The Garrick Theatre is a West End theatre, located on Charing Cross Road, in the City of Westminster, named after the stage actor David Garrick. It opened in 1889 with The Profligate, a play by Arthur Wing Pinero, another Pinero play, The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith, was an early success at the theatre. In its early years, the Garrick appears to have specialised in the performance of melodrama; the theatre became associated with comedies, including No Sex Please, We're British, which played for four years from 1982 to 1986. There was another theatre, sometimes called the Garrick in London, on Leman Street, opened in 1831 and demolished in 1881; the new Garrick Theatre was financed in 1889 by the playwright W. S. Gilbert, the author of over 75 plays, including the Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas, it was designed by Walter Emden, with C. J. Phipps brought in as a consultant to help with the planning on the difficult site after an underground river was discovered in the excavation; the theatre had 800 seats on four levels, but the gallery level has since been closed and the seating capacity reduced to 656.
The theatre's first manager was Gilbert's friend John Hare. The first play at the theatre, The Profligate, by Arthur Wing Pinero and starring Hare, opened on 24 April 1889. Sydney Grundy's long-running French-style comedy A Pair of Spectacles opened here in February 1890. Mrs Patrick Campbell starred five years in Pinero's The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith. Afterwards, the theatre suffered a short period of decline until it was leased by Arthur Bourchier for six years, whose wife, Violet Vanbrugh, starred in a series of successful productions ranging from farce to Shakespeare. In 1900, the theatre hosted. Rutland Barrington presented several stage works at the Garrick, including his popular "fairy play" called Water Babies in 1902, based on Charles Kingsley's book, with music by Alfred Cellier, among others; the only piece premiered by W. S. Gilbert here was Harlequin and the Fairy's Dilemma, a "Domestic Pantomime". In 1921, Basil Rathbone played Dr. Lawson in The Edge o' Beyond at the Garrick, the following year Sir Seymour Hicks appeared in his own play, The Man in Dress Clothes.
In 1925 Henry Daniell played there as Jack Race in Cobra and appeared there again as Paul Cortot in Marriage by Purchase in March 1932. A proposed redevelopment of Covent Garden by the GLC in 1968 saw the theatre under threat, together with the nearby Vaudeville, Adelphi and Duchess theatres. An active campaign by Equity, the Musicians' Union, theatre owners under the auspices of the Save London Theatres Campaign led to the abandonment of the scheme; the gold-leaf auditorium was restored in 1986 by the stage designer Carl Toms, in 1997 the front façade was renovated. The theatre has been associated with comedies or comedy-dramas. More recent productions are listed below and include No Sex Please, We're British, which played for four years at the theatre before transferring to the Duchess Theatre in 1986. In 1995, the Royal National Theatre's multi-award-winning production of J. B. Priestley's An Inspector Calls opened here, having played successful seasons at the Royal National Theatre's Lyttelton and Olivier theatres as well as the Aldwych Theatre and a season on Broadway.
In 1986, the Garrick was acquired by the Stoll Moss Group, in 2000 it became a Really Useful Theatre when Andrew Lloyd Webber's Really Useful Group and Bridgepoint Capital purchased Stoll Moss Theatres Ltd. In October 2005, Nica Burns and Max Weitzenhoffer purchased the Garrick Theatre, it became one of five playhouses operating under their company name of Nimax Theatres Ltd, alongside the Lyric Theatre, Apollo Theatre, Vaudeville Theatre and Duchess Theatre; the interior retains many of its original features, was Grade II* listed by English Heritage in September 1960. 1890 – A Pair of Spectacles by Sydney Grundy 1895 – The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith, starring Mrs Patrick Campbell 1902 – Water Babies, an adaptation by Rutland Barrington of Charles Kingsley's novel, with music by Alfred Cellier and others. 1924 – The Rat, written by and starring Ivor Novello 1947 – Laurence Olivier directed Jack Buchanan in Born Yesterday 1955 – La Plume de Ma Tante ran to 1957 1960 – Lionel Bart's Fings Ain't Wot They Used T'Be began a two-year run with Miriam Karlin 1967 – Brian Rix presented and appeared in Stand By Your Bedouin, the first in several seasons of farces, including Uproar in the House and Let Sleeping Wives Lie 1971 – The last of these farces was Don't Just Lie There, Say Something!
