Slavo-Serbia was a territory of Imperial Russia between 1753-64. It was located by the right bank of the Donets River between the Bakhmutka Luhan rivers; this area today constitutes the territories of present-day Luhansk Oblast and Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. The administrative centre of Slavo-Serbia was Bakhmut. By the decree of the Senate of May 29, 1753, the free lands of this area were offered for settlement to Serbs, Bulgarians and other Balkan peoples of Orthodox Christian denomination to ensure frontier protection and development of this part of the steppes. Slavo-Serbia was directly governed by College of War; the settlers formed the Bakhmut hussar regiment in 1764. In 1764, Slavo-Serbia was transformed into the Donets uyezd of Yekaterinoslav Governorate. Commandants of Slavo-Serbia were Colonels Rajko Depreradović and Jovan Šević; these Serbian colonels led their soldiers in various Russian military campaigns. The province had ethnically diverse population that included Serbs and others.
In 1755, the population of Slavo-Serbia numbered 1,513 inhabitants. In 1756, in the regiment of Jovan Šević, there were 38% Serbs, 23% Vlachs, 22% others. In 1763, the population of Slavo-Serbia numbered 3,992 male inhabitants, of whom only 378 were Serbs. New Serbia Jovan Horvat Jovan Šević Jovan Albanez Mita Kostić. "Nova Srbija i Slavenosrbija". Novi Sad. Archived from the original on 2009-03-06. Pavel Rudjakov, Seoba Srba u Rusiju u 18. Veku, Beograd, 1995. Olga M. Posunjko, Istorija Nove Srbije i Slavenosrbije, Novi Sad, 2002
The Kherson Governorate or Government of Kherson was a guberniya, or administrative territorial unit, between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers, of the Russian Empire. It was one of three governorates created in 1802, it was known as the Nikolayev Governorate until 1803, when Kherson replaced Nikolayev as the governorate's capital. The economy of the governorate was based on agriculture. During the grain harvest, thousands of agricultural laborers from the parts of the Empire found work in the area; the industrial part of the economy, consisting of flour milling, metalworking industry, iron mining, beet-sugar processing, brick industry, was underdeveloped. The governorate bordered Bessarabia Governorate to the west, with Kiev and Poltava Governorates to the north, to the east could be found Yekaterinoslav Governorate, in the southward direction was located Taurida Governorate. From 1809, the governorate consisted of five uyezds: Kherson, Ovidiopol and Yelisavetgrad; the city of Odessa carried a special status.
In 1825, The Odessa uyezd was added into the territorial division of the Kherson Governorate. A seventh uyezd — Bobrynets, existed from 1828 to 1865; the cities of Odessa and Nikolayev and their surrounding vicinity were governed separately: Odessa by a gradonachalnik, answerable directly to the tsar and the governor-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia, Nikolayev by a military governor. In 1920, while being under Soviet Ukrainian rule, the governorate's territory, 70,600 km2, was divided to form the newer Odessa Governorate; the Kherson Governorate was renamed Mykolaiv Governorate in 1921, in 1922 - merged with the Odessa Governorate. In 1925, the Odessa Governorate was abolished, its territory was divided into six okruhas: Kherson, Kryvyi Rih, Odessa and Zinoviivske. In 1932, much of this territory was incorporated into the new Odessa Oblast, now an administrative division of the modern Ukrainian nation, divided to form the Mykolaiv Oblast. From the Russian Census of 1897Odessa – 403,815 Nikolayev – 92,012 Yelizavetgrad – 61,488 Kherson – 59,076 Tiraspol – 31,616 Ananyiv – 16,684 Voznesensk – 15,748 Bobrinets – 14,281 Aleksandriya – 14,007 Beryslav – 12,149 Dubossary – 12,089 Novogeorgiyevsk – 11,594 Ochakov – 10,786 Novomirgorod – 9,364 Grigoriopol – 7,605 Olviopol – 6,884 Ovidiopol – 5,187 Mayaki – 4,575 Until 1858, a third of the population was subject to martial law.
