Scenes of Canada
Scenes of Canada was the fourth series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar issued by the Bank of Canada. It was first circulated in 1970 to succeed the 1954 Series, was replaced by the Birds of Canada series beginning in 1986; the design process for this series began in 1963 with a primary goal of creating banknotes that were more counterfeit-resistant than the 1954 Series it was to replace. The Bank of Canada requested design submissions from security printing companies, receiving several from both domestic and foreign companies. One proposed design was received from Organisation Giori, a Swiss security printer based in Lausanne that had developed a multicolour printing press "that raised the bar on banknote security", its designs for the $10 and $20 banknotes were a "significant departure" from traditional Canadian banknote designs by incorporating more colours, new graphic elements, different security features, but the design was rejected. Final conceptual designs were created by Canadian Bank Note Company, British American Bank Note Company, De La Rue, the latter being the first foreign firm involved in the design of Canadian banknotes.
The design by De La Rue was selected by the Bank of Canada in 1964 as the basis for the new series. Each denomination retained the dominant colour of the respective banknote from the 1954 Series: green for the $1 banknote, orange for the $2 banknote, blue for the $5 banknote, mauve for the $10 banknote, burnt orange for the $50 banknote, brown for the $100 banknote; because of the multicoloured tints used to complement the design for each banknote, Bank of Canada staff began referring to the series as the "multicoloured series". The portraits on the obverse of each denomination were larger than for the same denomination in the 1954 Series. All denominations were to feature the portrait of Elizabeth II, but portraits of former prime ministers were used for some denominations at the request of Edgar Benson, the Minister of Finance in 1968, to "reflect Canada's burgeoning national identity"; the vertical borders of the obverse were curvilinear, the left edge of which had "multicoloured diamonds" bordering a circular frame within, the Coat of Arms.
It featured "sweeping guilloché" patterns. The reverse of each denomination had a scenic vignette; the initial design by De La Rue included a circular watermark, excluded from the final design. A memorandum circulated to designers during the design process stated that the "subjects chosen represent a substantial improvement in range of contrast and detail", to improve security; the phrase "will pay to the bearer on demand" that appeared in earlier banknote series was replaced by the phrase "this note is legal tender", reflecting the fact that Canadian banknotes had long since ceased to be redeemable in gold. Colourful, wavy patterns were part of each denomination's design; the serial numbers on the obverse were printed in red on the blue on the right. In addition, this is the first series that has interleaving position of French text; the interleaving nature is by text on the same side, as well as by denomination. The following table is a complete representation of all positions of English texts on all denominations.
The dates stamped on the banknotes represent the year in which the original intaglio plates were produced for that denomination. The most prominent designer for this series was C. Gordon Yorke, who engraved the portraits of Robert Borden and Wilfrid Laurier and the vignettes for four of the seven denominations; the series was the first Bank of Canada series not to include a one-thousand dollar note. All notes measure 152.4 × 69.85 mm. The original design for the $1 banknote used green as the dominant colour, but final designs used black to mitigate possible confusion with the $20 banknote; the portrait on the obverse is of Elizabeth II, the engraving for, created by George Gunderson, master engraver at British American Bank Note Company. A tugboat is prominent in the foreground of the vignette on the reverse, which depicts the Ottawa River with a broken log boom with Parliament Hill in the background, it was engraved by Yorke based on a 1963 photograph taken by Malak Karsh. The banknote was first circulated in June 1974, was printed by both CBN and BABN.
The final print run for the banknote was on 20 April 1989, which would be circulated by the end of June 1989, after which banks were required to refrain from circulating the banknotes, to send collected $1 banknotes to the Bank of Canada for destruction. Front Back The portrait on the obverse is of Elizabeth II; the reverse of the $2 banknote features a scene of six men of an Inuit family preparing their kayaks for a hunt, based on a 1950s photograph of Joseph Idlout and his relatives taken at Pond Inlet in Baffin Island by Douglas Wilkinson. It was engraved by Yorke, was intended to be used on the reverse of the $100 banknote; the $2 banknote was first circulated in August 1975, was printed by BABN. Front Back The portrait on the obverse is of Wilfrid Laurier, the engraving for, created by Yorke; the vignette on the reverse was based on a photograph by George Hunter and engraved by George Gunderson and Yorke. It depicts a salmon seiner in the Johnstone Strait, a channel along the northeast coast of Vancouver Island.