1972 – Anthony Shaffer's Sleuth transferred 1977 – Side By Side By Sondheim transferred and was a continuing success. 1978 – Ira Levin's thriller Deathtrap began a long run until 1981 1982 – No Sex Please, We're British transferred from the Strand Theatre and remained until 1986 1995 – An Inspector Calls began its second prolonged West End season 2002 – This is Our Youth played two seasons 2009 – A Little Night Music played until 2011 2011 – Chicago transferred from the Cambridge Theatre. Official Garrick Theatre Website Article on Garrick Theatre Information about the Garrick and other Victorian theatres
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
Ivor Novello, born David Ivor Davies, was a Welsh composer and actor who became one of the most popular British entertainers of the first half of the 20th century. He was born into a musical family, his first successes were as a songwriter, his first big hit was "Keep the Home Fires Burning", enormously popular during the First World War. His 1917 show, Theodore & Co, was a wartime hit. After the war, Novello contributed numbers to several successful musical comedies and was commissioned to write the scores of complete shows, he wrote his musicals in the style of operetta and composed his music to the libretti of Christopher Hassall. In the 1920s, he turned to acting, first in British films and on stage, with considerable success in both, he starred in two silent films directed by The Lodger and Downhill. On stage, he played the title character in the first London production of Liliom. Novello went to Hollywood, but he soon returned to Britain, where he had more successes on stage, appearing in his own lavish West End productions of musicals.
The best known of these were Glamorous The Dancing Years. From the 1930s, he performed with Zena Dare, writing parts for her in his works, he continued to write for film, but he had his biggest late successes with stage musicals: Perchance to Dream, King's Rhapsody and Gay's the Word. The Ivor Novello Awards were named after him in 1955. Novello was born in Cardiff, Wales, to David Davies, a rent collector for the city council, his wife, Clara Novello Davies, an internationally known singing teacher and choral conductor; as a boy, Novello was a successful singer in the Welsh Eisteddfod. His mother set up as voice teacher in London, where he met leading performers, including members of George Edwardes's Gaiety Theatre company, classical musicians such as Landon Ronald, singers such as Adelina Patti. Another of his mother's associates was Clara Butt, who taught him to sing "Abide with Me" when he was a boy of six. Novello was educated in Cardiff and in Gloucester, where he studied harmony and counterpoint with Herbert Brewer, the cathedral organist.
From there he won a scholarship to Magdalen College School in Oxford, where he was a solo treble in the college choir. He said that this prolonged youthful exposure to early sacred choral music had turned his tastes, in reaction, to lush romantic music. Although Brewer had told him he would not have a career in music, Novello from his early youth showed a facility for writing songs, when he was only 15, one of his songs was published. After leaving school, he gave piano lessons in Cardiff, moved to London in 1913 with his mother, they took a flat above the Strand Theatre. In London he found a mentor in a well-known patron of the arts. Marsh introduced him to people who could help his career, he adopted part of his mother's maiden name, "Novello" as his professional surname, although he did not change it until 1927. In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Novello wrote "Keep the Home Fires Burning", a song that expressed the feelings of innumerable families sundered by World War I. Novello composed the music for the song to a lyric by the American Lena Guilbert Ford, it became a huge popular success, bringing Novello money and fame at the age of 21.
In other respects, the war had less impact on Novello than on many young men of his age. He avoided enlistment until June 1916, when he reported to a Royal Naval Air Service training depot as a probationary flight sub-lieutenant. After twice crashing an aeroplane, with the influence of Marsh, he was moved to the Air Ministry office in central London performing clerical duties for the duration of the war. Novello continued to write songs while serving in the RNAS, he had his first stage success with Theodore & Co in 1916, a production by George Grossmith, Jr. and Edward Laurillard with a score composed by Novello and the young Jerome Kern. In the same year, Novello contributed to André Charlot's revue See-Saw. In 1917 he wrote for another Grossmith and Laurillard production, the operette Arlette, for which he contributed additional numbers to an existing French score by Jane Vieu and Guy le Feuvre. In the same year, Marsh introduced him to the actor Bobbie Andrews, who became Novello's life partner.