The gubernia had a population of about 245,000 in 1812. In the 1850s it consisted of Ukrainians, Russians, Germans, Poles and Gypsies. In 1914, Ukrainians composed only 53% of the population, while Russians made up 22% and Jews - 12%. Urban dwellers made up 10 to 20 percent of the population until the 1850s, after which the proportion of urban dwellers increased, to about 30% in 1897. Migration within the Russian Empire accounted for the area's population growth, with 46% of the population born outside of the governorate in 1897. Kherson Guberniya - Article in Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Kherson Guberniya - Historical coat of arms / Kherson gubernia - Article in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine From Kherson Governorate to Kherson Oblast. Kherson regional universal science library of Oles Honchar
Trenck's Pandurs were a light infantry unit of the Habsburg Monarchy, raised by Baron Franz von der Trenck under a charter issued by Maria Theresa of Austria in 1741. The unit was composed of volunteers from the Kingdom of Slavonia and Slavonian Military Frontier, named after security guards otherwise employed to maintain public order; the Pandurs were presented to the empress in May 1741—with the unit's military band—earning them a claim of pioneering martial music in Europe. The Pandurs had an overall oriental/Ottoman appearance; the original organization of the unit was retained until 1745. Trenck was relieved of command in 1746 and imprisoned in Spielberg Castle, where he died in 1749; the unit transformed into the 53rd Infantry Regiment, headquartered in Zagreb, until it was disbanded in 1919. The regiment's commemorative medals bear Trenck's image wearing Pandur attire; the Pandurs took part in the War of the Austrian Succession, including the First and Second Silesian War. They contributed to the capture or destruction of Zobten am Berge, Klaus Castle, Deggendorf, Diessenstein Castle, Cosel fortress and Munich.
During the Battle of Soor, the unit looted a Prussian war chest and the belongings of Frederick the Great. They took part in the Battle of Waterloo. In the Wellington museum in Waterloo, their motto Vivat Pandur can be read, on a sword found on the battlefield; the Pandurs earned a reputation as brave, audacious and ruthless soldiers, known for looting and pillaging. They were prone to breaches of military discipline and stubbornness; the city of Waldmünchen, located near Cham, celebrates the Pandurs and Trenck as the city's saviors for sparing the city from destruction in 1742. The Pandurs' and Trenck's heritage is preserved in the city of Požega, where an eponymous living history troop and city music band exist; the term pandur made its way into military use via the Hungarian language—being used in Hungarian as a loanword, in turn originating from the Croatian term pudar, though the nasal in place of the "u" suggests a borrowing before Croatian innovated its own reflex for Proto-Slavic /ɔ̃/.
"Pudar" is still applied to security guards protecting crops in vineyards and fields, it was coined from the verb puditi meaning to chase or scare away. The meaning of the Hungarian loanword was expanded to guards in general, including law enforcement officers; the word was ultimately derived from medieval Latin banderius or bannerius, meaning either a guardian of fields or summoner, or follower of a banner. By the middle of the 18th century, law enforcement in the counties of Croatia included county pandurs or hussars who patrolled roads and pursued criminals. In 1740, the term was applied to frontier guard duty infantry deployed in the Croatian Military Frontier its Karlovac and Varaždin Generalcies; the role of the pandurs as security guards was extended to Dalmatia after the establishment of Austrian rule there in the early 19th century. The term has dropped from official use for law enforcement officials, but it is still used colloquially in Croatia and the Western Balkans in a manner akin to the English word cop.
The unit raised and led by Trenck is referred to more as Trenck's Pandurs, less in Croatia than elsewhere, as Croatian Pandurs. The Pandurs were a skirmisher unit of the Habsburg Monarchy, raised by Baron Franz von der Trenck following a charter issued by Maria Theresa of Austria on 27 February 1741, permitting Trenck to raise a 1,000-strong troop; the unit was composed of men enlisted as volunteers from areas of the Kingdom of Slavonia and Slavonian Military Frontier, consisting of ethnic Croats and Serbs. The Pandurs saw military action in Silesia, Bohemia and France; the Pandurs arrived in Vienna for a military parade for the empress on 27 May 1741. The unit was headed by Trenck and included two captains, a senior lieutenant, five lieutenants, a quartermaster, an adjutant, two chaplains, two medics, 40 sergeants, five scribes, 80 corporals and twelve musicians equipped with flutes, a drum and cymbals; the musicians were called the Turkish band, after Ottoman military bands, are considered pioneers of martial music in Europe according to Jurica Miletić.
The Pandurs did not have specific uniforms—their clothes varied but were of Turkish style. Their oriental appearance was compounded by mandatory head shaving, leaving a rattail, as well as by the use of a horse tail bunchuk instead of a unit banner; each Pandur carried a fighting knife and a small knife. The Pandurs took part including the First Silesian War, they took part in capturing Zobten am Berge and Strehlen in Lower Silesia from the Prussians, defending a bridgehead near Vienna after the Battle of Mollwitz. In 1742, the Pandurs took part in capture of Klaus Castle in Styria as well as Linz and Deggendorf, where they defeated French troops before taking part in Austrian recapture of Munich. By the end of that year, the Pandurs had captured Diessenstein Castle and Cham from Bavarian defenders destroying Cham to secure access for Habsburg troops led by Ludwig Andreas von Khevenhüller to Bohemia. In 1743, the Pandurs led by Trenck captured Cosel fortress. In 1745, during the Second Silesian War, the Pandurs took part in the Battle of Soor, where they looted a Prussian war chest containing 80,000 ducats, as well as weapons, horses and a tent belonging to Frederick the Great.
The Pandurs earned a reputation for being brave and audacious, as well as feared and ruthless soldier
Kropyvnytskyi is a city in central Ukraine on the Inhul river, is the administrative center of the Kirovohrad Oblast. Population: 232 052 . Between 1939 and 2016 it was called Kirovohrad after the First Secretary of the Leningrad City Committee of the All-Union Communist Party Sergei Kirov. Earlier names included Zinovyevsk; the city is the birthplace of noted figures such as Grigory Zinoviev, Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Arseny Tarkovsky, African Spir and others. Over its history, Kropyvnytskyi has changed its name several times. Presenting a letter of grant on January 11, 1752 to Major-General Jovan Horvat, the organizer of Nova Serbia settlements, the Empress Elizabeth of Russia ordered "to found an earthen fortress and name it Fort St. Elizabeth", thus the future city was named in honour of its formal founder, the Russian empress, in honor of her heavenly patroness, St. Elizabeth; the name Yelisavetgrad is believed to have evolved as the amalgamation of the fortress name and the common Eastern Slavonic element "-grad".
Its first documented usage dates back to 1764, when Yelisavetgrad Province was organized together with the Yelisavetgrad Lancer Regiment. Following the Russian Revolution and founding of the Soviet Union, in 1924 the city was renamed Zinovievsk, after Grigory Zinoviev, a Soviet statesman and one of the leaders of the Russian Communist Party, he was born in Yelisavetgrad on September 20, 1883. At the time he was honored by the name, he was a member of the Politburo and the Chairman of the Comintern's Executive Committee. On December 27, 1934, after the assassination of Sergei Kirov and other Soviet cities was renamed again - this time as Kirovo, as Kirovograd; the latter name appeared with the creation of Kirovograd Oblast, on January 10, 1939 and was aimed at differentiating the region from Kirov Oblast in present-day Russia. After Ukraine regained independence, the name of the city started to be spelled according to Ukrainian pronunciation as Kirovohrad; the previous Russified orthography remains used on account of the widespread use of the Russian language in the region.
Since 1991 numerous discussions had been held on the city's name. A number of activists supported returning the city to Yelisavetgrad. Other suggestions for contemporary Ukraine included Tobilevychi; the President of Ukraine, Petro Poroshenko, signed the bill banning Communist symbols on May 15, 2015, which required places associated with communism to be renamed within a six-month period. On 25 October 2015 76.6% of the Kirovohrad voters voted for renaming the city to Yelisavetgrad. A draft law before the Ukrainian parliament would prohibit any names associated with Russian history since the 14th century, which would make the name Yelisavetgrad inadmissible as well. A committee of the Verkhovna Rada chose the name Inhulsk on 23 December 2015; this name is a reference to the nearby Inhul river. On 31 March 2016 the State Construction, Regional Policy and Local Self-Government committee of the Verkhovna Rada recommended to parliament to rename Kirovohrad to Kropyvnytskyi; this name is a reference to writer and playwright Marko Kropyvnytskyi, born near the city.
On 14 July 2016, the name of the city was changed to Kropyvnytskyi. Developed around a military settlement, the city rose to prominence in the 19th century when it became an important trade centre, as well as a Ukrainian cultural leader with the first professional theatrical company in either Central or Eastern Ukraine being established here in 1882; the history of the city beginnings dates back to the year 1754 when St. Elizabeth's fortress was built on the lands of former Zaporizka Sich in the upper course of the Inhul and Biyanka Rivers; the historic name of the city Yelysavethrad was changed to Zinovyevsk in 1924, to Kirovo in 1934. The city was renamed Kirovohrad on 10 January 1939; the history of Kropyvnytskyi starts from the Fort of St. Elizabeth; this fort was built in 1754 by the will of the empress Elizabeth of Russia and it played a pivotal role in the new lands added to Russia by the Belgrad Peace Treaty of 1739. In 1764 the settlement received status of the center of the Elizabeth province, in 1784 the status of chief town of a district, when it was renamed after the fort as Yelizavetgrad.
