The Krivichs was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries. They migrated to the Finnic areas in the upper reaches of the Volga, Dniapro, Dźvina, areas south of the lower reaches of river Velikaya and parts of the Nioman basin. Many historians suggest that the name of the tribe stems from that of their legendary forefather Kriv a kniaz or a voivode. According to Max Vasmer, this sobriquet was derived from the Slavic adjective krivoy due to some possible birth defect. Jan Stankievič believed it was derived from the adjective "kroŭ", "kryvi", hence, "kryvič" would mean "blood relationship"; the Krivichs left many archaeological monuments, such as the remnants of agricultural settlements with traces of ironworks, jeweler's art, blacksmith's work and other handicrafts. By the end of the first millennium, the Krivichs had had well-developed farming and cattle-breeding. Having settled around the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, the Krivichs traded with the Varangians.
Their chief tribal centres were Gnezdovo and Polotsk. The Krivichs as a tribe took part in Oleg's and Igor's military campaigns against the Byzantine Empire, they are mentioned in De Administrando Imperio as Krivitzoi. Today, in Latvian, the word "Krievs" means Russian, the word "Krievija" – Russia. Through Baltic territories, the word became known in Central Europe. For example, a German chronicler from Duisburg wrote in 1314: “Frater Henricus Marschalcus... venit ad terram Crivitae, et civitatem illam, quae parva Nogardia dicitur cepit”. And in a Polish publication "Kazanie na Pogrzeb Maryanny Korsakywnej" the Polatsk saint Paraxedis was called “Regina Krivitae”. "Kryvich" was the name of a magazine that the Belarusian historian Vaclau Lastouski published in Kaunas from 1923 to 1927. KRIWI is the name of a Belarusian folk-rock band. Towns of Kreva and Kryvičy in modern Belarus are named after the tribe. List of Medieval Slavic tribes
The Mologa is a river in Maksatikhinsky, Bezhetsky and Sandovsky Districts of Tver Oblast, Pestovsky District in Novgorod Oblast, Ustyuzhensky and Cherepovetsky Districts in Vologda Oblast Russia. It is a left tributary of the Volga River; the lower course of the Mologa has been turned into the Rybinsk Reservoir. It is 456 kilometres long, the area of its basin 29,700 square kilometres; the principal tributaries of the Mologa are the Osen, the Volchina, the Kobozha, the Chagodoshcha and the Sit. The towns of Bezhetsk and Ustyuzhna, the urban-type settlement of Maksatikha are on the banks of the Mologa River. A historic town of Mologa used to stand at the confluence of the Mologa river with the Volga, but it was submerged under water as the Rybinsk Reservoir was filled between 1939 and 1947; the town of Vesyegonsk was previously on the banks of the Mologa, however, it was relocated when the Rybinsk Reservoir was filled, is on the banks of the reservoir. The source of the Mologa is in the southeastern part of Maksatikhinsky District, in the eastern outskirts of Valdai Hills.
The river flows east, enters Bezhetsky District, turns north, flows through the town of Bezhetsk, flows into Lake Verestovo. It flows out of the lake in the western direction, reenters Maksatikhinsky District, flows through the urban-type settlement of Maksatikha and turns north. A stretch of the Mologa forms the border between Lesnoy Districts; the river crosses over to Lesnoy District, crosses it, flows at the border between Lesnoy and Sandovsky District and crosses into Novgorod Oblast. Downstream of the town of Pestovo the Mologa enters Vologda Oblast. There, it flows through the town of Ustyuzhna, accepts from the left the Kobozha and the Chagodoshcha turns southeast and flows into the Rybinsk Reservoir; the river basin of the Mologa comprises vast areas in the north of Tver Oblast, in the east of Novgorod Oblast, in the southeast of Leningrad Oblast, as well as the southeast of Vologda Oblast. The lower course of the Mologa, downstream of the mouth of the Chagodoshcha, belongs to Tikhvinskaya water system, one of the waterways constructed in the early 19th century to connect the river basins of the Volga and the Neva.
It is not used for any commercial navigation. Until the 1990s, the Mologa was used for timber rafting; the timber collecting facilities were in Pestovo. The river freezes up in late October through early December and stays under the ice until April or early May. Река Молога. State Water Register of Russia. Retrieved 27 March 2014
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
The Lovat is a river in Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus, Usvyatsky and Loknyansky Districts, as well as of the city of Velikiye Luki, of Pskov Oblast and Kholmsky, Poddorsky and Parfinsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast in Russia. The source of the Lovat is Lake Lovatets in northeastern Belarus, the Lovat is a tributary of Lake Ilmen, its main tributaries are the Loknya, the Kunya, the Polist, the Redya, the Robya Rivers. The towns of Velikiye Luki and Kholm, as well as the urban-type settlement of Parfino, are located on the banks of the Lovat. From the source, the Lovat flows in the southeastern direction along the border between Russia and Belarus, the it turns north and enters Pskov Oblast of Russia, crossing the border as Lake Sesito. In this area, the Lowat flows through the lake district, passing, in Lake Vorokhobskoye. Downstrean of Velikiye Luki, in the selo of Podberezye, the Lovat turns northwest and enters Novgorod Oblast. Close to Lake Ilmen, the Lovat shares a river delta with the Pola and the Polist, though technically Polist is counted as a tributary of the Lovat.