Andrews introduced Novello to the young Noël Coward. Coward, six years Novello's junior, was envious of Novello's effortless glamour, he wrote, "I just felt conscious of the long way I had to go before I could break into the magic atmosphere in which he moved and breathed with such nonchalance". In 1918 and after the war, Novello continued to write for musical comedy and revue; the former included Who's Hooper?, an adaptation of a Pinero play, with a book by Fred Thompson, lyrics by Clifford Grey, music by Howard Talbot and Novello, The Golden Moth by Thompson and P. G. Wodehouse, for which Novello provided the entire score. For Charlot, he contributed numbers to A to Z and Puppets. For the second of these, his songs included one of his few well-known comedy numbers, "And her mother came too", with lyrics by Dion Titheradge, written for Jack Buchanan. At the same time as his successes as a composer, Novello was making a career as an actor. With "a classic profile that gained him matinee idol status amongst the film-going public", he was sought out, on the strength of a publicity photograph, by the Swiss film director Louis Mercanton.
Mercanton offered him a silent-film role as the romantic lead in The Call of the
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart. Inspired by the farces of the ancient Roman playwright Plautus Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus, Mostellaria, the musical tells the bawdy story of a slave named Pseudolus and his attempts to win his freedom by helping his young master woo the girl next door; the plot displays many classic elements of farce, including puns, the slamming of doors, cases of mistaken identity, satirical comments on social class. The title derives from a line used by vaudeville comedians to begin a story: "A funny thing happened on the way to the theater"; the musical's original 1962 Broadway run won several Tony Awards, including Best Musical and Best Author. A Funny Thing has enjoyed several Broadway and West End revivals and was made into a successful film starring the original lead of the stage musical, Zero Mostel. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum opened on Broadway on May 8, 1962, at the Alvin Theatre, transferred to the Mark Hellinger Theatre and the Majestic Theatre, where the show closed on August 29, 1964, after 964 performances and 8 previews.
The show's creators wanted Phil Silvers in the lead role of Pseudolus, but he turned them down because he would have to perform onstage without his glasses, his vision was so poor that he feared tripping into the orchestra pit. He is quoted as turning down the role for being "Sgt. Bilko in a toga". Milton Berle passed on the role. Zero Mostel was cast. During the out of town pre-Broadway tryouts the show was attracting little business and not playing well. Jerome Robbins was called in to make changes; the biggest change Robbins made was a new opening number to replace "Love Is in the Air" and introduce the show as a bawdy, wild comedy. Stephen Sondheim wrote the song "Comedy Tonight" for this new opening. From that point on, the show was a success, it was directed by George Abbott and produced by Hal Prince, with choreography by Jack Cole and uncredited staging and choreography by Robbins. The scenic and costume design was by Tony Walton; this wardrobe is on display at the Costume World Broadway Collection in Florida.
The lighting design was by Jean Rosenthal. Along with Mostel, the musical featured a cast of seasoned performers, including Jack Gilford, David Burns, John Carradine, Ruth Kobart, Raymond Walburn; the young lovers were played by Preshy Marker. Karen Black cast as the ingenue, was replaced out of town; the show won several Tony Awards: Best Musical, Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Best Book, Best Director. The score, was coolly received; the show was presented twice in London's West End. The 1963 production and its 1986 revival were staged at the Strand Theatre and the Piccadilly Theatre and starred Frankie Howerd as Pseudolus and Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus in both. In the 1963 production, Kenneth Connor appeared as Hysterium,'Monsewer' Eddie Gray as Senex, Jon Pertwee as Marcus Lycus, Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus. In the 1986 revival, Patrick Cargill was Senex with Ronnie Stevens as Hysterium and Derek Royle as Erronius. In 2004 there was a limited-run revival at the Royal National Theatre, starring Desmond Barrit as Pseudolus, Philip Quast as Miles Gloriosus, Hamish McColl as Hysterium and Isla Blair as Domina.
