The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Wilhelm Kroll was a German classic philologist. Kroll was born in the town of Frankenstein in the Prussian Province of Silesia. Having studied in Breslau, he obtained his Ph. D. in 1891. Afterwards he worked towards his secondary degree at Breslau university, which he obtained in 1894. In 1899 he moved to the University of Greifswald for a chair in classics. Afterwards he went on to Münster in 1906 and returned to Breslau in 1913, where he was offered the chair of his former colleague Franz Skutsch. After having worked as a Breslau professor für more than 20 years Kroll retired in 1935; as his follower he supported the appointment of Hans Drexler, an active Nazi, prohibited from teaching after World War II. Kroll moved to Berlin in 1937, he sought the anonymity of the big city because of his anti-Nazi reputation. He died in 1939 in Berlin, aged 69. Kroll was an internationally renowned classicist, owing to his research and more, his editorial work on a number of important publications, the biggest of, the Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft.
Kroll directed this encyclopedia from 1906 until his death, combining the work of classical scholars from all over Europe and the United States. An editor of the "Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft" Geschichte der klassischen Philologie. 1908. Verb. Aufl. Vereinig. Wissenschaftl. Verl. Berlin und Leipzig 1919 C. Valerius Catullus. 1922. Aufl. Teubner, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-519-24001-7 Studien zum Verständnis der römischen Literatur. Metzler, Stuttgart 1924 Nachdruck Garland, New York und London 1978, ISBN 0-8240-2972-0 Die Kultur der ciceronischen Zeit. 2 Teile. Dieterich, Leipzig 1933 Nachdruck Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1975, ISBN 3-534-01542-8 Rhetorik, 1937 Vettii Valentis Anthologiarum Libri, Guilelmus Kroll, Berlin, 1908. Matheseos Libri VIII, 2 vols. Ed. W. Kroll, F. Skutsch and K. Ziegler, Stuttgart, 1897-1913. Historia Alexandri Magni, ed. W. Kroll, vol. 1. Weidmann, Berlin, 1926. Cicero August Pauly Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel Vettius Valens Georg Wissowa Udo W. Scholz: Die Breslauer klassische Philologie und die Realenzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.
In: Jahrbuch der Schlesischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau, Bd. 62–64, S. 311–326, esp. S. 320–322. Peter Wirth: Kroll, Wilhelm. In: Neue deutsche Biographie. Vol. 13, p. 73. Wilhelm Kroll in the German National Library catalogue
Corpus Juris Civilis
The Corpus Juris Civilis is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor. It is sometimes referred to as the Code of Justinian, although this name belongs more properly to the part titled Codex Justinianus; the work as planned had three parts: the Code is a compilation, by selection and extraction, of imperial enactments to date. All three parts the textbook, were given force of law, they were intended to be, the sole source of law. Nonetheless, Justinian found himself having to enact further laws and today these are counted as a fourth part of the Corpus, the Novellae Constitutiones; the work was directed by an official in Justinian's court in Constantinople. His team was authorized to edit. How far they made amendments is not recorded and, in the main, cannot be known because most of the originals have not survived; the text was composed and distributed entirely in Latin, still the official language of the government of the Byzantine Empire in 529–534, whereas the prevalent language of merchants, farmers and other citizens was Greek.
By the early 7th century, the official government language had become Greek during the lengthy reign of Heraclius. The Corpus Juris Civilis was revised into Greek, when that became the predominant language of the Eastern Roman Empire, continued to form the basis of the empire's laws, the Basilika, through the 15th century; the Basilika in turn served as the basis for local legal codes in the Balkans during the following Ottoman period and formed the basis of the legal code of Modern Greece. In Western Europe the Corpus Juris Civilis was revived in the Middle Ages and was "received" or imitated as private law, its public law content was quarried for arguments by ecclesiastical authorities. This revived Roman law, in turn, became the foundation of law in all civil law jurisdictions; the provisions of the Corpus Juris Civilis influenced the canon law of the Catholic Church: it was said that ecclesia vivit lege romana – the church lives by Roman law. Its influence on common law legal systems has been much smaller, although some basic concepts from the Corpus have survived through Norman law – such as the contrast in the Institutes, between "law" and custom.
