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Albugo is a genus of plant-parasitic oomycetes. Those are not true fungi; the taxonomy of this genus is incomplete. Albugo is one of three genera described in the family Albuginaceae, the taxonomy of many species is still in flux; this organism causes white rust or white blister diseases in above-ground plant tissues. While these organisms affect many types of plants, the destructive aspect of infection is limited to a few agricultural crops, including: beets, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, collards, garden cress, lettuce, parsnip, horseradish, salsify, sweet potatoes, turnips and water-spinach. White rust plant diseases caused by Albugo fungal-like pathogens should not be confused with White Pine Blister Rust, Chrysanthemum white rust or any fungal rusts, all of which are plant diseases but have different symptoms and causal pathogens. Symptoms of white rust caused by Albugo include yellow lesions on the upper leaf surface and white pustules on the underside of the leaf; the pathogen is spread by wind and insects.

Management includes use of resistant cultivars, proper irrigation practices, crop rotation and chemical control. White rust is an important economic disease. White rust pathogens create chlorotic lesions and sometimes galls on the upper leaf surface and there are corresponding white blister-like dispersal pustules of sporangia on the underside of the leaf. Species of the Albuginaceae deform the branches and flower parts of many host species. Host species include most if not all plants in the family Brassicaceae, common agricultural weeds, those specified below. White rust is an obligate parasite; this means it needs a living host to reproduce. The Albuginaceae reproduce by producing both sexual spores and asexual spores in a many-stage disease cycle; the thick-walled oospores are the main overwintering structures, but the mycelium can survive in conditions where all the plant material is not destroyed during the winter. In the spring the oospores germinate and produce sporangia on short stalks called sporangiophores that become so packed within the leaf that they rupture the epidermis and are spread by the wind.

The liberated sporangia in turn can either germinate directly with a germ tube or begin to produce biflagellate motile zoospores. These zoospores swim in a film of water to a suitable site and each one produces a germ tube - like that of the sporangium - that penetrates the stoma; when the oomycete has invaded the host plant, it grows and continues to reproduce. Favorable conditions for the dispersal and consequent infection of white rust from diseased to healthy plants are most common in the autumn and spring seasons; this pathogen prefers moist conditions for the spread and formation of new infections. Conversely, it infects in warm, dry conditions. Albugo is temperature sensitive, with the optimal temperature range for infection between 55 to 77 °F; the likelihood of germination and infection is lower if temperatures deviate too far outside this optimum range. Light rain or irrigation lasting for extended periods of time is ideal for disease development. Leaf surfaces need to remain wet for at least 2 to 3 hours to ensure infection by the pathogen.

White rust ranges worldwide and is able to survive varying weather conditions due to its production of multiple spore types. Controlling white rust is difficult due to the nature of the'Albugo' pathogen; the method of control is tailored to specific crops and production systems. This is why identification of specific hosts is necessary to determine range and location of control methods. Albugo proliferates in wet and moist conditions so movement through infected fields should be limited after spore maturation in these conditions to limit spread. Minimizing irrigation in cool and moist seasons as well as eliminating windbreaks to allow faster leaf drying can be beneficial; when infection is recognized, systemically infected plant material should be removed and destroyed. Fields should be inspected every 7 -- 14 days to monitor spread. On root crops, infected leaf removal either by mowing or plowing prior to harvest will limit the spread of the pathogen during harvest. Any susceptible plants or weeds should be eliminated to reduce spread.

Both conventional and organic fungicides are available and could be used to limit spread and yield losses during the spring, early summer and fall on crops and susceptible neighboring plants. Each of the 17 specific races of the white rust pathogen affects different plants so monitoring is essential as much as possible to limit overuse and cost of fungicide treatments. Common OMRI fungicides include sulphur, copper oxide, rosemary oil, azadirachtin products. Common conventional fungicides include fosetyl-aluminum products. There are some resistant and resistant varieties which are necessary in landscapes where white rust is present. Long-term white rust persistence in fields is not an issue in all states; this pathogen can eliminate viable production of susceptible crops in specific fields indefinitely if infection

Ann Friedman

Ann Friedman is an American magazine editor, journalist and pie chart artist. She writes about gender and social issues, she sends out a weekly email newsletter. She was deputy editor for The American Prospect, executive editor at the Los Angeles-based GOOD magazine, a co-founder of the employee-driven, crowd-sourced spin-off Tomorrow magazine. Ann Friedman's hometown is Iowa, she began her journalism career there as an intern with the Telegraph Herald in 2001. She is an alumna of the University of Missouri, where she graduated from its School of Journalism in 2004. Friedman lived in New York City for over a year and made Los Angeles her permanent residence, she identifies herself in her work as a feminist. Friedman started off at the Mother Jones' copy desk, her online editing career began when she took the managing editor position for AlterNet and became an editor at Feministing. After taking a position with The American Prospect as web editor she was promoted to deputy editor from 2008 to 2010.

She wrote freelance before her next editing position. In March 2011, Friedman became the executive editor at GOOD magazine. After GOOD fired staff, she co-founded Tomorrow, her freelance writings have been published by Rolling Stone, The New Republic, Glamour, ELLE, Columbia Journalism Review. Her feminist writings and commentary about politics, popular culture, attitudes about men and women and gay rights, dating and sex have been referenced and quoted by other journalists and editorial writers. Friedman writes a politics column at, publishes pie-charts at The Hairpin, disperses RealTalk advice for journalists at the Columbia Journalism Review, contributes to The New Republic. She is a proponent of incorporating GIFs in journalism. Friedman was the founder of the Lady Journos’ Tumblr site, which curates the accomplishments and works by female journalists, speaks to issues of gender disparity in hiring and sexism in the workplace. Friedman, her colleague Aminatou Sow popularized the term "Shine Theory".

