Bosanska Krajina, pronounced. The region is a historic and cultural entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, famous for its natural beauties and wildlife diversity; the largest city, its historical center is Banja Luka. Other cities include Bihać, Velika Kladuša, Sanski Most, Gradiška, Kozarska Dubica, Novi Grad, Bosanska Krupa, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Kotor Varoš, Šipovo, Mrkonjić Grad, Bosansko Grahovo, Gornji Vakuf, Donji Vakuf, Kneževo, Bužim, Laktaši, Čelinac. Bosanska Krajina is not a formal entity within the structure of Herzegovina; the territory of Bosanska Krajina is divided between two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the territory between the Una and Vrbas rivers was referred to by the name Turkish Croatia; the name was first used by Austrian military topographers who worked in the Austro-Ottoman border commission after the Treaty of Karlowitz of 1699. In the mid 19th century the name Turkish Croatia was replaced by cartographers in favor of Bosanska Krajina.
The largest city, its historical center is Banja Luka. Other cities include Bihać, Velika Kladuša, Sanski Most, Gradiška, Kozarska Dubica, Novi Grad, Bosanska Krupa, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Kotor Varoš, Šipovo, Mrkonjić Grad, Bosansko Grahovo, Kneževo, Bužim, Laktaši, Čelinac. Sub-regions include: Bihaćka krajina, Cazinska krajina, Lijevče, etc. In the 6th century, today's northwestern Bosnia was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia, it fell under the jurisdiction of the Eastern Roman Empire. Shortly thereafter, Eurasian Avars and their Slavic subjects from central-eastern Europe invaded Dalmatia and settled in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the 7th century the Serbs and Croats formed principalities under the Eastern Roman Empire, it is unclear whether the region was under the Principality of Serbia or Duchy of Croatia in the Early Middle Ages. Fine, Jr. believes that what is today western Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of Croatia, while the rest was divided between Croatia and Serbia.
Bosnia proper, called Bosona in the De Administrando Imperio, was a "small country" part of the Serbian principality. Although the borders of the Kingdom of Croatia are unknown, Fine, Jr. believes that it included western Bosnia. Croatia was unified with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102. In the 13th and 14th century, a region called Donji Kraji, located in today's southern Bosanska Krajina, was first mentioned as a property of the Diocese of Bosnia and claimed by the Kingdom of Bosnia. By the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire had expanded into the western Balkans in a series of wars, the Turkish westward incursions made this region an Ottoman borderland. Jajce had fallen to the Ottomans in 1463; the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493 ended the Kingdom of Croatia's persistent hold over the entire region, restricting them to fortified cities. In the late 15th century, a local Croatian lord Juraj Mikuličić erected a fort in the village of Bužim near Bihać, fearing the advancing Ottoman army. Mikuličić died in 1495, but the Bužim fort would not pass to Ottoman control until 1576.
After the crucial 1526 Battle of Mohács and the 1527 election in Cetin, Croatia became part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. The Ottoman Empire formally established the Eyalet of Bosnia in 1580; the Croatian lands in general were reduced to a fraction of what they encompassed, only the westernmost parts of today's Bosanska Krajina still resisted the Ottoman rule. The Ottoman armies preferred to advance towards their targets in the northwest through more passable terrain, such as along the river Danube, for example Vienna was first besieged in 1529 after the army had gone through Osijek, Mohács and Buda; the natural obstacles in and around the region at the time, included the rivers Sava, Vrbas and Sana, as well as the mountains such as Plješevica, Šator, Klekovača, Raduša, Grmeč, Kozara and Vlašić. Turkish incursions expanded further to the north, Charles of Styria erected a new fortified city of Karlovac in 1579. In 1580 the Turks responded by declaring the Pashaluk of Bosnia which unified all the Sanjaks, including territory in modern-day Croatia.
As a result of the wars and border changes, the Catholic Croat population moved north, was replaced with Orthodox Serbs and Vlachs. The Bužim fort, under Ottoman control since 1576, was held by the Ottomans in numerous battles and it was upgraded until their eventual surrender in the 19th century; the building remains to this day as a monument to the Ottoman conquest. Bihać held out longer than Bužim, at one point served as the capital of Croatia. But, in 1592 the Turkish army of about 20,000 under Hasan-pasa Predojević, an Ottoman vizier and forcefully occupied Bihać. Records show that nearly 2,000 people died in defense of Bihać, an estimated 800 Croat children from Bihać were sent into servitude in Turkey, to be educated in Islam and become Yenicari. Hasan-pasha Predojević pressed further north into Croatia, but was defeated in the June 1593
Kršlje is a village in Novi Grad, Republika Srpska and Herzegovina. There are about 600 people who depend on agriculture; the village consists of four smaller units and these are: Avramović, Osredak and Brda Bjeljčeva. There are two small rivers Velika Japra and Mala Japra, they merge to one river Japra; the largest stream, which belongs to village, is the stream Bukovica. Altitude of village is around 150–300 metres. Neighbor villages are: Čađavica, Mala Novska Rujiška, Ćele, Gornji Agići, Donji Agići, Hozići, Suhača; the distance between Kršlje and Novi Grad is around 25 km. In the middle of village there is an elementary school for children from first to fifth grade, it is a part of Elementary School "Branko Ćopić", located in Donji Agići. The students of older grades attend classes in this school or Elementary School "Sveti Sava" from Novi Grad, located in Mala Novska Rujiška. High schools are located in Novi Grad. There is the Orthodox Church of Cyril and Methodius 700 m from school. There is one store in the village: STR "Božo", one caffe bar: Caffe bar "Ivana".
