. With the publication of his next major novel, however, his style had moved on in experimental directions notably different from that of his earlier work. By the year 3172, political power in the galaxy is split between two factions: the older Earth-based Draco and the younger Pleiades Federation.
Both have interests in the newer Outer Colonies, where mines produce trace amounts of the prized power source Illyrion, the superheavy material essential to starship travel and terraforming planets. Caught in a feud between aristocratic and economically powerful families, a scarred and obsessed captain from the Pleiades, Lorq Von Ray, recruits a disparate crew of misfits to aid him in the race with his arch-enemy, Prince Red from Draco's Red Shift Ltd. to gain economic leadership by securing a vastly greater amount of Illyrion directly from the heart of a stellar nova. In doing so, Von Ray will shift the balance of power of the existing galactic order, which will bring about the downfall of the Red family as well as end Earth's dominance over interstellar politics; as the title indicates, the central metaphor for the novel is a nova: the destructive implosion/explosion of an entire sun, paradoxically, while it destroys most of a solar system creates new elements. In the book, at the eruption of a nova, not only do the laws of physics break down, but so do the laws of politics and psychology.
This idea permeates storyline. The characters follow a quest plot line, in which they visit several worlds to gain information necessary to achieve their goal, all the while pursued by the Red family. Although the novel does not indulge the literary experimentation found in Delany's books, it maintains a high level of innovation; some chapters begin in mid-sentence. The point of view shifts between Lorq and the Mouse; each page in the book carries a header that gives the year and location of the scene on the page itself. This is useful because of the flashbacks in the long journey around the galaxy. Algis Budrys, describing Delany as "the best science-fiction writer in the world," praised Nova as "highly entertaining to read" and commended Delany's integration of his sociopolitical extrapolation into his story, his accomplished characterization, his "virtuosity" in presenting the novel's "classically posed scientific puzzle." Lorq Von Ray. Lorq is the scion of the most powerful clan in the Pleiades Federation.
A carefree playboy, Lorq is drawn into his family's feud with the Reds and, as a result, becomes obsessed with finding Illyrion. When Prince Red attacks him at a fabulously opulent party in Paris, he scars Lorq's face badly; as the book unfolds, Lorq learns that his family was founded by pirates, who killed members of the Red family in previous generations in order to keep the Pleiades free of Earth-based corporations, although Lorq's ancestors did so with the support of the Pleiades' citizens. The Reds, still carry a grudge. Although Lorq Von Ray is described as looking between forty-five and fifty years old, according to the dates in the book he is thirty; this may have been a mathematical mistake on Delany's part: in the book's first edition there are several such errors, such as the numbering of the centuries: the year 1850 is in the middle of the nineteenth century, not the eighteenth. The year 2375 is in the middle of not the twenty-third, but these mistakes have been corrected in more recent editions.
A possible explanation for Lorq's age is the Mouse's speculation that Lorq is "aged, not old". The Mouse; this is the nickname for Pontichos Provechi, a young Gypsy from Earth, who, by age 18, has led an varied life, is just beginning to work in a starship navigation crew. He entertains people by creating illusions and music with his "sensory syrynx". Katin Crawford. Katin is an intellectual from Earth's moon, who received a liberal arts education at Harvard University and who has worked till now at a series of unfulfilling clerical positions. Katin is a loner, his passion is to explore various moons across the Solar System. He aspires to write a novel, for which he records notes, although the form is obsolete by the time Nova takes place; the word "novel" is, etymologically related to the word "nova." Both come from the Latin novum, which means "something new." Sometimes Katin annoys his colleagues by going off on long lectures on any number of topics. Sebastian and Tyÿ; this wandering, working couple consists of S
Nova was a high-power laser built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1984 which conducted advanced inertial confinement fusion experiments until its dismantling in 1999. Nova was the first ICF experiment built with the intention of reaching "ignition", a chain reaction of nuclear fusion that releases a large amount of energy. Although Nova failed in this goal, the data it generated defined the problem as being a result of Rayleigh–Taylor instability, leading to the design of the National Ignition Facility, Nova's successor. Nova generated considerable amounts of data on high-density matter physics, regardless of the lack of ignition, useful both in fusion power and nuclear weapons research. Inertial confinement fusion devices use drivers to heat the outer layers of a target in order to compress it; the target is a small spherical pellet containing a few milligrams of fusion fuel a mix of deuterium and tritium. The heat of the laser burns the surface of the pellet into a plasma.