The $5 banknote was first circulated in December 1972, was printed by CBN. An updated version was issued in 1979, for which the serial numbers were moved to the bottom centre of the reverse and the central obverse guilloché was modified. Front Back The portrait on the obverse is of John A. Macdonald, for which the engraving was created by Gunderson. A scene depicting the operations of Polymer Corporation in Sarnia, Ontario is on the reverse, chosen because the Crown corporation had "achiev
1954 Series (banknotes)
The 1954 Series was the third series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar issued by the Bank of Canada. The banknotes were designed in 1952 following the accession of Elizabeth II to the throne after the death of her father George VI; the banknote designs differed from the preceding 1937 Series banknotes, though the denomination colours and bilingual printing were retained. The banknote series became known as the "Devil's Head" series, leading to design modifications for all denominations; the second variant of the series was issued in 1956. Planning for the banknotes began on 6 February 1952 after the death of George VI and the accession of Elizabeth II to the throne; the first design, created by the Canadian Bank Note Company, was deemed too similar in style to the 1937 Series, including the "elaborate scrollwork" decorating the edges of the banknotes. To reflect a "growing sense of Canadian nationalism", the design of the banknotes was different from that of the 1937 Series, retaining the bilingual text and denomination colours using a modern 1950s style that abandoned Victorian ornamentation associated with Canada's colonial past.
The banknotes were marked with English text to the left of the French text. The less ornate design and arrangement of elements was said to improve the legibility of the banknotes; the banknotes featured the same border style on the reverse. All banknotes in the series measure 152.4 by 69.85 millimetres, which are the same length as the 1937 Series banknotes but 1⁄8 inch narrower. This change made the banknotes closer in size to the Federal Reserve Notes issued in the United States; the new notes were introduced by Graham Towers, the Governor of the Bank of Canada, to the Parliamentary Press Gallery in June 1954, entered circulation that September. In advertisements that ran in Canadian newspapers in September 1954, the Bank of Canada stated that design and use of two colours on the obverse were security features to deter counterfeiting; the banknotes all featured a portrait of Elizabeth II, based on a photograph taken by Yousuf Karsh, placed on the right side of the obverse, the first series to carry the portrait of Elizabeth as queen.
The photograph was the same one used for the 1952 Canada 2-cent stamp, but was flipped to have Elizabeth II face left, the diamond tiara she was wearing was removed. The final image was engraved by George Gunderson, master engraver at British American Bank Note Company, after receiving approval from Elizabeth II; the portrait's placement differed from earlier banknote series that had an oval-framed portrait in the centre of the banknote, more susceptible to wearing as it occurred at the crease point for a folded banknote. This was the first series to include the Canadian coat of arms, which appeared centrally in the background of the obverse; the design changes were made to portray themes more typical of Canada and lead artist Charles Comfort, contracted by the Bank of Canada to "develop a more contemporary design for Canada's currency", created a rendering of the cenotaph at the National War Memorial with an engraving of pine branches by Eric Bergman, a design he preferred when the reverse of all banknotes in the series were expected to have the same design.
He simplified the design and replaced the allegorical themes from earlier banknote issues with scenes of Canadian landscapes, as executives at the Bank of Canada considered the War Memorial "too loaded". The design included the use of horizontal bands, but the printing companies preferred the more traditional enclosed border. In 1953, the Bank of Canada announced that the designs of the 1937 Series would be replaced with images of Canadian landscapes; the images were chosen from a set of over 3,000 photographs obtained from Archives Canada, Canadian Pacific, several news agencies. The final set of images for consideration were required to satisfy several conditions: preference for rural scenes, no well-known scenes, no large buildings, little indication of human or economic activity; the Bank of Canada acquired all intellectual property associated with the images, with a transfer of copyright from the owner to the Bank of Canada and the owner required to destroy any outstanding copies or negatives.
