Novial is a constructed international auxiliary language for universal communication between speakers of different native languages. It was devised by Otto Jespersen, a Danish linguist, involved in the Ido movement, in the development of Interlingua, its vocabulary is based on the Germanic and Romance languages and its grammar is influenced by English. Novial was introduced in Jespersen's book An International Language in 1928, it was updated in his dictionary Novial Lexike in 1930, further modifications were proposed in the 1930s, but the language became dormant with Jespersen's death in 1943. In the 1990s, with the revival of interest in constructed languages brought on by the Internet, some people rediscovered Novial. Novial was first described in Jespersen’s book An International Language. Part One of the book discusses the need for an IAL, the disadvantages of ethnic languages for that purpose, common objections to constructed IALs, he provides a critical overview of the history of constructed IALs with sections devoted to Volapük, Idiom Neutral, Latino sine flexione, Interlingue.
The author makes it clear that he draws on a wealth of earlier work on the problem of a constructed IAL, not only the aforementioned IALs. Part Two of An International Language describes Novial in detail. Alternative possible solutions for problems in the phonology, orthography and vocabulary are considered; the choices made are explained by comparison with ethnic languages and constructed IALs. The letter S occurring among vowels may sound /z/; the letter J may be pronounced /dʒ/. The digraph CH may be pronounced /ʃ/. Jespersen suggested that it might be possible instead of the digraphs CH and SH to use the phonetic symbol /ʃ/. In Novial and oblique pronouns are identical; the standard word order is subject-verb-object. Therefore, the object need not be marked to distinguish it from the subject: E.g.: me observa vu – "I observe you" vu observa me – "you observe me"The accusative is therefore most identical to the nominative. However, in case of an ambiguity problem, an optional accusative ending, -m, is available but is used.
The preposition em is equivalent to this ending. The personal possessive adjectives are formed from the pronouns by adding -n or after a consonant -en; this is in fact the genitive of the pronoun so men means both "my" and "mine": E.g.: "My dog" = Men Hunde "The dog is mine" = Li Hunde es menPossession may be expressed with the preposition de: de me, de vu, so on. Verb forms never change with number. Most verb tenses and voices are expressed with auxiliary verbs preceding the root form of the main verb; the auxiliaries follow the same word order as the English equivalent. The pronouns are given for example purposes. Present active participle: protektent – "protecting" Past passive participle: protektet – "protected"Novial distinguishes the passive of becoming and the passive of being. In English the forms are the same, using the auxiliary verb to be followed by the past participle. However, the passive of becoming is often expressed with the verb to get, used in the examples below; the passive voice of becoming is formed with the auxiliary bli followed by the root verb form.
The passive voice of being is formed with the auxiliary es followed by the past passive participle. The definite article is li, invariant, it is used as in English. There is no indefinite article; the plural noun is formed by adding –s to the singular. The accusative case is identical to the nominative but can optionally be marked with the ending -m with the plural being -sem or with the preposition em; the genitive is formed with the preposition de. Other cases are formed with prepositions. All adjectives end in -i, but this may be dropped if it is easy enough to pronounce and no confusion will be caused. Adjectives precede the noun qualified. Adjectives do not agree with the noun but may be given noun endings if there is no noun present to receive them. Comparative adjectives are formed by placing various particles in front of the adjective receiving the comparison; the superlative particles precede the adjective. The adjective does not receive an inflection to its ending. An adjective is converted to a corresponding adverb by adding -m after the -i ending of the adjective.
Comparative and superlative adverbs are formed in the same manner as comparative and superlative adjectives: by placing a specific particle before the adverb receiving the comparison. See the Table of Prefixes and Table of Suffixes at the Novial Wikibook. Jespersen was a professional linguist, unlike Esperanto's creator, he disliked the artificial character that he found in Esperanto and Ido. Additionally, he objected to those languages' inflectional systems, which he found needlessly complex, he sought to make Novial at once euphonious and regular while preserving useful structures from natural languages. In Novial: Syntax is a matter of word order, as in English and modern Scandinavian languages. There is no obligatory accusative marker as in Esperanto, but the accusative may optionally be marked with either an accusative ending or an accusative preposition. A genitive or possessive case is available as an alternative to the preposition de; this is based on Jespersen's observation that man
As of July 2017, the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists 455 critically endangered fish species, including 87 which are tagged as extinct. 3.0% of all evaluated fish species are listed as critically endangered. The IUCN lists four fish subspecies as critically endangered. Of the subpopulations of fishes evaluated by the IUCN, 20 species subpopulations and one subspecies subpopulation have been assessed as critically endangered. Additionally 3191 fish species are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status; as these species have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of critically endangered fish species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN.