This production was nominated for Outstanding Musical Production. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum was made into a musical film in 1966, directed by Richard Lester, with Mostel and Gilford re-creating their Broadway stage roles, Leon Greene reprising his West End stage role, Phil Silvers in an expanded role as "Marcus Lycus". David Burns did not return for the film role of Senex, played in the film by Michael Hordern. Buster Keaton made his final film appearance in the role of Erronius. A revival opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on April 4, 1972 and closed on August 12, 1972 after 156 performances. Directed by co-author Burt Shevelove the cast starred Phil Silvers as Pseudolus, Lew Parker as Senex, Carl Ballantine as Lycus and Reginald Owen as Erronius. Larry Blyden, who played Hysterium, the role created by Jack Gilford co-produced. "Pretty Little Picture" and "That'll Show Him" were dropped from the show, were replaced with "Echo Song", "Farewell". "Echo Song" and "Farewell" had been added to a production staged in Los Angeles the previous year and were composed by Sondheim.
They had to close soon. The show won two Tony Awards, Best Leading Actor in a Musical for Silvers, Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Blyden; the musical was revived again with great success in 1996, opening at the St. James Theatre on April 18, 1996 and closing on January 4, 1998 after 715 performances; the cast starred Nathan Lane as Pseudolus, Mark Linn-Baker as Hysterium, Ernie Sabella as Lycus, Jim Stanek as Hero, Lewis J. Stadlen as Senex, Cris Groenendaal as Miles Gloriosus; the production was directed by Jerry Zaks, with choreography by Rob Marsha
The Rat Pack: Live from Las Vegas
The Rat Pack - Live From Las Vegas is a successful stage musical produced by Flying Music Group Ltd. The stage show was conceived and created by Mitch Sebastian, the show's director and choreographer. Developed over three years the original production opened outside London at the Beck Theatre, Hayes in January 2000. A short tour featured Louis Hoover as Frank Sinatra, Michael Howe as Dean Martin and Peter Straker as Sammy Davis Junior; the show was rewritten and new set designs were added for a second UK tour in 2001 with Clive Carter and George Daniel Long playing Dean Martin and Sammy Davis Junior. It was not until the 2002 UK Tour. Further rewrites and new set designs by Sean Kavanagh with costume designs by Paul Clarke and a cast that featured Stephen Triffit Mark Adams and George Daniel Long performed a sold-out 6-month tour; the production transferred to the West End for a limited 6-week engagement at Theatre Royal Haymarket in 2003. Due to rave reviews and sold-out performances, the run was extended for a further six weeks before transferring to Strand Theatre, where it played for two years breaking all box office records in advance sales.
The original West End cast starred Mark Adams, George Daniel Long, Stephen Triffitt. In May 2005, the show transferred to the Savoy Theatre where it ran for another two years, exceeding over 1000 consecutive performances. A new limited season was performed at the Adelphi Theatre in London from September 2009 to January 2010 starring Craige Els, Giles Terrera, Louis Hoover, it returned for another limited season to the Wyndhams Theatre in 2011-2012 with the original cast. It holds the record for playing in the most houses in London's West End; the production has played the following West End Theatres from 2003 - 2014 Peacock Theatre, Theatre Royal Haymarket, Novello Theatre, Savoy Theatre, London Palladium, Theatre Royal Drury Lane, Adelphi Theatre and Wyndham's Theatre. On 13 December 2017 it returned to the Theatre Royal Haymarket and in January the show was enhanced with a celebration of Ella Fitzgerald's centenary. Ella Fitzgerald is played by Nicola Emmanuelle, it will close in February 2018 followed by another U.
K. Tour which will finish on June 9, 2018. A European tour premiered in 2004 and ran for four years playing, Austria, Spain and Denmark; the show was renamed "The Ratpack Live from the Sands" when it embarked on its first USA Tour in 2005. It continued to tour America as part of the Broadway series for a subsequent four seasons. Other productions opened in Canon Theatre. Mitch Sebastian directed the film for PBS in America, it is available on Amazon Original West End cast recording was made early in the run at the Novello Theatre featuring the original cast. The show was nominated for BEST NEW MUSICAL in the WhatsOnStage awards and for BEST ENTERTAINMENT in the 2003 Laurence Olivier Awards
Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–1602 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season. The play centres on the twins Sebastian, who are separated in a shipwreck. Viola falls in love with Duke Orsino. Upon meeting Viola, Countess Olivia falls in love with her thinking; the play expanded on the musical interludes and riotous disorder expected of the occasion, with plot elements drawn from the short story "Of Apollonius and Silla" by Barnabe Rich, based on a story by Matteo Bandello. The first recorded public performance was on 2 February 1602, at Candlemas, the formal end of Christmastide in the year's calendar; the play was not published until its inclusion in the 1623 First Folio. Viola is shipwrecked on the coast of Illyria and she comes ashore with the help of a Captain, she has lost contact with her twin brother, whom she believes to be drowned, with the aid of the Captain, she disguises herself as a young man under the name Cesario, enters the service of Duke Orsino.
