Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn. As a written language, it benefited from the fact that Béarn was an independent state from the mid-14th century to 1620. Béarnese was used in legal and administrative documents long after most other Gascon provinces were incorporated into France.. Béarnese is the most prominent variety of Gascon, it is used in the normativization attempts to reach a standard Gascon and is the most dialect to succeed, due to the stronger cultural identity and output of this area. A 1982 survey of the inhabitants of Béarn indicated that 51% of the population spoke Béarnese, 70% understood it, 85% were in favor of preserving the language. However, use of the language has declined over recent years as Béarnese is transmitted to younger generations within the family. There is a revival of focus on the language which has improved the situation, leading children to be taught the language in school; the majority of the cultural associations consider Gascon an Occitan dialect.
However, other authorities consider them to be distinct languages, including Jean Lafitte, publisher of Ligam-DiGam, a linguistic and lexicography review of Gascon. A detailed sociolinguistic study presenting the current status of the language has been made in 2004 by B. Moreux: the majority of native speakers have learned it orally, tend to be older. On the other hand, the proponents for its maintenance and revival are classified into three groups: Béarnists and Occitanists, terms which summarize the regional focus they give to their language of interest: Béarn, Gascony or Occitania. Concerning literature and poems, the first important book was a Béarnese translation of the Psalms of David by Arnaud de Salette, at the end of the 16th century, contemporary with the Gascon translation of these Psalms by Pey de Garros. Both translations were ordered by Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre and mother of Henry IV of France, to be used at Protestant churches. Henri IV was first Enric III de Navarra, the king of this independent Calvinist and Occitan-speaking state.
The Béarnese dialect was his native language that he used in letters to his subjects. During the 17th century, the Béarnese writer Jean-Henri Fondeville composed plays such as La Pastorala deu Paisan and his anti-Calvinist Eglògas. Cyprien Despourrins is one of the main 18th-century Béarnese poets. From the 19th century we can mention poet Xavier Navarrot and Alexis Peyret, who emigrated to Argentina for political reasons where he edited his Béarnese poetry. After the creation of the Felibrige, the Escole Gastoû Fèbus was created as the Béarnese part of Frédéric Mistral's and Joseph Roumanille's academy. Simin Palay, one of its most prominent members, published a dictionary. Anatole, Cristian - Lafont, Robert. Nouvelle histoire de la littérature occitane. París: P. U. F. 1970. Molyneux R-G. Grammar and Vocabulary of the language of Bearn. For Beginners. Pyremonde/PrinciNegue. ISBN 978-2-84618-095-5. Moreux, B.. Bearnais and Gascon today: language behavior and perception; the International Journal of the Sociology of Language,169:25-62.
The Ostau Bearnés
La Teste-de-Buch is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is located on the south shore of Arcachon Bay, it is the largest of four communes that comprise the Communauté d'agglomération du Bassin d'Arcachon Sud, a small metropolitan area of 54,204 population. It is the eighth-largest commune in metropolitan France in geographical area. La Teste-de-Buch is famous for the Dune du Pilat, the highest sand dune in Europe, it is the site of a fictional battle during the Napoleonic wars depicted in Sharpe's Siege by Bernard Cornwell. La Teste-de-Buch is located in the department of Gironde, in the middle of the Landes forest, south of Arcachon Bay, it is the capital of the Pays de Buch. Neighbouring communes are Gujan-Mestras to the east, Arcachon to the northwest, Biscarosse and Sanguinet to the south; the Dune of Pilat is a famous landmark on the Atlantic coast, situated in the western corner of the commune. The seaside resort of Pyla-sur-Mer, the village of Cazaux, the bird refuge and sandbank of Arguin are part of the town.
The Étang de Cazaux et de Sanguinet is in the southeast corner, astride the departments of Gironde and Landes. The rest of the commune area consists of old dunes, where the natural forest has changed little over centuries. During World War I, an airfield was created near Cazaux for airplane pilots training. Most of the American volunteers pilots of the Lafayette Escadrille came to the "Camp de Cazaux" to finish their training as war pilots; when the U. S entered the war, the 36th Aero Squadron was based here. La Teste-de-Buch is twinned with Binghamton, New York, United States, since 1987. Schwaigern, since 2004. Arcachon - La Teste-de-Buch Airport Pays de Buch Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Official website
Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age, inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica and Aquitania. Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC. Roman control of Gaul lasted for five centuries, until the last Roman rump state, the Domain of Soissons, fell to the Franks in AD 486.
While the Celtic Gauls had lost their original identities and language during Late Antiquity, becoming amalgamated into a Gallo-Roman culture, Gallia remained the conventional name of the territory throughout the Early Middle Ages, until it acquired a new identity as the Capetian Kingdom of France in the high medieval period. Gallia remains a name of France in modern modern Latin; the Greek and Latin names Galatia and Gallia are derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. The Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the "milk-white" skin of the Gauls. Modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, "capacity, power", thus meaning "powerful people"; the English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, despite superficial similarity. The name Gaul is derived from the Old Frankish *Walholant "Land of the Foreigners/Romans", in which *Walho- is reflex of Proto-Germanic *walhaz, "foreigner, Romanized person", an exonym applied by Germanic speakers to Celts and Latin-speaking people indiscriminately, making it cognate with the names Wales and Wallachia.