The Fort of St. Elizabeth was on a crossroads of trade routes, it became a major trade center; the city has held regular fairs four times a year. Merchants from all over the Russian Empire have visited these fairs. There were numerous foreign merchants from Greece. Elizabethgrad was located in the Pale of Settlement and, during the 19th
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in
Katorga was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia and Russian Far East where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers; the prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions. Katorga, a category of punishment within the judicial system of the Russian Empire, had many of the features associated with labor-camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities, forced labor involving hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work. Katorga camps were established in the 17th century in underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East - regions that had few towns or food sources. Despite the isolated conditions, a few prisoners escaped to populated areas. From these times, Siberia gained its fearful connotation of punishment, further enhanced by the Soviet gulag system. After the change in Russian penal law in 1847, exile and katorga became common punishment for participants in national uprisings within the Russian Empire.
This led to increasing numbers of Poles sent to Siberia for katorga. These people have become known in Poland as Sybiraks; some of them remained there. The most common occupations in katorga camps were timber work. A notable example involved the construction of the Amur Cart Road, praised as a success in the organisation of penal labor. In 1891 Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and playwright, visited the katorga settlements on Sakhalin island in the Russian Far East and wrote about the conditions there in his book Sakhalin Island, he criticized the short-sightedness and incompetence of the officials in charge that led to poor living-standards, waste of government funds, decreased productivity. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his book about the Soviet-era labor camps, Gulag Archipelago, quoted Chekhov extensively to illustrate the enormous deterioration of living conditions for inmates and the huge increase in the number of people sent there in the Soviet era, compared to the katorga system of Chekhov's time.
Peter Kropotkin, while aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia in the 1860s, was appointed to inspect the state of the prison system in the area. Nerchinsk katorga Akatuy katorga Algacha katorga Kara katorga Maltsev katorga Zerentuy katorga Sakhalin katorga Joseph Stalin escaped twice, in 1902 and 1908, before being confined in a katorga on the Yenisei River 1913–1917 being released at the time of the February Revolution Aleksandr Nikolayevich Radishchev and social critic arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great Author Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from 1849 until 1854, for revolutionary activity against Tsar Nicholas I. Nikolai Chernyshevsky, from 1864 until 1872 for Narodnist revolutionary activity. David Riazanov, a narodnik at the time and latter founder of the Marx-Engels Institute Revolutionary Vera Figner, a well-known political activist. Decembrists: initial verdict was 16 persons for termless katorga, 5 persons for 10 years, 15 persons for 6 years. After the trial, Tsar Nicholas I reduced the sentences, subsequent amnesties further shortened the terms.
Prince Sergey Volkonsky, sought liberal reforms, spent 30 years as a political exile in Siberia. Fanny Kaplan, a Russian political revolutionary and attempted assassin of Vladimir Lenin. Sukhomlinov, a Russian former Minister of War, for abuse of power. Andrei Sinyavsky, a dissident author tried in the 1960s with Yuli Daniel Cheka founder Felix Dzerzhinsky, imprisoned twice, in 1897 and 1900, for revolutionary activity. Aleksander Czekanowski Jan Czerski Benedykt Dybowski Bronisław Piłsudski Józef Piłsudski 1887–92 Piotr Wysocki Barbara Skarga 1944–54 Poet and artist Taras Shevchenko, from 1847 until 1857, for revolutionary activity against Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. Lead Soviet rocket engineer during the space race, Sergei Korolev. From 1938 to 1944. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Russian penal system was taken over by the Bolsheviks, who transformed the katorga into the Gulag labor camps. In 1943 the "katorga labor" as a special, severe type of punishment was reintroduced, it was intended for Nazi collaborators, but other categories of political prisoners were sentenced to "katorga labor".
Prisoners sentenced to "katorga labor" were sent to gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime, many of them died. Gulag Penal transportation P. Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey. Daly, Jonathan W. Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866–1905. P. Kropotkin: In Russian and French Prisons