The term is in reference to the commitment to collaborating with each other instead of competing against each other. The term first appeared in Friedman's article for The Cut for in 2013. Friedman worked at The American Prospect until she quit in 2010 to pick up more freelance writing work; the Los Angeles-based GOOD magazine hired her as executive editor in March 2011. As the executive editor, Friedman focused on moving the GOOD brand over multiple platforms and bringing a youthful style to its content, but that vision conflicted with the management, she was subsequently fired along with most of the magazine's editors in June 2012. Friedman and her GOOD colleagues started a crowd-funded one-off magazine called Tomorrow; that project was backed via Kickstarter, raised $30,000 more than expected. Ann Friedman won the 2004 Hearst Award for personality/profile writing. Before that she had won the Telegraph Herald Scholastic Journalist Award. Friedman was among Columbia Journalism Review's "20 women to watch" in its July 2012 issue.

In 2013, Tomorrow magazine was nominated for an Utne Media Award. American Dreamers, by Nick Barham and Jake Dockter, The New Ethics of Journalism "What journalists need to know about animated GIFs — really",, August 8, 2012. Friedman co-hosts the podcast Call Your Girlfriend with tech entrepreneur Aminatou Sow; the podcast is described as a cultural phenomenon where the hosts discuss politics and pop culture, among other things. They started the podcast at the behest of their mutual friend Gina Delvac, who serves as the show's producer. Official website Lady Journos! Work Inspiration with Ann Friedman - Interview on

Om International School

Om International School is a school in Mardah, India. It was founded in 2005 with 8 teachers on its rolls. Om International School was started in 2005 with 200 students; the school functioned in a Own building in Mardah, Ghazipur. Om International School is affiliated to UP Board. Special annual days include Teacher's Day, Environment Week, Children's Day, Sports Day, Independence Day. Teacher's Day celebration is organised by students of class 10th; the campus has 3 acres, with all facilities to support student life. With a natural stream flowing through the campus, it has a serene, peaceful environment; the school has a well-stocked Learning Resource Centre as well as a Digital Resource Centre. Activities that students engage in include horticulture and craft, chess, creative writing and editorial, public speaking, quizzing and drama, dance and cooking. VIBRATIONS is an annual cultural festival at Om International School, it is an event which reeks out the hidden talents of students but not in technical aspect rather the arty part comes to the fore.

This event provides the student with an opportunity to break the shackles of the hectic subjects and the bundles of books and gives them a sense of vibration to show up their talents and inspires a gush of blood to come to the prow. Some of the events at vibrations include painting, dancing, rangoli making; these events aid the students to flaunt their talents apart from the technical talents they uphold. The aim of vibrations could be formulated according to a saying "some cause happiness wherever they go. Om International School-Official Website

Charles Bungay Fawcett

Charles Bungay Fawcett was a British geographer, regarded as "one of the founders of modern British academic geography" and an early promoter of the idea of regional planning. He was born into a farming family in Staindrop, County Durham, went to school in nearby Gainford, he studied science at University College and worked as a schoolteacher before joining the staff under A. J Herbertson at the then-new School of Geography at Oxford University, he was a lecturer at University College and Leeds University. In 1928, he was appointed Professor of Geography at University College London, where he remained until his retirement in 1949, he gained national attention for his essay Provinces of England, published in 1919, in which he developed the thinking of Patrick Geddes in suggesting a process of survey and development planning across large regions of England. He subdivided England into 12 "Provinces" – much larger than the county councils which at that time were the next level of government to the national level – and proposed that much regional planning should be carried out at a "provincial" level, crossing existing local authority boundaries.

He claimed that "there is nothing sacrosanct in the boundaries of the administrative sub-divisions of England", while recognising that regional boundaries should "pay regard to local patriotism and to tradition". In many ways, Fawcett's thinking foreshadowed much of the development planning system, applied in England in the second half of the twentieth century, initiatives towards regional government in England, his books included Frontiers, a Study in Political Geography and A Political Geography of the British Empire. Hugh Clout, "Fawcett, Charles Bungay", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2011. Accessed 18 November 2014

Statue of the Earl Mountbatten, London

A bronze statue of Admiral of the Fleet Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma is located on Mountbatten Green, off Horse Guards Road, London, England. The sculptor was Franta Belsky and the work was unveiled in 1983; the statue is 9 foot 5 inches high and depicts Lord Mountbatten in his admiral's uniform, displaying his honours including the Order of the Garter, holding binoculars in his right hand. Hidden in the left leg of the statue is a jam jar containing coins, press cuttings and details of the sculptor's commission; the inscription on the north side of the plinth gives Lord Mountbatten's retiring rank, title and year of birth and death. The inscription on the west side lists the positions of Chief of Combined Operations and Supreme Allied Commander in South East Asia he held during the Second World War. Calls for a memorial to Mountbatten began in the Letters pages of The Times in November 1979; the Queen, Elizabeth II, chose the location for the statue and the matter was considered by the government in 1982.

The £100,000 for the memorial was raised by public subscription. The statue was put in place in October 1983 and the area remained under heavy guard until the formal ceremony on 2 November; the Times reported that among the 1500 guests were "most of the British royal family and 13 crowned heads from Europe". In unveiling the statue, the Queen referred to Lord Mountbatten as "Uncle Dickie" and said: The vitality and force of his personality combined with an astonishing range of abilities, he could be far-sighted with enormous breadth of vision yet he could concentrate in the minutest detail of any problem. He was a perfectionist; this was followed by a dedication performed by the Bishop of London. Public access to the green where the statue stands was prohibited due to security concerns in 2001. Media related to Statue of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma at Wikimedia Commons