Species considered extinct by the IUCN are marked as such. Species and subspecies which have critically endangered subpopulations are indicated. Includes sharks, rays and sawfish. Species Subpopulations There are 431 species, four subspecies, four subpopulations of species, one subpopulations of subspecies of ray-finned fish assessed as critically endangered. Acipenseriformes includes paddlefishes. There are 17 species and one subpopulation in the order Acipenseriformes assessed as critically endangered. Species Subpopulations White sturgeon Chinese paddlefish Species Subpopulations of species Sockeye salmon Subpopulations of subspecies Aral sea trout Species Subspecies Epiplatys fasciolatus josianae Ejagham killi Cypriniformes includes carps, minnows and relatives. There are 145 species, one subspecies, one subpopulation in the order Cypriniformes assessed as critically endangered. Species Subspecies Rhodeus ocellatus smithiiSubpopulations Common carp Psilorhynchus tenura June sucker Razorback sucker Includes freshwater smelts and allies.
There are 144 species, one subspecies, one subpopulation in the order Perciformes assessed as critically endangered. Species Subspecies Chromidotilapia guntheri loennbergii Species Subpopulations Atlantic wreckfish Lists of IUCN Red List critically endangered species List of least concern fishes List of near threatened fishes List of vulnerable fishes List of endangered fishes List of extinct fishes List of data deficient fishes Sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification
David Bugozi Musuguri is a Tanzanian soldier and retired military officer who served as Chief of the Tanzania People's Defence Force from 1980 until 1988. David Musuguri was born on 4 January 1920 in Tanganyika. In 1938, he underwent bhakisero, a traditional rite of passage for Zanaki males involving the filing of the top incisors into triangular shapes. In 1942, Musugiri enlisted beginning as a private, he served with the KAR in Madagascar. By 1947 he acted as an instructor at Kahawa Barracks in Nairobi, Kenya. While there he met future Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, a pupil of his. In 1957, the British administration introduced the rank of effendi into the KAR, awarded to high performing African non-commissioned officers and warrant officers. Musuguri was given the rank. In December 1961, Tanganyika became a sovereign state and several units of the KAR was transferred to the newly formed Tanganyika Rifles; the rank of effendi was shortly thereafter abandoned, and, by 1962, Musuguri had been promoted to lieutenant.
During the Tanganyika Rifles mutiny of January 1964, Musuguri was stationed in Tabora. Rebellious troops, attempting to remove and replace their British officers, declared him a major. Musuguri rose to the rank of brigadier. In 1979, he was promoted to major general and given command of the Tanzanian People's Defence Force's 20th Division, a force, assembled to invade Uganda following the outbreak of the Uganda–Tanzania War in 1978. During the war, he garnered the nom de guerre "General Mutukula", commanded his forces during the Battle of Simba Hills, Battles of Masaka, Lukaya. In 1980, Musuguri was appointed Chief of the TPDF. On 30 December, President Julius Nyerere promoted him to lieutenant general. On 7 February 1981, Ugandan President Milton Obote gave Musuguri two spears in honor of "his gallant action in the Battle of Lukaya". During his tenure, he was accused of encouraging ethnic favoritism in the armed forces, he was opposed to withdrawing Tanzanian troops from Uganda in 1981 on the grounds that the country had not yet built a reliable armed force, but Nyerere overruled him.
His retirement was announced on 31 August 1988. Following his retirement, Musuguri moved to Butiama. In 2002, he endorsed the creation of an East African federation between Tanzania and Kenya. In 2014, he was awarded the Order of the Union Third Class by President Jakaya Kikwete. On 4 January 2020, he celebrated his 100th birthday
Sex with Dr. Drew is a television show hosted by Loveline host Dr. Drew Pinsky, it ran for 10 episodes in all, is still featured on the Discovery Health channel. This episode discusses everything. Dr. Drew investigates a new sex-enhancing pharmaceutical for women, being developed at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Cameras follow a young couple to their private counseling session with sex expert Lou Paget to seek advice on improving their sex life. Dr. Drew reveals some common issues in relationships. Among the topics discussed are cheating, medical issues, bad bed manners. Dr. Drew introduces special guest, Dr. Lisa Masterson and gynecologist and author of How to Ruin Your Sex Life. Dr. Masterson gives viewers a lesson on the transformations and changes to a woman's body chemistry after having a baby and suggests solutions to rev up your sex life post-baby. Viewers ask Dr. Drew for help and advice concerning a range of topics such as how to improve their love life and other sexuality related concerns.