The river basin of the Lovat comprises vast areas in the south of Novgorod and Pskov Oblasts, as well as some areas in Tver Oblast and Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus. The Lovat is listed in the State Water Register of Russia as navigable between Parfino and the mouth, there is no passenger navigation; until the 1990s, it was used for timber rafting. The Lovat served as a stretch of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, the most important trading route of medieval Rus. From Lake Ilmen, ships wen upstream the Lovat and the Kunya, before ending up in the Western Dvina and the Dnieper, from where they could reach Constantinople via the Black Sea. Media related to Lovat River at Wikimedia Commons Река Ловать. State Water Register of Russia. Retrieved 23 February 2012
Veliky Novgorod known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Saint Petersburg; the city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. Population: 218,717 . At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic and one of Europe's largest cities; the Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year. Novgorod is traditionally considered to be the cradle of Russian statehood. Archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, have found cultural layers dating back only to the late 10th century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was founded, suggesting that the chronicle entries mentioning Novgorod in the 850s or 860s are interpolations.
Archaeological dating is easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische. Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the Knyaz, dates from the mid-9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. Predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik, an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the Annales Bertiniani where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein, where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as chacanus.
In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod as a minor; when the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya and Ostromir. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they referred to in centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes, his son, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.
In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod; the Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post. In the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich; the year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said.
The city state controlled most of Europe's northeast, from lands east of today's Est
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages. The first written use of the name "Slavs" dates to the 6th century, when the Slavic tribes inhabited a large portion of Central and Eastern Europe. By that century, nomadic Iranian ethnic groups living on the Eurasian Steppe had been absorbed by the region's Slavic population. Over the next two centuries, the Slavs expanded southwest toward the Balkans and the Alps and northeast towards the Volga River. It's still a matter of controversy where the original habitat of the Slavs was, but scholars believe it was somewhere in Eastern Europe. In the past not much attention was paid to the origin of the Slavic people. Beginning in the 9th century, the Slavs converted to Christianity. By the 12th century, they were the core population of a number of medieval Christian states: East Slavs in the Kievan Rus', South Slavs in the Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Croatia, Banate of Bosnia and the Grand Principality of Serbia, West Slavs in the Great Moravia, the Kingdom of Poland, Duchy of Bohemia and Principality of Nitra.
Main articles: Vistula Veneti, Antes and Wends Ancient Roman and Greek historical sources refer to the early Slavic peoples as Veneti and Spori in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, in the 5th and 6th centuries as Antes and Sclaveni. The 6th century Byzantine historian Jordanes, wrote in his 551 AD work Getica: "although they derive from one nation, now they are known under three names, the Veneti and Sclaveni", in reference to the Slavs. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae had a single name in the remote past. During the Early Middle Ages starting in the 8th century, early Slavs living on the borders of the Carolingian Empire were referred to as Wends. Early Slavic archeological findings are most associated with the Przeworsk and Zarubintsy cultures, with evidence ranging from hill forts, ceramic pots, weapons and abodes. However, in many areas archaeologists face difficulties in distinguishing Slavic and non-Slavic findings, as the early Slavic culture over the subsequent centuries was influenced by the Sarmatian culture from the east, by the various Germanic cultures in the west.
The Proto-Slavic homeland is the area of Slavic settlement in Central and Eastern Europe during the first millennium AD, with its precise location debated by archaeologists and historians. Theories attempting to place Slavic origin in the Near East have been discarded. None of the proposed homelands reaches the Volga River in the east, over the Dinaric Alps in the southwest or the Balkan Mountains in the south, or past Bohemia in the west. Frederik Kortlandt has suggested that the number of candidates for Slavic homeland may rise from a tendency among historians to date "proto-languages farther back in time than is warranted by the linguistic evidence"; the existence of an "original home" is sometimes rejected as arbitrary, because the earliest origin sources "always speak of origins and beginnings in a manner which presupposes earlier origins and beginnings". According to historical records, the Slavic homeland would have been somewhere in central Europe along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.
The Prague-Penkova-Kolochin complex of cultures during the sixth and seventh centuries AD is accepted to reflect the expansion of Slavic speakers at the time. Core candidates are cultures within the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine. According to Polish historian Gerard Labuda, the ethnogenesis of Slavic people is the Trzciniec culture from about 1700 to 1200 BC; the Milograd culture hypothesis posits that the pre-Proto-Slavs originated in the seventh century BC–first century AD culture of northern Ukraine and southern Belarus. According to the Chernoles culture theory, the pre-Proto-Slavs originated in the 1025–700 BC culture of northern Ukraine and the third century BC–first century AD Zarubintsy culture. According to the Lusatian culture hypothesis, they were present in north-eastern Central Europe in the 1300–500 BC culture and the second century BC–fourth century AD Przeworsk culture; the Danube basin hypothesis, postulated by Oleg Trubachyov and supported by Florin Curta and Nestor's Chronicle, theorizes that the Slavs originated in central and southeastern Europe.