The Corpus continues to have a major influence on public international law. Its four parts thus constitute the foundation documents of the Western legal tradition. Justinian acceded to the imperial throne in Constantinople in 527. Six months after his accession, in order to reduce the great number of imperial constitutions and thus the number of court proceedings, Justinian arranged for the creation of a new collection of imperial constitutions; the commission in charge of the compilation process was explicitly authorized to leave out or change text and to delete what was obsolete or contradictory. Soon, in 529, the Codex was completed and was conferred the force of law in the whole empire, replacing all earlier constitutions and the Codex Theodosianus. A little more than a year after the enactment of the first edition of the Code, Justinian appointed a commission to compile the traditional jurists’ law in a new and contemporary codification: the ‘Digest or Pandects’; the traditional collection of jurists’ law, Justinian believed, was so extensive that it had become unmanageable, necessitating a new compilation.
The commission completed its work within three years, in 533. The commission surveyed the works of classical jurists who were assumed in Justinian’s time to have the authority to clarify law and whose works were still available. In total, there are excerpts from 38 jurists in the Digest; the "Codex" was the first part to be finished, on 7 April 529. It contained in Latin most of the existing imperial constitutiones, back to the time of Hadrian, it used both the Codex Theodosianus and the fourth-century collections embodied in the Codex Gregorianus and Codex Hermogenianus, which provided the model for division into books that were themselves divided into titles. These works had developed authoritative standing; this first edition is now lost. At least the second edition contained some of Justinian's own legislation, including some legislation in Greek, it is not known whether he intended there to be further editions, although he did envisage translation of Latin enactments into Greek. Numerous provisions served to secure the status of Christianity as the state religion of the empire, uniting Church and state, making anyone, not connected to the Christian church a non-citizen.
Note that in this regard the Christianity referred to is Chalcedonian Christianity as defined by the state church, which excluded a variety of other major Christian sects in existence at the time such as the Church of the East and Oriental Orthodoxy. The first law in the Codex requires all persons under the jurisdiction of the Empire to hold the Christian faith; this was aimed at heresies such as Nestorianism. This text bec
The Codex Justinianus is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, an Eastern Roman emperor in Constantinople. Two other units, the Digest and the Institutes, were created during his reign; the fourth part, the Novellae Constitutiones, was compiled unofficially after his death but is now thought of as part of the Corpus Juris Civilis. Shortly after Justinian became emperor in 527, he decided. There existed three codices of imperial laws and other individual laws, many of which conflicted or were out of date; the Codex Gregorianus and the Codex Hermogenianus were unofficial compilations. The Codex Theodosianus was an official compilation ordered by Theodosius II. In February 528, Justinian promulgated the Constitutio Hac quae necessario, by, created a ten-man commission to review these earlier compilations as well as individual laws, eliminate everything unnecessary or obsolete, make changes as it saw fit, create a single compilation of imperial laws in force.
The commission was headed by the praetorian prefect, John of Cappadocia and included Tribonian, to head the other Corpus Juris Civilis projects. The commission finished its work in 14 months, the compilation was promulgated in April 529 by the Constitutio Summa. However, this compilation did not eliminate all the conflicts that had arisen over the years in Roman jurisprudence, the constitutions in the Code were to be used alongside the conflicting opinions of ancient jurists. "The citation of the said constitutions of Our Code, with the opinions of the ancient interpreters of the law, will suffice for the disposal of all cases." Justinian attempted to harmonize these conflicting opinions by issuing his "Fifty Decisions" and by passing additional new laws. This meant. Thus, Justinian ordered a new compilation to supersede the first, this Codex was published in 534. No copies of the first edition of the Code have survived. Known as the Codex Repetitae Praelectionis, this second edition of the Code was published on November 16, 534, took effect on December 30.
The Codex consists of twelve books: book 1 concerns ecclesiastical law, sources of law, the duties of higher offices. The Code's structure is based on ancient classifications set out in the edictum perpetuum, as is that of the Digest. In the West, Justinian's Codex was lost, or in many places never present, due to the limited western extent of the Eastern Roman Empire's territories; the Latin version known today was painstakingly restored over many centuries. The only known manuscript that once contained the entire Latin Codex is a Veronese palimpsest of the 6th or 7th century. Within its home in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Code was translated into Greek, which had become the governing language, adapted, in the 9th century as the Basilika, it appears as if the Latin Code was shortened in the Middle Ages into an "Epitome Codex", with inscriptions being dropped and numerous other changes made. Some time in the 8th or 9th century, the last three books of the Code were separated from the others, many other laws in the first nine books, including all of those written in Greek, were dropped.