The Germanic w- is rendered as gu- / g- in French, the historic diphthong au is the regular outcome of al before a following consonant. French Gaule or Gaulle cannot be derived from Latin Gallia, since g would become j before a, the diphthong au would be unexplained. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived from the name of the Volcae. Unrelated, in spite of superficial similarity, is the name Gael; the Irish word gall did mean "a Gaul", i.e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to "foreigner", to describe the Vikings, still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, for instance in the 12th-century book Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib; as adjectives, English has the two variants: Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as "pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls", although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish. There is little written information concerning the peoples that inhabited the regions of Gaul, save what can be gleaned from coins.
Therefore, the early history of the Gauls is predominantly a work in archaeology and the relationships between their material culture, genetic relationships and linguistic divisions coincide. Before the rapid spread of the La Tène culture in the 5th to 4th centuries BC, the territory of eastern and southern France participated in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture out of which the early iron-working Hallstatt culture would develop. By 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. Out of this Hallstatt background, during the 7th and 6th century representing an early form of Continental Celtic culture, the La Tène culture arises under Mediterranean influence from the Greek and Etruscan civilizations, spread out in a number of early centers along the Seine, the Middle Rhine and the upper Elbe. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads across the entire territory of Gaul; the La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia and Hungary.
Farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. The major source of materials on the Celts of Gaul was Poseidonios of Apamea, whose writings were quoted by Timagenes, Julius Caesar, the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus, the Greek geographer Strabo. In the 4th and early 3rd century BC, Gallic clan confederations expanded far beyond the territory of what would become Roman Gaul, into Pannonia, northern Italy and Asia Minor. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans descr
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Battle of Vouillé
The Battle of Vouillé — was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé near Poitiers, in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II. Clovis' army was slowed by a rain-swollen Vienne river, yet his forces were able to engage the Visigoths south of Vouillé. With his missile troops stationed at the rear of his army, Clovis sent the rest of the army forward to fight hand-to-hand with the Visigoths. During the melée Clovis killed the Visigothic king Alaric, whereupon the Visigothic army broke and fled. After Clovis' success in this battle, the Byzantine emperor Anastasius made him an honorary consul and patrician; the battle forced the Visigoths to retreat to Septimania, which they continued to hold, while the success at Vouillé allowed the Franks to control the southwestern part of France and capture Toulouse. Alaric's illegitimate son Gesalec tried to organize a counterstrike at Narbonne, but he was deposed and killed when Narbonne was taken by Burgundian allies of the Franks.
Bernard S. Bachrach, Merovingian Military Organization, 481-751, University of Minnesota Press, 1972. Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation, ed. Michael Frassetto, ABC-CLIO, 2003. Eugen Ewig: Die Merowinger und das Frankenreich, Stuttgart u.a. 1993. Herwig Wolfram: Die Goten, München 2001
Aire-sur-l'Adour is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It lies on the river Adour in the wine area of southwest France, it is an episcopal see of the Diocese of Dax. The nearest large towns are Mont-de-Marsan to Pau to the south. Aire was the residence of the kings of the Visigoths. In 506, Alaric II drew up the Breviarium Alaricianum. Famed bullfighter Iván Fandiño died in Aire-sur-l'Adour after being gored by a bull on 17 June 2017. Aire Cathedral, built in the 11th century but renovated in the 14th and 17th centuries; the Gothic church of Sainte-Quitterie is dedicated to Saint Quiteria, according to Christian tradition, was beheaded here in the fifth century. This church was on the pilgrimage route called the Way of St. James. Florian Cazalot, rugby union player, born 1985 in Aire-sur-l'Adour Castro-Urdiales, Spain INSEE statistics History of CNES base devoted to launch stratospheric balloons Image of city's cathedral
Hasparren is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. A resident of Hasparren is known as a'Haspandar', its a commune fait partie of the Basque Province of Labourd. The Côte Basque, is 25km to the west. Hasparren is located on the route D 10, between La Bastide-Clairence and Cambo-les-Bains, at the crossroads with D 21, D 22 and D 23, it has got access to autoroute exit 4 near Briscous. The lands of the commune are rooted in the affluents of the Adour, the Ardanabia and the Aran Eight towns compose the Cummune of Hasparren: Labiri 43.38516°N 1.32767°W / 43.38516. It is attestested with various words: Hesperenne Santus Johannes de Ahesparren, Hesparren und Haesparren, Esparren Aezparren, Hesperren and Hesparrem, Hasparn and Haspar and Hazparne; the toponyme Hasparren derives from the ancient Ahaitz-barren > Ahaizparren, a composition of the Basque root ahaitz that indicates a height and barren - and not form "Haritz barne" as the local tradition says. The toponyme Elizaberri appears with the from Éliçaberria.
The toponyme Urcuray appears with the form Saint-Joseph d'Urcuraye. The toponyme Celhay appears with the from Célay; the current basque name is Hazparne. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE HAZPARNE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia