Jublains is a commune in the Mayenne department in north-western France. Jublains spelled Jubleins, is the site of ancient Noeodunum, the capital of the ancient Gallic tribe of the Diablintes occupied and settled by Romans and called Civitas Diablintum. Noeodunum, was the chief city of the Diablintes, or of the Aulircii Diaulitae, as the name appears in the Greek texts of Ptolemy. There is no doubt that the old Gallic name of the town was exchanged for that of the people, Diablintes - which Civitas Diablintum. In a middle age document, referred to by D'Anville, the town's name is written Jublent, hence comes the corrupted name Jublains. Jublains is a small place not far from Mayenne. A name "Nudionnum" occurs in the Theodosian Table between Araegenus and Subdinnum, it is marked as a capital town, it appears to be the Noeodunum of the Diablintes, hence Jublains. In an excavation in London a writing tablet was found with a note about a slave girl from Jublains, it read: ‘Vegetus, assistant slave of Montanus the slave of the August Emperor, has bought the girl Fortunata, by nationality a Diablintian, for 600 denarii.
She is warranted healthy and not liable to run away...’ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Galliou, P. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt. "Places: 69539". Pleiades. Retrieved December 7, 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Communes of the Mayenne department
The Diablintes or Diablintres or Diablindi or Aulerci Diaulitae were an ancient people of Gaul, a division of the Aulerci. Julius Caesar mentions the Diablintes among the allies of the Veneti and other Armoric states whom Caesar attacked; the Diablintes are mentioned between the Menapii. The territory of the Diablintes seems to have been small, it may have been included in that of the Cenomanni, or the former diocese of Mans; the true form of the name in Caesar is doubtful. Schneider, in his edition of the Gallic War, has adopted the form Diablintres, there is good manuscriptual authority for this; the Diablintes are the Diablindi. Their position can be calculated from Pliny's enumeration, Diablindi, Rhedones; the capital of the Diablintes, according to Ptolemy, was Noeodunum the Nudium of the Table. The Notitia of the Gallic provinces, which belongs to the commencement of the fifth century, mentions Civitas Diablintum among the cities of Lugdunensis Tertia. A document of the seventh century speaks of condita Diablintica as situated in Pago Cenomannico, thus one location of the Diablintes is clear.
This document helps explain why Ptolemy used the name Aulerci for both the Diablintes and Cenomanni. Another document of the seventh century speaks of oppidum Diablintes juxta ripam Araenae fiuvioli; the small town of Jublains, where Roman remains have been found, not far from the town of Mayenne to the southeast, is the site of the Civitas Diablintum and Noeodunum. A wooden tablet found in London records the sale of one Fortunata, a Diablintian slave girl; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is located some 25 kilometers north east of Geneva's city centre, since the 1970s it has become part of the Geneva metropolitan area, it is the seat of the district of Nyon. The town has a population of 20,533 and is famous in the sporting world for being the headquarters of the Union of European Football Associations and the European Club Association, it is connected to the rest of Switzerland by way of the Route Suisse, the A1 Motorway and the railways of the Arc Lémanique. Nyon derives from one of the names used by the Romans for Noviodunum or Noiodunum. Other names for the town of colonies placed there, are Colonia Iulia Equestris or Colonia Julia Equestris, Colonia Equestris Noiodunum, Civitas Equestrium, Civitas Equestrium Noiodunum. Nyon is first mentioned around 367-407 as civitas Equestrium id est Noiodunus. In 1236, it was mentioned in 1292 as Nyons. A few scattered neolithic items were discovered in the 19th century.
North of the city, some bronze rings and the ruins of a Bronze Age settlement were discovered. It was founded by the Romans between 50 and 44 BC under the name of Colonia Iulia Equestris or Colonia Equestris Noiodunum, the urban center of, called Noviodunum, it grew to be one of the most important Roman colonies in modern-day Switzerland, with a forum, a basilica and an amphitheater, discovered only in 1996, when digging for the construction of a new building. At Roman contact, the country round; the town's importance is reflected in its numerous mentions in ancient sources. The Antonine Itineraries place the town on the road from Geneva to Lacus Lausonius, it is first mentioned by Pliny, by Ptolemy, who assigns it to the Sequani. Pliny and Ptolemy name it Equestris. On some inscriptions it is called Civ. Equestrium, Col. Julia Equ. from which some have concluded that it was founded by Julius Caesar. In the Notitia it is called Civ. Equestrium Noiodunum; the district in which Nyon stands is called Pagus Equestricus in a document of the year 1011.
Noviodunum was part of a loose network of settlements that radiated out from Lugdunum and helped to control the Rhone Valley. It served, along with other Roman colonies in the area, to control the Helvetii who were settled in the area against their will after their defeat at the Battle of Bibracte in 58 BC. A rectangular grid pattern divided the area of the wall-less city. A monumental center, housing everything needed for the economic and social life of the colony, was established. Only portions of this first forum have been discovered. At its east end was a two-story basilica. Grid-like residential streets radiated out from the center. Under Tiberius, the forum was redesigned into a familiar pattern for the provinces; the sacred area was surrounded on three sides by colonnades, which were built on half-sunken Cryptoporticus. Two outbuildings, including most the seat of the Curia, flanked the building. A market building with a central courtyard around which were the sales rooms, the baths were renovated.
