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Franks Report (1983)

The Franks Report the Falkland Islands Review, was a government report produced by the Franks Committee in 1983. It reported on decisions taken by the United Kingdom government in the run-up to the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentina, the invasion that led to the Falklands War. On 6 July 1982, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Margaret Thatcher, announced to the British Parliament that, following consultation with the Leader of the Opposition and leaders of other Opposition parties, the Government had decided to appoint a committee of Privy Counsellors, under the chairmanship of Lord Franks, with the following terms of reference:'To review the way in which the responsibilities of Government in relation to the Falkland Islands and their Dependencies were discharged in the period leading up to the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands on 2 April 1982, taking account of all such factors in previous years as are relevant; the Falkland Islands Review Committee, better known as the Franks Committee, consisted of six Privy Counsellors under the chairmanship of Lord Franks: Lord Franks, a senior civil servant and former Ambassador to Washington for the United Kingdom.

Lord Barber, a Conservative peer and former Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom. Lord Lever of Manchester, a Labour peer and former Paymaster General of the United Kingdom. Sir Patrick Nairne, a senior civil servant with a background in the Admiralty and UK Ministry of Defence. Merlyn Rees, a Labour MP and former Home Secretary of the United Kingdom. Lord Watkinson, a Conservative peer and former Transport Minister; the Committee called as witnesses all the parties. These included Thatcher, the Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington, other members of the cabinet, it looked at the use of intelligence information and how this was presented to the UK Government. The Committee's report was presented to parliament by Mrs Thatcher on 18 January 1983. Whilst critical of some of the actions of the government, the report cleared the government of any blame for the invasion; the report concluded that the Committee "would not be justified in attaching any criticism or blame to the present Government for the Argentine junta's decision to commit its act of unprovoked aggression".

It argued that the invasion "could not be foreseen" but that some British Government policies "may have served to cast doubt on British commitment to the Islands and their defence". Thatcher is reported to have been anxious prior to the publication of the report and was triumphant at what she considered as vindication of her view that criticism of her government's actions were unwarranted. Simon Jenkins reported that when the report arrived "she sat down, shut her eyes and asked her secretary to read the last paragraph, the exoneration, she needed no caveats, just that sentence."The report did criticise the way Lord Carrington had conducted negotiations and made recommendations on the gathering and use of intelligence information, including a specific recommendation on the future composition of the Joint Intelligence Committee. The Franks Report has been mired in controversy since its publication. Politicians, political commentators and many in the general public saw it both and now as a whitewash by the establishment, for example the British political commentator Hugo Young called it "a classic establishment job".

The controversy began as soon. It is reported that Thatcher read the main conclusions of the report to cries of "whitewash" and ironic cheers from the opposition. In the parliamentary debate that followed its publication, the former Prime Minister James Callaghan said that "for 338 paragraphs he painted a splendid picture, delineated the light and the shade, the glowing colours in it, when Franks got to paragraph 339 he got fed up with the canvas he was painting, chucked a bucket of whitewash over it". David Owen, Foreign Secretary in the previous Labour government, was kinder in his interpretation, he said in Parliament that "I do not agree with substantial parts of the Franks report, but anyone who pretends that the issue in 1982 was easy has not lived through such experience", "when I read the Franks report, I think'There but for the grace of God go I'". Lord Franks is reported to have believed that, while there must be some criticism of government actions, as no government can be held to blame for the reckless aggression of another, there could be "no hanging conclusion".

To the charge of a whitewash, he is reported as saying that it should be remembered the report was produced in the aftermath of victory and that "there is a time and place for blame", that the report should be read and to read between the lines. William Wallace of Chatham House interpreted the Franks Report as containing two readings. According to Wallace, on first reading it "exonerated the government in office of all blame", but could be read as a coded document much more critical of British government policy from 1977 to 1982 and less damning of the intelligence apparatus

Pilli Alfred James

P. Alfred James was an Indian Academic, best known for his association with the Kakatiya University, a State-run University u/s 2 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 where he was Professor and Head of the Department of Public Administration in the 1970s, he was a member of the Indian Institute of Public Administration in which he was an active member, chairing sessions of its annual workshops. The Institute condoled his sudden death in 1983; as part of his research forte, he used to contribute his writings to many journals and was a book reviewer in the Indian Journal of Public Administration. It was only in 1976 that the Kakatiya University was founded in Warangal with Kailasa Venkata Ramiah as the first Vice-Chancellor; the faculty were much inspired to take their respective departments to new heights by improvising on the academics and contributed much towards scholarship. The public administration department was one such faculty. Alfred James mentored many Scholars. Alfred James had a cross-cultural academic record studying in three different universities and had been guided and mentored by various Scholars.