The designs included a Saskatchewan prairie scene engraved for the $1 banknote by Carl Louis Irmscher of the American Bank Note Company, the Saint-François River seen from Upper Melbourne in Richmond, engraved by Harry P. Dawson for the $2 banknote, an engraved scene of Otter Falls on the Aishihik River in southwestern Yukon, at mile 996 of the Alaska Highway, created by C. Gordon Yorke, the first engraving he produced for the Bank of Canada; the $10 banknote featured an engraving by Dawson, based on a Canadian Pacific Railway photograph of Yoho National Park, of Emerald Lake and Mount Burgess. The reverse of the $20 banknote was engraved by Joseph Louis Black of ABN, William Ford engraved the scene of the Laurentians based on a photograph from the Provincial Publicity Bureau of Quebec. Warrell Alfred Hauk engraved a seascape scene of Crescent Beach in Lockeport, Nova Scotia based on a photograph for the $50 banknote, Ford engraved a scene of Okanagan Lake for the $100 banknote; the scene depicted on the $1000 banknote, based on a photograph by Max Sauer, is of a covered bridge spanning the Saguenay River fjord at L'Anse-Saint-Jean in Quebec.
On 3 January 1967, a $1 note commemorating the centennial of Canadian Confederation was introduced into circulation. The image on the reverse of this version shows the original Parliament Buildings, which were destroyed by fire in 1916, is the same engraving used for a Dominion of Canada banknote designed and printed in the 19th century; the obverse includes a green monochrome adaptati
The Frontier Series is the seventh series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar released by the Bank of Canada. The polymer banknotes were designed to increase durability and to incorporate more security features over the preceding Canadian Journey Series; the notes feature images that focus on innovation. It is the first banknote series issued by the Bank of Canada printed on a material other than paper; the banknotes were designed by the Canadian Bank Note Company, which prints the banknotes. They were revealed in June 2011. To familiarise Canadians with the new banknotes, each banknote was introduced through national and regional unveiling events and advertising campaigns before being put into circulation; the $100 banknote was released into circulation on 14 November 2011, the $50 banknote on 26 March 2012, the $20 banknote on 7 November 2012. The $5 banknote was unveiled by Chris Hadfield from the International Space Station during Expedition 35, first circulated on 7 November 2013; the $10 banknote was first circulated the same day after a ceremony at Pacific Central Station in Vancouver.
Canada is the largest of over 30 nations, the first G8 country, to use polymer thin films for printing currency. The primary impetus for the new banknotes was "the need to stay ahead of counterfeiters". By 2002, 10% of retailers in some parts of Canada refused to accept the $100 banknotes of the Birds of Canada in financial transactions, by 2004, the counterfeit ratio for Canadian currency had risen to 470 parts per million; as of 2011, over half of all retail transactions in Canada are made using cash. Between 1995 and 1998, the Bank of Canada tested a substrate trademarked as "Luminus" consisting of a polymer core sheet layered between two paper sheets for use in printing banknotes, it printed 100,000 experimental $5 Birds of Canada banknotes. In June 1998, the Bank of Canada prepared to use Luminus as the substrate for the Canadian Journey Series, but in December 1999 the manufacturer withdrew its supply bid because it could not produce the substrate at the scale required by the Bank of Canada for printing banknotes.
The bank printed the Canadian Journey Series on a cotton fibre substrate with similar surface characteristics to Luminus so that it could transition production to using the polymer substrate when scale production issues were resolved. The Bank of Canada secured Canadian rights for Luminus and continued to develop the substrate for future use; the use of polymer as a substrate was considered in part because access to the polymer substrate could be controlled, replicating the chemical and physical recipe would be difficult. The practice of restricting access to the substrate used for manufacturing money existed as early as the 13th century, during which Chinese rulers stationed guards at mulberry forests, as mulberry bark was used to produce paper money. Use of a polymer substrate for use in the upcoming banknotes was announced by Jim Flaherty in the 2010 Canadian federal budget speech on 4 March 2010, at which time he announced that in the future the loonie and toonie would be made of steel instead of nickel to reduce manufacturing costs.
Canada would become the ninth country to print all its banknotes using a polymer substrate, following Australia, Brunei, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Vietnam. The Bank of Canada began planning for the Frontier Series in 2005, it used a team of chemists and engineers it had assembled for the development of the Canadian Journey Series to determine potential counterfeiting threats and assess substrate materials and potential security features for use in banknote designs. Once the technical evaluation of materials and security features was complete, the Bank of Canada created a formal set of guidelines specifying "the combination of security features and substrate" that it issued to bank note manufacturing and design companies; the resultant bid designs were evaluated for technical and financial merit. Once the design and substrate were chosen, the Bank of Canada negotiated a contract with Note Printing Australia for the supply of the substrate polymer and the security features implemented in the design.