Complete versions of Justinian's Codex were restored around the end of the 12th century, the humanists of the 16th century added the laws promulgated in Greek. Paul Krüger created the modern, standard version of the Codex in 1877. No English translations were made of the Codex until the 20th century. In 1932, the English translation of the entire Corpus Juris Civilis by Samuel Parsons Scott was published posthumously. Scott used the Kriegel brothers' edition of the CJC rather than that of Theodor Mommsen, Paul Krüger, Rudolf Schöll and Wilhelm Kroll, accepted as the most reliable, his translation was criticized. Reviewing Scott's work, the Roman law scholar W. W. Buckland wrote that Scott "...had at his disposal an adequate latinity and has produced a version written in an English which can be read with pleasure. But much more than, needed, the work cannot be said to satisfy these further requirements." Around the same time that Scott was active, Wyoming Supreme Court Justice Fred H. Blume was translating the Code and Novels, using the standard Mommsen, Krüger, Schöll, Kroll version.
While this was not printed in his lifetime, in 2005 his translation of both the Code and the Novels was published on the Annotated Justinian Code website. A new English translation of the Codex, based on Blume's, was published in October 2016. Tony Honoré, Oxford Classical Dictionary. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. 3rd rev. ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-19-860641-3. Jolowicz, H. F.. Information on the Justinian Code and its manuscript tradition on the Bibliotheca legum regni Francorum manuscripta website, A database on Carolingian secular law texts
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most used legal system today, the terms are sometimes used synonymously; the historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in effect in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th century onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law denoted the legal system applied in most of Western Europe until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. Roman law thus served as a basis for legal practice throughout Western continental Europe, as well as in most former colonies of these European nations, including Latin America, in Ethiopia.
English and Anglo-American common law were influenced by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Eastern Europe was influenced by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis in countries such as medieval Romania which created a new system, a mixture of Roman and local law. Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval Byzantine legal system. Before the Twelve Tables, private law comprised the Roman civil law that applied only to Roman citizens, was bonded to religion; the jurist Sextus Pomponius said, "At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law, without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically, by kings". It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion; the first legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily.
After eight years of political struggle, the plebeian social class convinced the patricians to send a delegation to Athens, to copy the Laws of Solon. In 451 BC, according to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given supreme political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. In 450 BC, the decemviri produced the laws on ten tablets, but these laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC; the new Law of the Twelve Tables was approved by the people's assembly. Modern scholars tend to challenge the accuracy of Roman historians, they do not believe that a second decemvirate took place. The decemvirate of 451 is believed to have included the most controversial points of customary law, to have assumed the leading functions in Rome. Furthermore, the question on the Greek influence found in the early Roman Law is still much discussed.
Many scholars consider it unlikely that the patricians sent an official delegation to Greece, as the Roman historians believed. Instead, those scholars suggest, the Romans acquired Greek legislations from the Greek cities of Magna Graecia, the main portal between the Roman and Greek worlds; the original text of the Twelve Tables has not been preserved. The tablets were destroyed when Rome was conquered and burned by the Gauls in 387 BC; the fragments which did survive show. It did not provide a complete and coherent system of all applicable rules or give legal solutions for all possible cases. Rather, the tables contained specific provisions designed to change the then-existing customary law. Although the provisions pertain to all areas of law, the largest part is dedicated to private law and civil procedure. Many laws include Lex Canuleia, Leges Licinae Sextiae, Lex Ogulnia, Lex Hortensia. Another important statute from the Republican era is the Lex Aquilia of 286 BC, which may be regarded as the root of modern tort law.