Dr. Drew discusses the many surgical procedures available relating to the sexual experience including " revirginization", penile enlargement, "vaginal rejuvenation". Guest star: Troy Hailparn Dr. Drew welcomes and interviews guests with a variety of sexual fears, he speaks to psychoanalyst and counselor Dr. Bethany Marshall, who provides tips to overcome these and other fears. Drew helps viewers face their fears and work through their sexual issues. Dr. Drew debunks or confirms a variety of sexual myths, with the help of guests Dr. Mehmet Oz and Dr. Lionel Tiger, they explore some misconceptions about sex and what's behind those beliefs, they reveal what the truth is. Dr. Drew examines how masturbation can help your sex life, debunks many myths about masturbation, he welcomes guests including Dr. John Sealy to discuss this "unmentionable" topic. Find out how to turn frustration into satisfaction by understanding the sexual differences between men and women; this one-hour episode explores the "Mars-Venus dilemma" and the different ways men and women approach sex.
Dr. Drew travels to Atlanta's Emory University to explain why different things turn on men and women, what happens in their brains during the arousal stage; this is the core information that many viewers are seeking, for everyone wants the reassurance that they are sexually "normal". Dr. Drew is not afraid to explore it all, thereby providing answers to the top questions on everyone's mind. Dr. Drew travels to Texas, to document the surgery that can restore a woman's sex life, he interviews urologist Dr. Carol Bennett to address awkward questions about real-life problems, including the best way to prevent premature ejaculation. Dr. Drew explores the factors that attract two people to each other, including pheromones and other scents. Sex with Dr. Drew on IMDb
Chengdu J-9 was a designation assigned to a Chinese interceptor aircraft that never progressed beyond initial studies. The J-9 project was abandoned in favour of the Shenyang J-8, a safer technological bet for the limited Chinese aviation industry of the 1960s and 1970s. In late 1964 two indigenous fighter programs were initiated to follow up the MiG-21; the twin-engine project using the MiG-21's R-11F-300 powerplants was the J-8. The J-9 project ran in parallel with the J-8 project, but used a new single-engine airframe, it adopted the canard layout. The designed target maximum speed was Mach 2.4 at above 20,000 metres of altitude. In order to achieve this target, the J-9 was fitted with an 8,500kgf -thrust turbojet engine and the 601 Institute used a tailless delta design. Development at this point shifted to the Chengdu Aircraft Factory. At the beginning of the 1970s, the 611 Institute proposed a new design using a canard ahead of the delta wing, but because it required new materials and know-how, it was not until 1975 that the design could be completed.
The new J-9 design had air intakes on the fuselage sides featuring variable inlet geometry to alter the compression mixture. It used a Chinese-designed Shenyang WS-6 turbofan engine with 12,400 kgf afterburning thrust, featured a Type 205 radar and four PL-4 radar-guided air-to-air missiles; the J-9 plan was discontinued in 1980, but the J-9 development enabled Chinese engineers to gain experience with the canard layout type, experience that would prove useful in the J-10 project. The J-9 was cancelled due to the inability to produce the specified WS-6 turbofan engine; the program was severely disrupted by the Cultural Revolution. The shifting and unrealistic speed and altitude targets placed by the People's Liberation Army Airforce frustrated the efforts of the J-9 design team. For example, PLAAF demanded the top speed increased to Mach 2.8 with a maximum altitude of 28,000 metres. Efforts by the designers to lobby for less ambitious speed and altitude requirements as well as to place greater emphasis on range and agility met heavy resistance.
The J-8 project was deemed more conventional and lower risk from the start and received funding priority. People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Air Force Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 18.24 m Wingspan: 14.37 m Height: 4.58 m Wing area: 55.7 m2 including canards Empty weight: 13,000 kg Gross weight: 17,000 kg Max takeoff weight: 21,500 kg Powerplant: 1 × Woshan WS-6 afterburning turbofan engine 122.5 kN afterburning thrustAlternatively the 81 kN dry / 122.61 kN wet Woshan WS-15 Performance Maximum speed: Mach 2.5 at 23,000 m Range: 2,000 km Rate of climb: 220 m/s Armament Guns: 2× 23 mm Type 23-III cannon Missiles: 4× PL-4A/B air-to-air missilesAvionics Type 205 radar Aircraft of comparable role and era Saab 37 Viggen Related lists List of fighter aircraft J-9 Fighter from Baidu Baike Interview - J-9 Chief Designer Wang Nanshou
Hisao Egawa is a Japanese voice actor from Tokyo who works for Aoni Production. Egawa is most known for the roles of Shin'ichi Maki in Slam Dunk, Geki Kuroiwa in Brave Command Dagwon, Geki Hyūma and Goldymarg in The King of Braves GaoGaiGar and Mugendramon in Digimon Adventure, Killer Bee in Naruto Shippuden, Falco Lombardi in the Star Fox series, Purple Haze in JoJo's Bizarre Adventure. 1992Dragon Ball Z Sailor Moon 1993Kenyū Densetsu Yaiba Ghost Sweeper Mikami Slam Dunk Sailor Moon R 1995Kuso Kagaku Sekai Gulliver Boy Romeo and the Black Brothers 1996Jigoku Sensei Nube Brave Command Dagwon 1997The Slayers Try Cooking Master Boy Chō Mashin Eiyūden Wataru Pokémon GaoGaiGar: King of the Braves Flame of Recca 1998Outlaw Star Trigun Master Keaton Yu-Gi-Oh! Record of Lodoss War: Chronicles of the Heroic Knight 1999Kindaichi Shounen no Jikenbo The Big O Turn A Gundam Digimon Adventure BuBu ChaCha Infinite Ryvius 2000Clockwork Fighters Hiwou's War Hajime no Ippo Boogiepop Phantom Mushrambo Detective Conan One Piece 2001Inuyasha Geisters: Fractions of the Earth Shaman King Zone of the Enders Daisuki!
BuBu ChaCha Noir Detective Conan 2002Overman King Gainer Mobile Suit Gundam Seed Ultimate Muscle The Twelve Kingdoms Tenshi na Konamaiki Heat Guy J Full Metal Panic! 2003Inuyasha Zatch Bell! Mermaid Forest Texhnolyze Bōken Yūki Pluster World Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo 2004Area 88 Kinnikuman Nisei - Ultimate Muscle Samurai Gun Samurai Champloo Naruto Burst Angel Phoenix Black Jack Bleach BECK: Mongolian Chop Squad Detective Conan Paranoia Agent Ragnarok The Animation 2005Aria the Animation The Law of Ueki GUNxSWORD Speed Grapher Xenosaga: The Animation Shinshaku Sengoku Eiyū Densetsu - Sanada Jū Yūshi The Animation Transformers: Cybertron Black Cat Brave King GaoGaiGar Final Grand Glorious Gathering Rockman. EXE Beast 2006Aria The Natural Gintama Kekkaishi Jyu-Oh-Sei Black Blood Brothers Black Lagoon Black Lagoon: The Second Barrage Detective Conan Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters GX Yume Tsukai 2007Kishin Taisen Gigantic Formula Gegege no Kitarō Kenichi: The Mightiest Disciple Neuro: Supernatural Detective Red Garden 2008Allison & Lillia Kaiba Mobile Suit Gundam 00 Second Season Hakaba Kitarō Antique Bakery Nabari no Ou Persona -trinity soul- 2009Golgo 13 Sōten Kōro 2010Dragon Ball Kai Naruto Shippūden Pocket Monsters: Best Wishes!
Beyblade: Metal Masters Rainbow - Nisha Rokubō no Shichinin Stitch! ~Best Friends Forever~ 2011Gintama Tamayura - Hitotose Toriko Phi-Brain - Puzzle of God Blade Beyblade: Metal Fury 2012Mobile Suit Gundam AGE Sket Dance Smile Precure! Muv-Luv Alternative: Total Eclipse High School DxD Phi-Brain - Puzzle of God: The Orpheus Order Btooom! Persona 4: The Animation One Piece Episode of Nami: Kōkaishi no Namida to Nakama no Kizuna 2013Saint Seiya Omega Hajime no Ippo Rising Hakkenden: Eight Dogs of the East Pocket Monsters: Best Wishes! Season 2: Decolora Adventure 2014Yona of the Dawn Rage of Bahamut: Genesis The World Is Still Beautiful Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers Dragon Ball Kai Hero Bank Persona 4 the Golden Animation Momokyun Sword The Last: Naruto the Movie 2015Ushio & Tora Dragon Ball Super 2016World Trigger Haikyu!! 2017Natsume's Book of Friends Six Kirakira PreCure a la Mode Kakegurui 2018GeGeGe no Kitarō 6th series Karakuri Circus 2019Fairy Gone 7 Seeds 2020Dorohedoro Dragon Ball Z: Super Android 13!