The substrate is supplied to NPA by Securency International. It negotiated for the rights to the use of intellectual property associated with the material and security features owned by the Reserve Bank of Australia; the Bank of Canada issued a press release stating its intention of issuing new banknotes in 2011. A study commissioned by the Bank of Canada was conducted by the University of Waterloo, which collaborated with the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, to assess the accessibility features of the Canadian Journey Series banknotes; the results led to the implementation of two improvements to the design—increased durability of the raised dots used for identification, placing identification patterns for electronic banknote scanners at both ends of the banknotes. The Bank of Canada tested the prototype banknotes by exposing them to temperatures in the range −75 to 140 °C; the durability test involved boiling and running the banknotes in a washing machine. By the end of the development cycle, nearly 15 million test banknotes of various designs, implementing different security features, using various substrates and techniques had been printed.
Research and testing for printing currency on the polymer substrate cost about C$20,000,000, overall development of the polymer banknotes cost about C$300,000,000. In 2008, the Bank of Canada hired the Strategic Counsel for $476,000 to create an image catalogue from which banknote images would be drawn; the research firm polled focus groups in six cities, finding that themes re
The shilling is a unit of currency used in Austria, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. The shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, it is the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce. The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning'to separate, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent. Slang terms for the old shilling coins include "bob" and "hog". While the derivation of "bob" is uncertain, John Camden Hotten in his 1864 Slang Dictionary says the original version was "bobstick" and speculates that it may be connected with Sir Robert Walpole. One abbreviation for shilling is s, it was represented by a solidus symbol, which may have stood for a long s or ſ, thus 1/9 would be one shilling and ninepence.
A price with no pence was sometimes written with a solidus and a dash: 11/–. The solidus symbol is still used for the Kenyan shilling, rather than sh. During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound of standard silver into 66 shillings, or its equivalent in other denominations; this set the weight of the shilling, its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 until 1990, when a new smaller 5p coin was introduced. In the past, the English world has had various myths about the shilling. One myth was that it was deemed to be the value of a cow in a sheep elsewhere. A shilling was a coin used in England from the reign of Henry VII; the shilling continued in use after the Acts of Union of 1707 created a new United Kingdom from the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, under Article 16 of the Articles of Union, a common currency for the new United Kingdom was created. The term shilling was in use in Scotland from early medieval times.
The common currency created in 1707 by Article 16 of the Articles of Union continued in use until decimalisation in 1971. In the traditional pounds and pence system, there were 20 shillings per pound and 12 pence per shilling, thus there were 240 pence in a pound. Three coins denominated in multiple shillings were in circulation at this time, they were: two shillings, which adopted the value of 10 new pence at decimalisation. At decimalisation in 1971, the shilling coin was superseded by the new five-pence piece, of identical size and weight and had the same value, inherited the shilling's slang name of a bob. Shillings remained in circulation until the five pence coin was reduced in size in 1991. Between 1701 and the unification of the currencies in 1825, the Irish shilling was valued at 13 pence and known as the "black hog", as opposed to the 12-pence English shillings which were known as "white hogs". In the Irish Free State and Republic of Ireland the shilling coin was issued as scilling in Irish.
It was worth 1/20th of an Irish pound, was interchangeable at the same value to the British coin, which continued to be used in Northern Ireland. The coin featured a bull on the reverse side; the first minting, from 1928 until 1941, contained 75% silver, more than the equivalent British coin. The original Irish shilling coin ) was withdrawn from circulation on 1 January 1993, when a smaller five pence coin was introduced. Australian shillings, twenty of which made up one Australian pound, were first issued in 1910, with the Australian coat of arms on the reverse and King Edward VII on the face; the coat of arms design was retained through the reign of King George V until a new ram's head design was introduced for the coins of King George VI. This design continued until the last year of issue in 1963. In 1966, Australia's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin, where 10 shillings made up one Australian dollar; the slang term for a shilling coin in Australia was "deener".