The Old Testament Scholar, E. C. John, a recipient of the prestigious Alexander von Humboldt Foundation research fellowship in the 1960s wrote that it had been a tradition in Germany for students to study in as many universities as possible under different Scholars and deepen their understanding and inculcate a sense of scholarship; such has been the academic pursuit of Alfred James, that he had not only been a Scholar in north India studying under able Scholars, but studied in south India and gained profound knowledge and a flair for research from his Professors. On in his career, he could relate himself in national proceedings in matters of public administration where his contribution has been substantial. Alfred James was born in Narsapur, West Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh on 17 August 1931 and was raised a Christian as a member of the Lutheran community. After scholastic studies, he pursued sciences at Andhra University, where he graduated with a B. Sc. in 1951. Prof. M. Kistaiah, writing in the memorial volume to his honour, brings out the fact that Alfred James was for sometime employed in Ceylon.

He showed interest for pursuing higher University education and enrolled at the Nagpur University for a postgraduation in Public Administration under Professor M. P. Sharma, a notable academic. After passing through with an M. A. he seemed to have pursued a course in jurisprudence leading to LL. B.. Professor Alfred James began his doctoral studies at Osmania University where he submitted his dissertation entitled Municipal administration in Andhra Pradesh and was awarded a Ph. D. in the year 1966 Alfred James began teaching at his alma mater, Osmania University in the Department of Public Administration" where he was a Lecturer. He became a Reader He was active in the local academic forums. From 1972 to 1976, Alfred James was Head of the Post graduate Centre, Warangal, he became Head of the Department of Public Administration. During his tenure at the Kakatiya University, Prof. James was of the rank of Professor and guided many students in their doctoral studies. With the sudden death of Alfred James in the University on 3 May 1983, colleagues and students came together and instituted an annual Endowment in honour of P. A. James by which annual lectures are taking place at the Kakatiya University through public discourses by doyens of public administration, who are being invited to lecture.

During the 12th endowment, Prof. D. Ravindra Prasad of Administrative Staff College of India presented a paper entitled Our urban futures: Towards Good Governance and Sustainability; the said endowment lectures continue to benefit not only the new Scholars in their research, but to the emerging trends in public administration. A couple of years' after his death, colleagues of Alfred James, who once were his students, came again together and contributed essays to his memory, published in 1986 under the title, Public policy and administration: Essays in memory of Prof. P. A. James; this was reviewed in The Indian Journal of Political Science in 1986 and Yojana in 1987. The contributory volume has reached far and wide and available in nearly 50 major university library holdings across the globe. Prof. M. Kistaiah in the preface to Public policy and administration: Essays in memory of Prof. P. A. James, published in 1986, The Teacher and serious Researcher in him had left an indelible mark on the minds of his numerous students and associates.

A distinguished a thorough gentleman. Professor James had a perfect harmony in his life as a devout Christian of the Lutheran order. James, P. A. & Amrutha Rao, A.. "Chester I. Barnard". In Ravindra Prasad, D.. Administrative Thinkers. Sterling. Pp. 136–150. ISBN 9788120709614. James, P. A.. "Politics-Administration Nexus in India: A Note". In Kaushik, S. L. & Sahni, Pradeep. Public Administration in India: Emerging Trends. Kitab Mahal. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. James, P. A.. "Apartheid— Its Legal Framework and Political Impact". Twentyfifth Annual Report 1978-1979. Indian Institute of Public Administration. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. James, P. A.. "State control through supersession and dissolution". In Sharma, S. K. & Chawla, V. N.. Municipal Administration in India: Some reflections. International. Pp. 175–187. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-7. James, P. A.. "The councillors and the. Commissioners in Hyderabad: their roles and relations". Nagarl