The remaining portion of the target is driven inwards due to Newton's Third Law collapsing into a small point of high density. The rapid blowoff creates a shock wave that travels towards the center of the compressed fuel; when it reaches the center of the fuel and meets the shock from the other side of the target, the energy in the shock wave further heats and compresses the tiny volume around it. If the temperature and density of that small spot can be raised high enough, fusion reactions will occur; the fusion reactions release high-energy particles, some of which collide with the high-density fuel around it and slow down. This heats the fuel, can cause that fuel to undergo fusion as well. Given the right overall conditions of the compressed fuel—high enough density and temperature—this heating process can result in a chain reaction, burning outward from the center where the shock wave started the reaction; this is a condition known as ignition, which can lead to a significant portion of the fuel in the target undergoing fusion, the release of significant amounts of energy.
To date, most ICF experiments have used lasers to heat the targets. Calculations show that the energy must be delivered in order to compress the core before it disassembles, as well as creating a suitable shock wave; the energy must be focused evenly across the target's outer surface in order to collapse the fuel into a symmetric core. Although other "drivers" have been suggested, notably heavy ions driven in particle accelerators, lasers are the only devices with the right combination of features. LLNL's history with the ICF program starts with physicist John Nuckolls, who predicted in 1972 that ignition could be achieved with laser energies about 1 kJ, while "high gain" would require energies around 1 MJ. Although this sounds low powered compared to modern machines, at the time it was just beyond the state of the art, led to a number of programs to produce lasers in this power range. Prior to the construction of Nova, LLNL had designed and built a series of ever-larger lasers that explored the problems of basic ICF design.
LLNL was interested in the Nd:glass laser, which, at the time, was one of a few high-energy laser designs known. LLNL had decided early on to concentrate on glass lasers, while other facilities studied gas lasers using carbon dioxide or KrF. Building large Nd:glass lasers had not been attempted before, LLNL's early research focussed on how to make these devices. One problem was the homogeneity of the beams. Minor variations in intensity of the beams would result in "self-focusing" in the air and glass optics in a process known as Kerr lensing; the resulting beam included small "filaments" of high light intensity, so high it would damage the glass optics of the device. This problem was solved in the Cyclops laser with the introduction of the spatial filtering technique. Cyclops was followed by the Argus laser of greater power, which explored the problems of controlling more than one beam and illuminating a target more evenly. All of this work culminated in the Shiva laser, a proof-of-concept design for a high power system that included 20 separate "laser amplifiers" that were directed around the target to illuminate it.
It was during experiments with Shiva. The infrared light generated by the Nd:glass lasers was found to interact strongly with the electrons in the plasma created during the initial heating through the process of stimulated Raman scattering; this process, referred to as "hot electron pre-heating", carried away a great amount of the laser's energy, caused the core of the target to heat before it reached maximum compression. This meant that much less energy was being deposited in the center of the collapse, both due to the reduction in implosion energy, as well as the outward force of the heated core. Although it was known that shorter wavelengths would reduce this problem, it had earlier been expected that the IR frequencies used in Shiva would be "short enough"; this proved not to be the case. A solution to this problem was explored in the form of efficient frequency multipliers, optical devices that combine several photons into one of higher energy, thus frequency; these devices were introduced and tested experimentally on the OMEGA laser and others, proving effective.