The slang term for a shilling as currency unit was "bob", the same as in the United Kingdom. After 1966, shillings continued to circulate, as they were replaced by 10-cent coins of the same size and weight. New Zealand shillings, twenty of which made up one New Zealand pound, were first issued in 1933 and featured the image of a Maori warrior carrying a taiaha "in a warlike attitude" on the reverse. In 1967, New Zealand's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin of the same size and weight. Ten cent coins minted through the remainder of the 1960s included the legend "ONE SHILLING" on the reverse. Smaller 10-cent coins were introduced in 2006. Shillings were used in Malta, prior to decimalisation in 1972, had a face value of five Maltese cents. In British Ceylon, an shilling was equivalent to eight fanams. With the replacement of the rixdollar by the rupee in 1852, a shilling was deemed to be equivalent to half a rupee. On the decimalisation of the currency
The pound was the unit of account for currency of the Canadas until 1858. It was subdivided into each of 12 pence. In Lower Canada, the sou was used, worth 1⁄2 penny. Although the pounds and pence accounting system had its origins in the British pound sterling, the Canadian pound was never formally linked to the British currency. In North America, the scarcity of British coins led to the widespread use of Spanish dollars; these Spanish dollars were accommodated into a pounds and pence accounts system, by setting a valuation for these coins in terms of a pound unit. At one stage, two such units were in widespread use in the British North American colonies; the Halifax rating dominated, it set the Spanish dollar equal to 5 shillings. As this was 6 pence more than its value in silver, the Halifax pound was lower in value than the pound sterling, the original basis for the pounds and pence accounting system; the York rating of one Spanish dollar being equal to eight shillings was used in Upper Canada until it was outlawed in 1796, but unofficially well into the 19th century.
In 1825, an Imperial Order-in-Council was made for the purposes of causing sterling coinage to circulate in the British colonies. The idea was that this order-in-council would make the sterling coins legal tender at the exchange rate of 4s 4d per Spanish dollar; this rate was in fact unrealistic and it had the adverse effect of driving out what little sterling-specie coinage was circulating. Remedial legislation was introduced in 1838 but it was not applied to the British North American colonies due to recent uprisings in Upper and Lower Canada. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to 4 U. S. dollars, making one pound sterling equal to £1 4s 4d Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 16s 5.3d sterling. The earliest Canadian postage stamps were denominated in this Halifax unit; the 1850s was a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar.
The local population, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had an overwhelming desire to assimilate the Canadian currency with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred the idea of sterling to be the sole currency throughout the British Empire. In 1851, the Canadian parliament passed an act for the purposes of introducing a sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the US dollar fractional coinage. The authorities in London refused to give consent to the act on technical grounds; this was the last time that the imperial authorities in London questioned Canada's internal jurisdiction. As a compromise, in 1853 an act of the Canadian parliament introduced the gold standard into Canada, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3.
No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act. Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. Dollar transactions were legalized; the British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of royal. However, in 1857 the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into Canada in conjunction with the US dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, Canada's currency became aligned with the US currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1890s. In 1859, Canadian postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In the year 1861, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the US dollar. In the following year, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in dollars and cents. In 1865, Newfoundland introduced the gold standard in conjunction with decimal coinage, but unlike in the cases of the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the US dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units.
The US dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was at a slight discount to the US dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, while it existed, was at a slight discount to the Canadian dollar. Newfoundland was the only part of the British Empire to introduce its own gold standard coin. A Newfoundland gold two dollar coin was minted intermittently until Newfoundland adopted the Canadian monetary system in 1894, following the Newfoundland banking crash. In 1867, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation called Canada and the three currencies were united. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the US dollar unit and introduced coins for 1 cent. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards when Prince Edward island joined Canada. Both Upper Canada and Lower Canada issued copper tokens. Between 1835 and 1852, the Bank of Montreal, the Banque du Peuple, the City Bank and the Quebec Bank issued 1- and 2-sou tokens for use in Lower Canada.
The Bank of Upper Canada issued 1⁄2- and 1-penny tokens between 1850 and 1857. On notes issued by the charter
Vexator Canadiensis tokens
The Vexator Canadiensis tokens are thought to be politically satirical tokens produced in either Quebec City or Montreal sometime in the 1830s. The tokens present a crude image of a vaguely male bust on their obverse, a female figure on the reverse; the legends on either side were deliberately designed so that they are hard to definitively read, but are known as the "vexators" based on a common interpretation of its obverse legend. Depending on the interpretation of the inscriptions, they can either be taken as a form of satirical protest against either an unpopular Upper Canada governor or William IV as a "tormentor of Canada", or more depicting a fur trapper. Since both interpretations are possible, this ambiguity would allow the issuer from escaping being cited for sedition. Despite the date of 1811, appearing on its reverse, it has long been thought to have been issued sometime in the 1830s, the backdating serving as a way to circumvent regulations against importing contemporary tokens.
At least three main varieties are known. Recent numismatic scholarship has questioned the long-standing assumption that the tokens were issued in the 1830s, may have in fact been issued closer to the date that appears on them, they were not produced in large numbers, typical examples start at several hundred C$ and up. The obverse depicts the bust of man, looking left, with wavy hair and what has been described as a "shaggy" appearance, it obverse legend can be read as saying either VEXATOR or VENATOR CANADIENSIS, a Latin description that can be interpreted as "Tormentor of Canada/Pest of Canada" or "A Canadian Trapper" respectively. The legend is crudely cut, with reversed "N"s in CANADIENSIS, the third letter of the first word can be interpreted as being either an "X" or an "N"; some descriptions of the bust on the obverse say that it has a "protruding tongue". A variation of the obverse includes a small star at the bottom of the bust; the reverse features a crude-looking seated female figure, surrounded by the legend RENONILLOS VISCAPE, with the date 1811, appearing at the bottom.
One interpretation of the legend is: "Wouldn't you like to catch them?". A single five-pointed star appears between the two words in the legend, though one variation has three stars; these tokens are struck in both copper and brass, have a wide range of weight, from as little as 45 grains to 100 grains, with at least one example weighing 126 grains. The vexators were first described by Alfred Sandham in his Coins and Medal of the Dominion of Canada from 1869, he took the date on the token at face value, therefore considered this token to be the first to be created and struck within Canada, as opposed to being imported from outside the country. Sandham described three examples in his catalog, though he mentions that he was aware of additional varieties, differing "in the mode of spelling, or in punctuation", he interpreted the female figure on the reverse of the token to be "dancing". A subsequent study of the vexators followed in 1874 with the publication of A Canadian Political Coin by William Kingsford.
The majority of this monograph focuses on the political background of Upper Canada in the 1810s that he thought led to the issuing of this satirical token, though he mentions that the majority of these tokens had been found in Quebec City, was the first to interpret the reverse legend as saying "Don't you wish you may catch them?" Based on the date appearing on the tokens, Kingsford believed the "tormentor of Canada" being targeted was Sir James Craig, governor of Upper Canada up until that year. This story was picked up by Pierre-Napoléon Breton in his illustrated catalog of Canadian numismatics from 1894, who goes into the dictatorial nature of Sir James Craig's colonial rule when describing the historical background for these tokens. Breton mentions that all of the specimens of these tokens he had encountered were "poorly struck, it is impossible to find any in good condition". While Sandham mentioned three distinct varieties, Breton only lists two, which he cataloged as numbers 558 and 559, while noting that each had its own variations.
Using a 10-point scale, Breton described these tokens as having a rarity level of "R3", though noting that "they are becoming rare."In 1910, American numismatist Howland Wood discovered a variety of the vexators featuring an obverse having a larger head, no legend, the date "1810" on it. The reverse, which he described as "being the variety with the dress of the female figure looking as if it was made of feathers", otherwise matching that of Breton 558, including the date 1811, he speculated that this token indicated that the idea for the vexators had started prior to the departure of Sir John Craig, or that the obverse was the result of an experimental die pressed into makeshift service. No other vexator with the date 1810 has appeared since Wood's discovery, it is now considered to be "probably unique"; this piece is now part of the Bank of Canada collection. The most comprehensive early study of the vextor tokens came from numismatist R. W. McLachlan in his article When Was the Vexator Canadensis Issued?, published in 1915.
He had reviewed 25-30 specimens of the vexator tokens and could only find the two major variants matching those described by Breton. He believed that the three main varieties noted by Sandham to be in error, believing that published work to have been "prepared in haste without proper examination of the pieces described". McLachlan consulted with two
1937 Series (banknotes)
The 1937 Series was the second series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar issued by the Bank of Canada. The banknotes were issued into circulation on 19 July 1937, at which time the Bank of Canada began removing banknotes from the 1935 Series from circulation; the $1000 banknote was issued several years as it was used by chartered banks, which had a sufficient supply of the 1935 Series $1000 banknote. This was the first series of bilingual Canadian banknotes, as the 1935 Series was a dual-language series with French banknotes issued in Quebec and English banknotes issued in the rest of Canada; this series was created because of the introduction of the Bank of Canada Act, which required Canadian banknotes to be bilingual. In this series, English was always on the left. With the exception of the $50 and $1000 notes, the colours introduced to the notes on this series remain to this day. In the House of Commons on 2 June 1936, Conservative member of parliament Thomas Langton Church protested against the requirement of bilingual banknotes in the Bank of Canada Act, stating there was no authority for it in the British North America Act, that it had not been an issue during the 1935 federal election.
He favoured printing dual-language banknotes. Other conservative members of the 18th Canadian Parliament, such as Robert Smeaton White, supported the Liberal Party of Canada majority government of William Lyon Mackenzie King to print bilingual banknotes; the death of George V on 20 January 1936 was another factor for the Bank of Canada to introduce a new series of banknotes. It created designs for new banknotes incorporating the portrait of Edward VIII, but when he abdicated on 11 December 1936 in order to marry Wallis Simpson, the Bank of Canada rushed to prepare new designs; these used portraits of King George VI, who ascended the throne on 11 December 1936. The banknotes retain the "classical elements of the design" of the 1935 Series, the reverse of most banknote denominations retain the allegorical themes and figures of the 1935 Series; the design of these banknotes has greater uniformity and consistency than the 1935 Series, with the obverse having a framed numeral in the top corners and the written value of each denomination framed in the lower corners, with English on the right and French on the left.
The allegorical figures have the same frame in each denomination, unlike the 1935 Series, are flanked by a large framed numeral representing the denomination's value. In 1938, the designs were modified to mitigate printing problems of the original design, increasing the width of the signature panel by 2.4 mm. All banknotes in the series measure 152.4 by 73.025 millimetres. Each denomination had a distinct colour, this set of denomination colours would be used for all subsequent banknote series; the Bank of Canada modified the colours used from the 1935 Series in part to address the issue that some banknotes could not be distinguished in low light. This was problematic for the $1 and $2 banknotes, which The St. Maurice Valley Chronicle of Trois-Rivières stated in an article that the green hue of the $1 banknote and the blue hue of the $2 banknote made the obverse appear similar, that the more distinct colours of the reverse could be "confused in artificial light"; the Bank of Canada chose to design the $2 banknotes using a terracotta red called "sanguine" as its dominant colour, changed the colour of the $5 banknote to blue, the $20 banknote to olive green, the $50 banknote to orange, the $100 banknote to the same tint of sepia used for the 1935 Series $500 banknote.
The series only contained three portraits, which were centrally positioned on the obverse of the banknote on which they were included to accommodate the introduction of bilingual text. The portrait of George VI wearing an admiral's uniform appearing on six of the banknotes was based on a photograph taken by Bertram Park, for which an engraving was made by Robert Savage of ABN, it had been used on the $50 banknote of the 1935 Series. The two exceptions were the $100 banknote, which had the same portrait of John A. Macdonald as the 1935 Series $100 banknote, the $1000 banknote, which had the same portrait of Wilfrid Laurier as the 1935 Series $100 banknote; the allegorical figure on the $1 banknote was the same as that on the 1935 Series $1 banknote, depicting an agricultural theme. It was based on a painting by Alonzo Foringer of the American Bank Note Company; the $2 banknote contains the same harvest allegory that appeared on the 1935 Series $10 banknote, was engraved by Harry P. Dawson of the British American Bank Note Company.
The $5 banknote has the same electric power generation allegory that appeared in the 1935 Series $5 banknote, the $10 banknote has the same transportation allegory as the 1935 Series $2 banknote, represented by a winged figure of the Roman mythological character Mercury. The same fertility allegory, on the 1935 Series $500 banknote, based on another painting by Foringer, was used on the $20 banknote of this series; the modern inventions allegorical figure on the $50 banknote, industry allegorical figure of the $100 banknote, security allegorical figure of the $1000 banknote were the same as those used on the same denomination in the 1935 Series. Engravings of the banknotes were created and subsequently transferred to steel rollers by rocking the rollers back and forth over the engraved die. After being hardened, the design was transferred to a master printing plate, which for the 1937 Series contained 24 copies of the engraved image; this process is known as siderography. The original plates and rolls for this series were destroyed