The forum witnessed further transformations the establishment of another large building. During the same building phase a large mosaic on the central part of the north portico was built; the amphitheater, discovered in 1996, was built in the early 2nd century AD. Its arena, flanked by two prisons and provided with sewers, is about 50 by 36 metres; the ruins of the theater, that should have been in the Colonia, have not been discovered. The residential quarters consisted of modest homes, in addition to some domi with beautiful gardens and pools; the buildings were made of wood and clay, but after the mid-1st century AD were built from masonry. Some villa suburbana stood in the west of the village, while the artisan and merchant quarter developed in the southwest. A 10 km long aqueduct which ran from the Divonne area to the colony, provided the water supply. Sewage canals, that followed the road networks, dumped sewage into the lake. After a long period of peace and prosperity, signs of crisis and general insecurity were increasing in the early 3rd century.
As a result of Alamanni invasions of 259 or 260 AD, the forum and the public buildings in the city were razed. The stone blocks were scattered all over the Lake Geneva region; the stones were re-used as building material in Geneva, where about 300 were used in the construction of the wall. But the settlement was not abandoned. Nyon-Noviodunum, which had lost much of its prestige and reputation was as a regional capital, now separated from Geneva. Geneva became the center and seat of the diocese which fought to administer the territory, part of the Colonia. During the Carolingian era, Nyon belonged to the county of Geneva. In a 926 charter, Rudolph II of Burgundy mentioned that this area was under a comes de pago Equestrico. During the Second Kingdom of Burgundy, Nyon became independent from Geneva. In 1032, Rudolf III granted Nyon to the Archbishop of Besançon; the bishop granted Nyon to the Lord of
Neung-sur-Beuvron is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France. Neung's historic location is situated between the Beuvron and the Tharonne. From the air, one can see the circular outline of the ancient Gallic and Roman oppidum. Neung-sur-Beuvron is thought to be the Roman town of Noviodunum Biturigum, in which Vercingetorix and Julius Caesar fought in 52 BC. A few modest Roman remains still survive. A surviving Roman road runs from Neung to La Ferté-Beauharnais, crossing the forest under the name of "les chemins bas". Joan of Arc passed through the village after the liberation of Orléans in 1429; this and the battle of 52 BC are commemorated by plaques on the village church. It is twinned with Williton, Somerset, in the UK and Wulften am Harz, Lower Saxony, Germany. Communes of the Loir-et-Cher department INSEE statistics
Pommiers is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. Communes of the Aisne department INSEE
The Celts are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial; the exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe, named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria, thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the La Tène period, this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles and the Low Countries, Bohemia and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula and northern Italy and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.
The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although they were being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century CE. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th-century recensions. By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity, they had a common linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain and other European territories, such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival; the first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to an ethnic group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC, when writing about a people living near Massilia. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube and in the far west of Europe; the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel'to hide', IE *kʲel'to heat' or *kel'to impel'. Several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks.
Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, suggests the meaning "the tall ones". In the 1st century BC, Julius Caesar reported that the people known to the Romans as Gauls called themselves Celts, which suggests that if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul; the geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the "race, now called both Gallic and Galatic," though he uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy during the early fifth century BC.
Its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning "power, strength", hence Old Irish gal "boldness, ferocity" and Welsh gallu "to be able, power". The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most have the same origin; the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or Celtae to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, which has led to some scholars preferring not to use the term for the Iron Age inhabitants of those islands. Celt is a modern English word, first attested in 1707, in the writing of Edward Lhuyd, whose work, along with that of other late 17th-century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of the early Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain; the English form Gaul (first recorded in the 17th cent
The Bituriges were a tribe of Celtic Gaul with its capital at Bourges, whose territory corresponds to the former province of Berry. Their name meant "kings of the world" or "kings/masters of hitting/forging/smithing". Early in the 1st century BCE, they had been one of the main Gallic tribes in terms of druids and their political influence, but they soon declined in power as the druids were an important target for Julius Caesar in his conquest of Gaul. What is more, the fact that Avaricum was the only Celtic city that Vercingetorix did not burn, contrary to his scorched earth strategy, upon the approach of Caesar's legions is another proof of the political importance of the Bituriges; the town was to be buried by the Roman legions. Besides Avaricum or Mediolanum on the road from Paris and Orléans to Arvernum, Argentomagus, Déols or Levroux on the road from Toulouse to Paris were other oppidums of the Bituriges; this is one of several tribes which seem to have split, with the Bituriges Cubi lived near Bourges/Berry and the Bituriges Vivisci near Burdigala.
They joined Bellovesus' migrations towards Italy, together with the Aedui, Arverni, Aulerci and Senones. A passage from Livy, "summa imperii penes Biturges", meaning "all the power in the hands of the Bituriges", has become the motto of the city of Bourges. List of peoples of Gaul Saint-Benoît-du-Sault