Although the process is only about 50% efficient, half the original laser power is lost, the resulting ultraviolet light couples much more efficiently to the target plasma and is much more effective in collap
Mirai Sentai Timeranger
Mirai Sentai Timeranger is a Japanese Tokusatsu television series, the 24th series in Toei's Super Sentai metaseries. Footage from this series was used in the American production Power Rangers Time Force; the opening narration of the series announces, "People from the future in the year 3000 AD and one man have met by chance, for the sake of marking a new passage of time…!". Timeranger was released on DVD by Shout! Factory in North America on July 31, 2018; this is the 9th Super Sentai Series to be released on Region 1 DVD in North America. In the 30th century, time travel becomes illegal after a time paradox crisis; the Time Defense Bureau is established to stop time crimes. Four new enlistee cadets of the TDB are tricked by Don Dolnero and his gang into letting them time-travel to the year 2000 to commit various crimes and, to protect history, the four cadets pursue them, they encounter a severe problem: the Timeranger program requires five members for the first operation. They coerce a present-day martial artist, Tatsuya Asami, to join them, they become the Timerangers.
Tatsuya rents a building for them to live in, they start a small odd-jobs business called Tomorrow Research to financially support themselves. Over time, the four cadets begin to realize that their presence would change the future in the form of the City Guardians, a security force under the employment of the Asami Corporation to protect the city from the Londerz; the City Guardians form a tenuous relationship with the Timerangers when Tatsuya's college acquaintance Naoto becomes Time Fire and also becomes the City Guardian's captain. "Timeranger!! Breaking the time travel law is a 1st class criminal offense!" Tatsuya Asami/Time Red: The main protagonist of the series, Tatsuya is a 22-year-old martial artist, "drafted" into the team. He refuses to accept his heritage as future CEO of his father's company, he believes that people can control their own destiny, but only if they fight for a desirable future. After joining the Timerangers, Tatsuya decides to move out of his father's house and uses his savings to rent the building that would be the Timeranger's home.
He works as a karate teacher at Tomorrow Research. Although Yuuri is the team leader, Tatsuya is the driving force of the Timerangers acting as field commander during the battles; when operating the Time Robo formations, Tatsuya is in charge of accessing the finishing moves to recapture the Londerz Prisoners by wielding a miniature version of the Space-Time Sword/Chrono Divider to mimic the movement pattern. In the finale, one year after the final battle, Tatsuya continues to live by choosing his lifestyle until he feels that he is ready to join his father's company. At the end of the series, Tatsuya runs into four individuals who resemble Yuuri, Ayase and Sion, who may be their ancestors, an individual who resembles Naoto. Attacks: Vector Hurley, Vector Around with Time Blue, Vector Hurricane with Time Yellow, Vector Impulse, Spark End, Vector End: Beat 3, Vector End: Beat 12, Vector End: Beat Cross & Vector Dividing. Tatsuya is portrayed by Masaru Nagai. New Member: Yuuri/Time Pink: The female protagonist of the series and the leader of the Timerangers, she is a 21-year-old police officer from the 30th century.
Since the Inter-City Police are aware of Don Dolnero's plan, she goes undercover as a TDB cadet to stop him. She holds a personal grudge against Don Dolnero for sending an assassin to kill her family in the year 2988. Yuuri is cold towards Tatsuya, but warms up to him, she is open to other jobs such as cleaning services. In the series finale, she confesses to Tatsuya that she loves him, but they cannot be together due to the large gap in between their timelines. Therefore, she returns to her own time and finds that, due to the time change in the 30th century, her family is still alive. In the 20th century, Tatsuya comes across an individual resembling Yuuri. Attacks: Vector Hurley & Vector End: Beat 6. Yuuri is portrayed by Mika Katsumura. New Member: Ayase/Time Blue: A former racer, this calm-headed 22-year-old is the second-in-command with a knack for high-speed battles and a deadpan sense of humor, his humor puts him at odds with Domon, which forces the other Timerangers to prevent a possible fistfight between the two.