The latest attempt of locating the place of Slavic origin using genetics, after studying paternal lineages of all existing modern Slavic populations, placed the earliest known homeland of Slavs within the area of the middle Dnieper basin in nowadays Ukraine. Proto-Slavic began to evolve from Proto-Indo-European, the reconstructed language from which a number of languages spoken in Eurasia originated. Slavic languages share a number of features with Baltic languages, which may indicate a common Proto-Balto-Slavic phase in the development of the two of the Indo-European linguistic branches. Frederik Kortlandt places the territory of this common langua
Staraya Russa is a town in Novgorod Oblast, located on the Polist River, 99 kilometers south of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Its population has decreased over the past years, going from 41,538 recorded in the 1989 Census to 35,511 in the 2002 Census to 31,809 in the 2010 Census; the origin of the name of Staraya Russa is unclear. The most involved and widespread hypothesis was presented by philologists and linguists R. A. Akheyeva, V. L. Vasilyev, M. V. Gorbanevsky. According to this hypothesis, Russa comes from Rus'—a people of Slavic, Finno-Ugric and Varangian composition who settled in the vicinity to control trade routes leading from Novgorod to Polotsk and Kiev—which, in turn, is thought to originate from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times. Staraya is Russian for "Old". Thought to have originated in the mid-10th century, it was first mentioned as Rusa in chronicles for the year 1167 as one of three main towns of the Novgorod Republic, alongside Pskov and Ladoga.
After Pskov became independent, Russa became the second most important town and trade center of the Novgorod Republic after Novgorod itself. By the end of the 15th century, it contained about one thousand homesteads. Brine springs made the saltworks the principal business activity in the town, the biggest center of salt industry in the Novgorod region. Catherine II appointed German mineralogy expert Franz Ludwig von Cancrin as director of the salt-works in 1783; the wooden fortifications of Russa burned to ashes in 1190 and in 1194, after which they were replaced by the stone fortress. In 1478, it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow together with Novgorod; the word Staraya was prefixed to the name in the 15th century, to distinguish it from newer settlements called Russa. The current name established only in the 19th century, when the salt mining settlements around the town became collectively known as Novaya Russa; when Ivan the Terrible ascended the throne in 1533, Staraya Russa was a populous town.
During the Time of Troubles, it was held by Polish brigands and depopulated. Only thirty-eight people lived there in 1613. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Staraya Russa was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1776, Staraya Russa became the seat of Starorussky Uyezd of Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was transformed into Novgorod Governorate. In the 1820s, military settlements were organized in Staraya Russa and around, in accordance with the project designed by Aleksey Arakcheyev, an influential statesman, it was inconvenient to have both civil and military administration in Staraya Russa, therefore the uyezd was abolished in 1824. The town of Staraya Russa and some adjacent territories were directly subordinated to the Defense Ministry; the military settlements were proven inefficient, in particular, in 1831, the area participated in the Cholera Riots. They were abolished in 1856.
In 1857, Starorussky Uyezd was re-established. The Soviet authority in Staraya Russa was established on November 5, 1917. In August 1927, the uyezds were abolished and, effective October 1, 1927, Starorussky District was established, with the administrative center in Staraya Russa. Novgorod Governorate was abolished as well and the district became a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On September 19, 1939, Staraya Russa was elevated in status to that of a town of oblast significance and thus ceased to be a part of the district; the town was occupied by the Germans between August 9, 1941 and February 18, 1944. Destroyed during the war, it was restored. On July 5, 1944, Staraya Russa was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast and remained there since. On February 16, 1984, Staraya Russa was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Staraya Russa serves as the administrative center of Starorussky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated separately as the Town of oblast significance of Staraya Russa—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Staraya Russa is incorporated within Starorussky Municipal District as Staraya Russa Urban Settlement; the biggest enterprise in Staraya Russa is the aircraft repair. The mechanical engineering plant went bankrupt in 2011 and no longer exists. A railway which connects Bologoye and Pskov passes through Staraya Russa. Staraya Russa is connected by roads with Novgorod and Bezhanitsy via Kholm. There are local roads. There is a wharf on the Polist River in the Lake Ilmen basin; the Polist is navigable downstream from Staraya Russa. The town is served by the Staraya Russa Airport. Staraya Russa is a spa, celebrated for its mineral springs used for baths and inhalations. A summer residence of the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who wrote his novels The Brothers Karamazov and Demons there, is open to visitors as a museum.
Monuments include the Transfiguration Monastery, which includes a cathedral built in sevent