However, Rome's most important contribution to European legal culture was not the enactment of well-drafted statutes, but the emergence of a class of professional jurists and of a legal science. This was achieved in a gradual process of applying the scientific methods of Greek philosophy to the subject of law, a subject which the Greeks themselves never treated as a science. Traditionally, the origins of Roman legal science are connected to Gnaeus Flavius. Flavius is said to have published around the year 300 BC the formularies containing the words which had to be spoken in court to begin a legal action. Before the time of Flavius, these formularies are said to have been secret and known only to the priests, their publication made it possible for non-priests to explore the mea
The Laurentian Library is a historic library in Florence, containing more than 11,000 manuscripts and 4,500 early printed books. Built in a cloister of the Medicean Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze under the patronage of the Medici pope Clement VII, the library was built to emphasize that the Medici were no longer merchants but members of intelligent and ecclesiastical society, it contains the books belonging to the private library of the Medici family. The library is renowned for its architecture, designed by Michelangelo, is an example of Mannerism. A Codex Laurentianus identifies any of the book-bound manuscripts in the library; the Laurentian Library was commissioned in 1523 and construction began in 1525. It was continued by Tribolo and Ammannati based on plans and verbal instructions from Michelangelo; the library opened by 1571. In this way, the library integrates parts executed by Michelangelo with others built much in an interpretation of his instructions; the Laurentian Library is one of Michelangelo's most important architectural achievements.
Michelangelo's contemporaries realized that the innovations and use of space in the Laurentian Library were revolutionary. The admirable distribution of the windows, the construction of the ceiling, the fine entrance of the Vestibule can never be sufficiently extolled. Boldness and grace are conspicuous in the work as a whole, in every part. – Giorgio Vasari. The two-story Quattrocento cloister remained unchanged by the addition of the library; because of this, certain features of Michelangelo’s plan, such as length and width, were determined. Therefore, new walls were built on pre-existing cloisters; because the walls were built on pre-existing walls, recessing the columns into the walls was a structural necessity. This led to pattern that Michelangelo took advantage of; the vestibule known as the ricetto, is 10.50 m long, 10.50 m wide, 14.6 m tall. It was built above existing monastic quarters on the east range of the cloister, with an entrance from the upper level of the cloisters. Michelangelo planned for a skylight, but Clement VII believed that it would cause the roof to leak, so clerestory windows were incorporated into the west wall.
Blank tapering windows––framed in pietra serena, surmounted by either triangular or segmental pediments, separated by paired columns set into the wall––circumscribe the interior of the vestibule. Lit by windows in bays that are articulated by pilasters corresponding to the beams of the ceiling, with a tall constricted vestibule, filled with a stair that flows up to the entrance to the reading room, the library is mentioned as a prototype of Mannerism in architecture; the plan of the stairs changed in the design phase. In the first design in 1524, two flights of stairs were placed against the side walls and formed a bridge in front of the reading room door. A year the stairway was moved to the middle of the vestibule. Tribolo attempted to carry out this plan in 1550 but nothing was built. Ammannati took on the challenge of interpreting Michelangelo’s ideas to the best of his abilities using a small clay model, scanty material, Michelangelo’s instructions; the staircase takes up half of the floor of the vestibule.
The treads of the center flights vary in width, while the outer flights are straight. The three lowest steps of the central flight are wider and higher than the others like concentric oval slabs; as the stairway descends, it divides into three flights. The reading room is 46.20 m. long, 10.50 m. wide, 8.4 m. high. There are two blocks of seats separated by a center aisle with the backs of each serving as desks for the benches behind them; the desks are lit by the evenly spaced windows along the wall. The windows are framed by pilasters, forming a system of bays which articulate the layout of the ceiling and floor; because the reading room was built upon an existing story, Michelangelo had to reduce the weight of the reading-room walls. The system of frames and layers in the walls’ articulation reduced the volume and weight of the bays between the pilasters. Beneath the current wooden floor of the library in the Reading Room is a series of 15 rectangular red and white terra cotta floor panels; these panels, measuring 8-foot-6-inch on a side, when viewed in sequence demonstrate basic principles of geometry.
It is believed. In the ricetto, critics have noted that the recessed columns in the vestibule make the walls look like taut skin stretched between vertical supports; this caused the room to appear as if it mimics the human body, which at the time of the Italian Renaissance was believed to be the ideal form. The columns of the building appear to be supported on corbels so that the weight seems to be carried on weak elements; because of the instability of the structure, the viewer cannot discern whether the roof is supported by the columns or the walls. This sense of ambiguity is heightened by the unorthodox forms of the windows and by the compressed quality