Duke Orsino has convinced himself that he is in love with Olivia, mourning the recent deaths of her father and brother. She refuses to see entertainments, be in the company of men, or accept love or marriage proposals from anyone, the Duke included, until seven years have passed. Duke Orsino uses'Cesario' as an intermediary to profess his passionate love before Olivia. Olivia, falls in love with'Cesario', setting her at odds with her professed duty. In the meantime, Viola has fallen in love with the Duke Orsino, creating a love triangle: Viola loves Duke Orsino, Duke Orsino loves Olivia, Olivia loves Viola disguised as Cesario. In the comic subplot, several characters conspire to make Olivia's pompous steward, believe that Olivia has fallen for him; this involves Sir Toby Belch. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew engage themselves in drinking and revelry, thus disturbing the peace of Olivia's household until late into the night, prompting Malvolio to chastise them. Sir Toby famously retorts, "Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale?".
Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, Maria plan revenge on Malvolio. They convince Malvolio that Olivia is secretly in love with him by planting a love letter, written by Maria in Olivia's handwriting, it asks Malvolio to wear yellow stockings cross-gartered, to be rude to the rest of the servants, to smile in the presence of Olivia. Malvolio reacts in surprised delight, he starts acting out the contents of the letter to show Olivia his positive response. Olivia is shocked by the changes in Malvolio and agreeing that he seems mad, leaves him to be cared for by his tormentors. Pretending that Malvolio is insane, they lock him up in a dark chamber. Feste visits him to mock his insanity, both disguised as himself. Meanwhile, Viola's twin, has been rescued by Antonio, a sea captain who fought against Orsino, yet who accompanies Sebastian to Illyria, despite the danger, because of his affection for Sebastian. Sebastian's appearance adds the confusion of mistaken identities to the comedy. Taking Sebastian for'Cesario', Olivia asks him to marry her, they are secretly married in a church.
When'Cesario' and Sebastian appear in the presence of both Olivia and Orsino, there is more wonder and confusion at their physical similarity. At this point, Viola is reunited with her twin brother; the play ends in a declaration of marriage between Duke Orsino and Viola, it is learned that Sir Toby has married Maria. Malvolio swears revenge on his tormentors and stalks off. Illyria, the exotic setting of Twelfth Night, is important to the play's romantic atmosphere. Illyria was an ancient region of the Western Balkans whose coast covered the coasts of modern-day Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, it included the city-state of the Republic of Ragusa, proposed as the setting. Illyria may have been suggested by the Roman comedy Menaechmi, the plot of which involves twins who are mistaken for each other. Illyria is referred to as a site of pirates in Shakespeare's earlier play, Henry VI, Part 2; the names of most of the characters are Italian but some of the comic characters have English names.
Oddly, the "Illyrian" lady Olivia has Sir Toby Belch. It has been noted that the play's setting has other English allusions such as Viola's use of "Westward ho!", a typical cry of 16th century London boatmen, Antonio's recommendation to Sebastian of "The Elephant" as where it is best to lodge in Illyria. The play is believed to have drawn extensively on the Italian production Gl'ingannati, collectively written by the Accademia degli Intronati in 1531, it is conjectured that the name of its male lead, was suggested by Virginio Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, an Italian nobleman who visited London in the winter of 1600 to 1601. Another source story, "Of Apollonius and Silla", appeared in Barnabe Riche's collection, Riche his Farewell to Militarie Profession conteining verie pleasaunt discourses fit for a peaceable tyme, which in turn is derived from a story by Matteo Bandello."Twelfth Night" is a reference to the twelfth ni
Blondie is an American rock band founded by singer Debbie Harry and guitarist Chris Stein. The band were punk scenes of the mid-late 1970s, its first two albums contained strong elements of these genres, although successful in the United Kingdom and Australia, Blondie was regarded as an underground band in the United States until the release of Parallel Lines in 1978. Over the next three years, the band achieved several hit singles including "Heart of Glass", "Call Me", "Rapture" and "The Tide Is High" and became noted for its eclectic mix of musical styles incorporating elements of disco, pop and early rap music. Blondie disbanded after the release of its sixth studio album The Hunter in 1982. Debbie Harry continued to pursue a solo career with varied results after taking a few years off to care for partner Chris Stein, diagnosed with pemphigus, a rare autoimmune disease of the skin; the band re-formed in 1997, achieving renewed success and a number one single in the United Kingdom with "Maria" in 1999 20 years after their first UK No.1 single.
The group toured and performed throughout the world during the following years, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. Blondie is still active; the band's tenth studio album, Ghosts of Download, was released in 2014 and their eleventh studio album, was released on May 5, 2017. Inspired by the burgeoning new music scene at the Mercer Arts Center, Chris Stein sought to join a similar band, he joined the Stilettoes in 1973 as their guitarist and formed a romantic relationship with one of the band's vocalists, Debbie Harry, a former waitress and Playboy Bunny. Harry had been a member of the Wind in the Willows, in the late 1960s. In July 1974, Stein and Harry parted ways with the Stilettoes and Elda Gentile, the band's originator, forming a new band with ex-Stilettoes bandmates Billy O'Connor and Fred Smith. Billed as Angel and the Snake for two shows in August 1974, they renamed themselves "Blondie" by October 1974; the name derived from comments made by truck drivers who catcalled "Hey, Blondie" to Harry as they drove past.
By the spring of 1975, after some personnel turnover and Harry were joined by drummer Clem Burke and bass player Gary Valentine. Blondie became regular performers at Max's Kansas City and CBGB. In June 1975, the band's first recording came in the way of a demo produced by Alan Betrock. To fill out their sound, they recruited keyboard player Jimmy Destri in November 1975; the band signed with Private Stock Records and their debut album, was issued in December 1976 but was not a commercial success. In September 1977, the band bought back its contract with Private Stock and signed with British label Chrysalis Records; the first album was re-released on the new label in October 1977. Rolling Stone's review of the debut album observed the eclectic nature of the group's music, comparing it to Phil Spector and the Who, commented that the album's two strengths were Richard Gottehrer's production and the persona of Debbie Harry; the publication said she performed with "utter aplomb and involvement throughout: when she's portraying a character consummately obnoxious and spaced-out, there is a wink of awareness, comforting and amusing yet never condescending."
It noted that Harry was the "possessor of a bombshell zombie's voice that can sound dreamily seductive and woodenly Mansonite within the same song". The band's first commercial success occurred in Australia in 1977, when the music television program Countdown mistakenly played their video "In the Flesh", the B-side of their current single "X-Offender". Jimmy Destri credited the show's Molly Meldrum for their initial success, commenting that "we still thank him to this day" for playing the wrong song. In a 1998 interview, drummer Clem Burke recalled seeing the episode in which the wrong song was played, but he and Chris Stein suggested that it may have been a deliberate subterfuge on the part of Meldrum. Stein asserted that "X-Offender" was "too crazy and aggressive ", while "In the Flesh" was "not representative of any punk sensibility. Over the years, I've thought they played both things but liked one better. That's all." In retrospect, Burke described "In the Flesh" as "a forerunner to the power ballad".
The single reached number 2 in Australia, while the album reached the Australian top twenty in November 1977, a subsequent double-A release of "X-Offender" and "Rip Her to Shreds" reached number 81. A successful Australian tour followed in December, though it was marred by an incident in Brisbane when disappointed fans rioted after Harry cancelled a performance due to illness. In February 1978, Blondie released Plastic Letters; the album was recorded as a four-piece as Gary Valentine had left the band in mid 1977. Plastic Letters was promoted extensively throughout Asia by Chrysalis Records; the album's first single, "Denis", was the Rainbows' 1963 hit. It reached number two on the British singles charts, while both the album and its second single, " Presence, Dear", reached the British top ten. Chart success, along with a successful 1978 UK tour, including a gig at London's Roundhouse, made Blondie one of the first American new wave bands to achieve mainstream success in the United Kingdom. By this time, Gary Valentine had left and been replaced by Frank In