He is close friends with Tatsuya. As the only Timeranger with a driver's license, he works as a chauffeur at Tomorrow Research. Ayase, has the incurable terminal illness Osiris Syndrome; when Tatsuya finds out about the disease, he is determined to help his friend. The other Timerangers are shocked. After time is altered at the end of the series, a cure for Osiris Syndrome is found and Ayase is cured. In the 20th century, Tatsuya comes across an individual resembling Ayase. Attacks: Vector Hurley, Vector Around with Time Red, Vector Hurri
Nova was a series of proposed rocket designs as NASA's first large launchers for missions similar to the production-level Saturn V. The Nova studied designs that mirrored the Saturn V in basic concept, power and function. Differences were minor but practical, the Saturn was selected for the Apollo Project because they would reuse existing facilities to a greater extent and could make it to the pad somewhat earlier. During a series of post-Apollo studies in the 1960s, considerations for a crewed mission to Mars revealed the need for boosters much larger than Apollo's, a new series of designs with as many as eight Rocketdyne F-1 engines were developed under the Nova name; the image of the Nova C8 is used as a representative of the entire Nova series, many references to Nova refer to these post-Apollo versions. The two series of designs were separate, but shared their name. Thus, "Nova" does not refer to a specific rocket design, just a rocket larger than the Saturn V in most cases. Nova was the name used by NASA in the early 1960's for a super booster in the 10 to 20 million pound thrust range.
The first Nova series was designed in-house at NASA in 1958. This project examined several designs, the smallest having four F-1s in the lower stage and J-2s in the uppers; this design placed 24 tons in a lunar injection trajectory. These designs were presented to President Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 27, 1959; the Nova designs were not the only lunar rockets being considered at the time. The U. S. Air Force was in the process of defining its Lunex Project, including a massive booster design using a cluster of solid fuel rockets in the lower stage with liquid hydrogen-powered uppers mounting the J-2 or M-1. Meanwhile, at the US Army's Redstone Arsenal, Wernher von Braun was developing his "Juno V" design, using a cluster of Jupiter and Redstone related engines and tanks for a lower stage, a Titan I missile as the second stage. In 1959 the Army decided it was no longer interested in developing large boosters, for which it had no immediate need, it passed von Braun's team over to NASA; this left NASA with two large booster designs, their own Nova, von Braun's renamed Saturn.
Over the next two years the competing NASA and Air Force studies continued, but following President John F. Kennedy's call to reach the moon before the end of the decade, NASA was given the mission and work on Lunex ended. NASA had designed Nova for the "direct ascent" mission profile, in which a single large spacecraft would be placed in earth orbit. Von Braun favoured a profile that built up the spacecraft in Earth orbit, which reduced the launch mass needed for any one launch. However, as studies into the spacecraft needed for the mission started, it became clear that the systems would be much heavier than suspected. A redesign of both plans followed. Nova was still targeting the direct ascent approach; the most powerful of the resulting "normal" designs, the 8L, included eight F-1's in the lower stage and placed 68 tons in a translunar trajectory. Other designs in the series replaced the F-1s with large solids, while others studied nuclear rocket engines for the upper stages. Lunar payload for the various models varied between 75 tons.
A number of upgraded Saturns were studied. Dr. von Braun's original Saturn design became the A-1 model, while the A-2 replaced the Titan missile with a Jupiter. The more powerful B-1 model used a cluster of Titans for its second stage, but was otherwise similar to the A-1. More "radical" proposals, those requiring new engines, were lumped together in the "C series". C-1 was similar to the A-1, but used new upper stages derived from Titan engines, while the similar C-2 used new J-2 powered upper stages. C-3 through C-5 used the same J-2 powered uppers, but added a new first stage powered by three, four, or five F-1 engines. Dr. von Braun's favored approach remained Earth Orbit Rendezvous, but this time based on two Saturn C-3's. The debate between the various approaches came to a head in 1961, the outcome was unexpected by both teams. Instead of either the direct ascent or earth orbit rendezvous, the working group instead selected a third option, Lunar Orbit Rendezvous. LOR had a mass requirement about midway between the Saturn C-3 and Nova 8L.
After studying what would be required to modify either booster to the new requirement of about 200,000 pounds in low earth orbit, it seemed that the Saturn C-5 would be the best solution. The C-2 model would be built as a testbed system, launching subassemblies into orbit for flight testing before the C-5 would be ready; the main determinant in selecting the Saturn over the Nova was that the Saturn C-5 could be built in an existing factory outside New Orleans known as the Michoud Assembly Facility, while the larger diameter Nova would need new factories to be built. Studies on the Nova series continued into 1962 as a backup for Saturn, but were ended as the Saturn-based LOR profile became ingrained; as the Apollo program continued, NASA designers started looking at their needs for the post-Apollo era, it appeared that a manned mission to Mars would be the next "obvious" step. For this role the Saturn V was far too small, a second series of Nova design studies started for launchers of up to 1,000,000 pounds delivered to LEO.