There is small number of people from village. One of them is president of Serbian Radical Party of the Republika Srpska. Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. Census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
The Una is a river in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The river has a total length of 214.6 km and watershed area of 9,829 km2. Una river got its name from Romans; the Romans found its beauty so unique. Another interpretation of its name is that it's an Illyrian word derived from the Indo-European root *unt; the source of the Una is the Una spring known as Vrelo Une, is located on the north-eastern slopes of the Stražbenica mountain in Lika region, Croatia. After 4 km the river reaches Herzegovina at the confluence with the Krka River. From here the Una river forms a natural border between Croatia and Bosnia for the next 8.5 km until it reaches the rail bridge 1.5 km before the Bosnian town of Martin Brod. From the rail bridge Una enters Bosnia and flows for 21 km, before reaching the border between the two countries for the second time, 9 km downstream town of Kulen Vakuf. From here it forms the border for the next 20 km, all the way to another rail bridge between the villages of Malo Seoce and Užljebić.
Here Una enters Bosnia for the second time, near Ripač it winds more north-westwards, entering Bihać, turning north to Bosanska Krupa and Bosanska Otoka. After 85 km of flowing through Bosnia, the Una again marks the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia for the third and final time, near the villages of Dobretin and Javornik, it maintains that status for the rest of its course until confluence with the Sava. At this stage, the Una passes by the Bosnian towns of Novi Grad, Kozarska Dubica, Croatian towns of Dvor, Hrvatska Kostajnica, Hrvatska Dubica, it spills into the Sava River near small town of Jasenovac. The Una is a right tributary of the Sava river and the main tributaries are the Unac River, the Sana, the Klokot River and the Krušnica River; the hydrological parameters of Una are monitored in Croatia at Kostajnica. Over 170 types of medicinal herbs grow by the Una River. 28 kinds of fish live in this river and the biggest of, the huchen. There is an annual event held on the river, the "International Una Regatta", where people would go down the river in boats and kayaks from Kulen Vakuf, with excursion to Vrelo Une in Croatia, with the climax in Bihać.
The Regatta is a sort of celebration for the river itself, rather than a boat race. Una National Park was established 2006 around the Upper Una Unac River. It's Bosnia and Herzegovina's most established National Park, of only three existing in the country so far; the main purpose of the park is to protect unspoiled Una and Unac rivers. Protection zone of the National Park stretches on the western side from the source of the Krka River and its course to the confluence with the Una on the state border of Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia from where park border follows the Una and state border to the town of Martin Brod and confluence with the Unac. On the eastern side border of the park goes from the entrance of the Unac River into its canyon, few kilometers downstream from town of Drvar, follows the Unac and its canyon all the way to the confluence with the Una in town of Martin Brod. From there park border follows the Una on the right and state border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia on the left, until it reach a small town of Ripač, few kilometers upstream from town of Bihać.
The Una's stunning waterfalls and white water rapids highlight the park. The most famous waterfalls are those at Martin Brod, where the popular "International Una Regatta" kayaking competition begins, Štrbački Buk further downstream. Throughout the park, visitors can enjoy prime conditions for rafting, cycling and camping. Jumping from the city bridges in Bihać and Bosanska Krupa is popular. Una National Park is noted for its biodiversity, with 30 fish species, 130 bird species, other animals, including lynx, wolf and chamois. Area of the park has rich cultural-historic heritage and numerous archaeological sites, many dating from the prehistoric period. Among the historical treasures of the region are the Roman fort Milančeva Kula, Rmanj Monastery, many medieval fortresses like Oštrovica medieval fortress above Kulen Vakuf and the Ostrožac Castle, to name just a few. Proximity to Plješivica mountain virgin forest, which stretches between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, Croatia's Plitvice Lakes National Park makes Una National Park a top destination for visitors.
More all of the facts about these two National Parks, their proximity, natural and historical richness, brings out the possibility and makes viable idea of joint management and promotion Una Republic Green Visions article about Una Una springs in Lika region, Croatia
Sana is a river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is a tributary of the Una, it is the longest of the nine rivers that flow through Sanski Most, is 142 km long. It is not a navigable waterway; the name of the river derives from the Latin word sana, which means "healthy". The Sana originates from four springs gushing into a karst plateau of the Bosanska Krajina, near the villages of Pečka and Mrkonjić Grad, not far from the city of Šipovo. After a length of about 1.5 km, these streams meet to form the Sana, which pass near the town of Ključ in a south-north direction that the river maintains for many kilometers. The river combines with the waters of its main tributary, the Sanica River; the river passes through Sanski Most and combines with the river Zdena. The Sana goes through the city of Prijedor; the Sana directs its course to the west until Novi Grad where it flows into the Una river as a tributary. Between Prijedor and Novi Grad, the river serves as a natural border between the two towns of Potkozarje and Podgrmeč.
List of rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina This article incorporates text translated from the Serbian Wikipedia article Сана_, licensed under cc-by-sa
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an