Unlike the original Nova series, designed by NASA, the new designs were studied under contract by the major aerospace companies that did not receive m
CU Spaceflight is a student-run Cambridge University society founded with the aim of achieving cheap access to space. It is supported by the Cambridge-MIT Institute; the project was founded in the summer of 2006, with the specific goal of launching a rocket into space for less than GBP£1000. As of November, 2007, CU Spaceflight has launched five uncrewed high-altitude balloons, of which two were not successful: Nova 2 was blown into the North Sea and Nova 5 failed to ignite the Martlet 1 solid rocket motor, but landed in a reusable state. CU Spaceflight is a participant of the UK High Altitude Society. On 27 June 2007, CU Spaceflight won the Owlstone Photography Prize, having submitted an unenhanced photograph from the Nova 1 flight, displaying the curvature of the Earth as seen from Near space; the entry was entitled "Earth from 32km". CU Spaceflight won a cash 25-hours of workshop time; as of 2007, Cambridge University Spaceflight has three projects. Nova is CU Spaceflight's first project and has the objective of launching high-altitude balloons on test flights to near space.
The lifting gas used is helium. Meteor is a project designed to provide a landing system for falling body to a 100-metre accuracy, from any point within the Earth's atmosphere; the Meteor project will use a paraglider to land objects. Martlet is the project aimed at the development of a small rocket and launch system which can be launched from a Nova balloon in the upper atmosphere. CU Spaceflight aim the final Martlet rocket to be less than 1 metre long, weigh 3.5 kilograms, carry a 0.5 kg payload. The intended cost per launch is less than GBP£1000; the rocket will be a solid-fuel rocket. Its objective is to reach suborbital space - i.e. reaching altitudes in excess of 100 km. The idea of a balloon-launched rocket - a rockoon - is not new, but is practiced; the incentives for air-based launch are that the altitude the balloons reach are in the near space region -, above 99% of the atmosphere - thus resulting in less atmospheric drag, requiring far less rocket fuel. Since its inception, Cambridge University Spaceflight has been covered by several major news sources, including The Guardian and BBC News.
Photos from the Nova 9 launch were printed in many national newspapers including The Times, The Daily Telegraph and The Daily Mail. Members of the team gave interviews to the Discovery Channel, Sky News and the BBC World Service. Following the success of Nova 1 and the announcement of the Martlet and Meteor projects, CU Spaceflight has received interest from the university's Department for Atmospheric Chemistry and the British Antarctic Survey on the results of its work. CU Spaceflight has performed talks in secondary schools in and around Cambridge, UK, continues to offer to do so, hoping to raise the profile of engineering and aerospace in particular. During the 2007 Cambridge Science Festival, CU Spaceflight launched their Nova 5 balloon in front of a large crowd. High-altitude balloon Amateur rocketry Spaceflight CU Spaceflight official Forum CU Spaceflight official website MIT Rocket Team UK High Altitude Society Camera Captures Dramatic Curvature of the Earth, During a Test Flight by Cambridge University
A nova or classical nova is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright "new" star, that fades over several weeks or many months. Novae involve an interaction between two stars that cause the flareup, perceived as a new entity, much brighter than the stars involved. Causes of the dramatic appearance of a nova vary, depending on the circumstances of the two progenitor stars. All observed novae involve located binary stars, either a pair of red dwarfs in the process of merging, or a white dwarf and another star; the main sub-classes of novae are classical novae, recurrent novae, dwarf novae. They are all considered to be cataclysmic variable stars. Luminous red novae share the name and are cataclysmic variables, but are a different type of event caused by a stellar merger. With similar names are the much more energetic supernovae and kilonovae. Classical nova eruptions are the most common type of nova, they are created in a close binary star system consisting of a white dwarf and either a main sequence, sub-giant, or red giant star.
When the orbital period falls in the range of several days to one day, the white dwarf is close enough to its companion star to start drawing accreted matter onto the surface of the white dwarf, which creates a dense but shallow atmosphere. This atmosphere is hydrogen and is thermally heated by the hot white dwarf, which reaches a critical temperature causing rapid runaway ignition by fusion. From the dramatic and sudden energies created, the now hydrogen-burnt atmosphere is dramatically expelled into interstellar space, its brightened envelope is seen as the visible light created from the nova event, was mistaken as a "new" star. A few novae produce short-lived nova remnants, lasting for several centuries. Recurrent nova processes are the same as the classical nova, except that the fusion ignition may be repetitive because the companion star can again feed the dense atmosphere of the white dwarf. Novae most occur in the sky along the path of the Milky Way near the observed galactic centre in Sagittarius.
They occur far more than galactic supernovae, averaging about ten per year. Most are found telescopically only one every year to eighteen months reaching naked-eye visibility. Novae reaching first or second magnitude occur only several times per century; the last bright nova was V1369 Centauri reaching 3.3 magnitude on 14 December 2013. During the sixteenth century, astronomer Tycho Brahe observed the supernova SN 1572 in the constellation Cassiopeia, he described it in his book De nova stella. In this work he argued that a nearby object should be seen to move relative to the fixed stars, that the nova had to be far away. Although this event was a supernova and not a nova, the terms were considered interchangeable until the 1930s. After this, novae were classified as classical novae to distinguish them from supernovae, as their causes and energies were thought to be different, based in the observational evidence. Despite the term "stella nova" meaning "new star", novae most take place as a result of white dwarfs: remnants of old stars.
Evolution of potential novae begins with two main sequence stars in a binary system. One of the two evolves into a red giant, leaving its remnant white dwarf core in orbit with the remaining star; the second star—which may be either a main sequence star or an aging giant—begins to shed its envelope onto its white dwarf companion when it overflows its Roche lobe. As a result, the white dwarf captures matter from the companion's outer atmosphere in an accretion disk, in turn, the accreted matter falls into the atmosphere; as the white dwarf consists of degenerate matter, the accreted hydrogen does not inflate, but its temperature increases. Runaway fusion occurs when the temperature of this atmospheric layer reaches ~20 million K, initiating nuclear burning, via the CNO cycle. Hydrogen fusion may occur in a stable manner on the surface of the white dwarf for a narrow range of accretion rates, giving rise to a super soft X-ray source, but for most binary system parameters, the hydrogen burning is unstable thermally and converts a large amount of the hydrogen into other, heavier chemical elements in a runaway reaction, liberating an enormous amount of energy.
This blows the remaining gases away from the surface of the white dwarf surface and produces an bright outburst of light. The rise to peak brightness may be rapid, or gradual; this is related to the speed class of the nova. The time taken for a nova to decay by around 2 or 3 magnitudes from maximum optical brightness is used for classification, via its speed class. Fast novae will take fewer than 25 days to decay by 2 magnitudes, while slow novae will take more than 80 days. In spite of their violence the amount of material ejected in novae is only about 1⁄10,000 of a solar mass, quite small relative to the mass of the white dwarf. Furthermore, only five percent of the accreted mass is fused during the power outburst. Nonetheless, this is enough energy to accelerate nova ejecta to velocities as high as several thousand kilometers per second—higher for fast novae than slow ones—with a concurrent rise in luminosity from a few times solar to 50,000–100,000 times solar. In 2010 scientists using NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered that a nova can emit gamma-rays.
A white dwarf can generate multiple novae over t
Harry Harrison (writer)
Harry Max Harrison was an American science fiction author, known for his character The Stainless Steel Rat and for his novel Make Room! Make Room!. The latter was the rough basis for the motion picture Soylent Green. Harrison was the co-president of the Birmingham Science Fiction Group. Aldiss called him "a constant peer and great family friend", his friend Michael Carroll said, "Imagine Pirates of the Caribbean or Raiders of the Lost Ark, picture them as science-fiction novels. They're rip-roaring adventures, but they're stories with a lot of heart." Novelist Christopher Priest wrote in an obituary, Harrison was an popular figure in the SF world, renowned for being amiable and endlessly amusing. His quickfire, machine-gun delivery of words was a delight to hear, a reward to unravel: he was funny and self-aware, he enjoyed reporting the follies of others, he distrusted generals, prime ministers and tax officials with sardonic and cruel wit, above all he made plain his acute intelligence and astonishing range of moral and literary sensibilities.
Before becoming an editor and writer, Harrison started in the science fiction field as an illustrator, notably with EC Comics' two science fiction comic book series, Weird Fantasy and Weird Science. In these and other comic book stories, he most worked with Wally Wood. Wood inked over Harrison's layouts, the two freelanced for several publishers and genres, including westerns and horror comics, he and Wood went their separate ways. Harrison used house pen names such as Wade Kaempfert and Philip St. John to edit magazines and published other fiction under the pen names Felix Boyd and Hank Dempsey. Harrison ghostwrote Vendetta for the Saint, one of the long-running series of novels featuring Leslie Charteris' character, The Saint. Harrison wrote for syndicated comic strips, writing several stories for the character Rick Random, his first short story, "Rock Diver", was published in the February 1951 issue of Worlds Beyond, edited by Damon Knight. While in New York, he socialized at the Hydra Club, an organization of New York's science fiction writers, including Isaac Asimov, whose work he would parody in Bill, the Galactic Hero and its sequels.
In the early 1950s, the Hydra Club included writers such as Alfred Bester, James Blish, Anthony Boucher, Avram Davidson, Judith Merril, Theodore Sturgeon. Harrison has become much better known for his writing for his humorous and satirical science fiction, such as the Stainless Steel Rat series and his novel Bill, the Galactic Hero — which satirized Robert A. Heinlein's novel Starship Troopers. Priest wrote: His most popular and best-known work is contained in fast-moving parodies, homages or straight reconstructions of traditional space-opera adventures, he wrote several named series of these: notably the Deathworld series, the Stainless Steel Rat books, the sequence of books about Bill, the Galactic Hero. These books all present interesting contradictions: while being what they might superficially seem to be, unpretentious action novels with a strong streak of humour, they are satirical, subversive, unapologetically anti-military, anti-authority and anti-violence. Harrison wrote such novels in the idiom of the politically conservative hack writer, but in reality he had a liberal conscience and a sharp awareness of the lack of literary values in so much of the SF he was parodying.
Adi Robertson agreed: "His books toed the line between science fiction adventure and satire with a strong anti-military bent informed by his time in the US Army Air Corps."During the 1950s and 1960s, he was the main writer of the Flash Gordon newspaper strip. One of his Flash Gordon scripts was serialized in Comics Revue magazine. Harrison drew sketches to help the artist be more scientifically accurate, which the artist ignored. Not all of Harrison's writing was comic, though, he wrote many stories on serious themes, of which by far the best known is the novel about overpopulation and consumption of the world's resources, Make Room! Make Room!, used as a basis for the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. For a time Harrison was associated with Brian Aldiss, they collaborated on a series of anthology projects and did much in the 1970s to raise the standards of criticism in the field, including institution of the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel. Priest wrote, "In 1965 Harrison and Aldiss published the first issue of the world's first serious journal of SF criticism, SF Horizons.
Together they edited many anthologies of short stories, each one illustrating the major themes of SF, although not intended as critical apparatus the books were a way of delineating the unique material of the fantastic. As committed internationalists, the two men created World SF, an organisation of professionals intended to encourage and enhance the writing of non-anglophone SF." In particular, the two edited nine volumes of The Year's Best Science Fiction anthology series as well as three volumes of the Decade series, collecting science fiction of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s respectively. In 1990, Harrison was the professional Guest of Honor at ConFiction, the 48th World SF Convention, in The Hague, together with Joe Haldeman and Wolfgang Jeschke. Harrison was a writer of liberal worldview. Harrison's work juxtaposes the thinking man with the man of force, although the "Thinking Ma