Kazan Metro is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Kazan, Russia. The metro system was the seventh opened in Russia, the fifteenth in the former Soviet Union region. Opened on August 27, 2005, it is the newest system in Russia. Kazan is a cultural centre on the middle Volga; the first plans to have a rapid-transit system were proposed back in the days of the Russian Empire, but after the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War little was left for the design. In the 1930s, being the capital of the Tatar ASSR—one of the most visible autonomous republics and growing as an industrial centre—prompted some to propose a rapid transit system for the future after the successful construction of Moscow Metro in 1935. However, World War II ended such attempts, in the post-war USSR only the largest capitals of Union republics could afford a Metro system. In 1979 the Kazan city's population passed the one million mark: a Soviet requirement for a Metro to be allowed. 1983 was the year. The original design was to prove the final, as the City of Kazan followed a typical Soviet model with a historical centre on the inflow of the Kazanka River into the Volga, the various industrial and "bedroom" districts on the edges.
The first line would follow a north-south axis beginning in the Transit Railway Station in the north, passing through the post-war Stalinist buildings and down south of the Kazanka, next to the Kazan Kremlin and through the historical centre to the microdistrict of Gorki. The first geological survey began in 1984, by 1989 the construction of the first stage was drawn up and submitted for final authorisation to begin construction, it was not to be. In 1991, the Soviet Union broke up and the economic, as well as political turmoil that rocked Tatarstan and Russia, caused the Kazan Metro project to be axed. Luckily for Kazan, throughout the 1990s, the status of it being the most visible autonomous capital reinforced its position; the most prominent deadline was the city's millennium anniversary in 2005. After securing financing and training, the first stone was laid on August 27, 1997; the first stage of six stations features deep-level tunnels all built by tunnel boring machines, the stations are either sub-surface or elevated.
Little of the original Soviet station plans remain in the architecture of the stations, with the emphasis being on traditional Tatar and Islamic motifs as part of modern high-tech designs. The first shield arrived in Kazan at the end of 1999 and was launched in May 2000; the pace was slow and the financial problems were about to prevent the construction to be completed on time. In a desperate attempt, in late 2003 the Russian Ministry of Transport ordered metro brigades from Samara and Moscow to assist and the first stage was made one station shorter, leaving the difficult path under the Kazanka River to open at a time. Another contribution was made by the Almaty Metro construction brigade from Kazakhstan. Thus, by the late 2004, a total of eight tunnel boring mechanisms were in operation. Overall, a total of thirteen individual tunnels had to be bored. Despite a rocky start, Kazan Metro was opened on August 27, 2005, by the President of Russia Vladimir Putin, the President of Tatarstan Mintimer Shaymiyev, the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, as well as the mayor of Kazan and the heads of all existing Russian Metros.
The extension to Prospekt Pobedy opened on December 29, 2008, as the first extension south of Gorki station in the second stage. In 2010 the Metro extended with the opening of the Kozya Sloboda station; the Kazan metro opened a three-station northern extension on May 9, 2013. At present, the Kazan Metro is a single-line system that stretches nearly sixteen kilometres and has ten stations; the newest of the Russian systems, it is the most modern. Smart-card ticketing and semi-automated train drive are features that at the time were just being introduced in selected Moscow stations; the system is operated by the municipality company MetroElektroTrans. Like all Metros in Russia and the former USSR, each station has its own architectural theme. At present two stations are single-vault, two are pillar-spans. In addition, one station exists on a combined glazed flyover; the metro runs from 6:00 to 23:00. The metro sells smart-tokens valid for one day and smart cards which are valid for several trips or a specified length of time.
There are discounted fares for pensioners and children. Security is a major issue in the Kazan Metro. Like all modern systems, it is outfitted with CCTV cameras; each station has its own police group for public order. Professional photography is prohibited. All information and announcements are given in three languages — Russian and English. Only the 81-553.3/554.3 «Kazan» model was maintained in Kazan metro since 2005. Trains were produced by Saint Petersburg-based Vagonmash factory in cooperation with Škoda Dopravní Technika of Plzeň, Czech Republic in 2005; these are the most modern models in service in Russia and the former Soviet Union and they are automated. As a result, they do not require a driver on board, just a supervisor. A total of 16 cars are in operation with a capacity of ~250 people each. In 2011 new 3-car 81-740/741 «Rusich» trains vere bought for opening of new Kozia sloboda station. A total of 27 cars are in operation with a capacity of ~350 p
Novosibirsk Metro Bridge
Novosibirsk Metro Bridge is a metro bridge over the Ob River in Novosibirsk, Russia. It connects the stations Studencheskaya and Rechnoy Vokzal of the Leninskaya Line of the Novosibirsk Metro; the longest covered metro bridge in the world. Novosibirsk Metro Bridge was opened on 7 January 1986. Adventures awaiting tourists in Novosibirsk. Russia Beyond. History of Novosibirsk Metro. Metroworld. Рекордные достопримечательности Новосибирска. РИА Новости. Новосибирский метрополитен: год хороших новостей. Рамблер
The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov and Kotelniki. Opened in 1935 with one 11-kilometre line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union; as of 2018, the Moscow Metro excluding the Moscow Central Circle and Moscow Monorail has 224 stations and its route length is 381 km, making it the fifth longest in the world. The system is underground, with the deepest section 84 metres underground at the Park Pobedy station, one of the world's deepest. It's the busiest metro system in Europe, a tourist attraction in itself; the Moscow Metro, a state-owned enterprise, is 381 km long and consists of twelve lines and 223 stations organized in a spoke-hub distribution paradigm, with the majority of rail lines running radially from the centre of Moscow to the outlying areas. The Koltsevaya Line forms a 20-kilometre long circle which enables passenger travel between these diameters, the new Moscow Central Circle forms a 54-kilometre longer circle that serves a similar purpose on middle periphery.
Most stations and lines are underground. The Moscow Metro uses the Russian gauge of 1,520 millimetres, like other Russian railways, an underrunning third rail with a supply of 825 V DC, except line 13 and 14; the average distance between stations is 1.7 kilometres. Long distances between stations have the positive effect of a high cruising speed of 41.7 kilometres per hour. The Moscow Metro opens at 05:25 and closes at 01:00; the precise opening time varies at different stations according to the arrival of the first train, but all stations close their entrances at 01:00 for maintenance, so do transfer corridors. The minimum interval between trains is 90 seconds during the evening rush hours; as of 2017 the system had an average daily ridership of 6.99 million passengers. Peak daily ridership of 9.71 million was recorded on 26 December 2014. Free Wi-Fi has been available on all lines of the Moscow Metro since 1 December 2014; the network was launched by MaximaTelecom. Of the metro's 224 stations, 88 are deep underground, 123 are shallow, 12 are surface and five are elevated.
The deep stations comprise 55 triple-vaulted pylon stations, 19 triple-vaulted column stations, one single-vault station. The shallow stations comprise 79 spanned column stations, 33 single-vaulted stations, three single-spanned stations. In addition, there are 12 ground-level stations, four elevated stations, one station on a bridge. Two stations have three tracks, one has double halls. Seven of the stations have side platforms. In addition, there were two temporary stations within rail yards. One station is reserved for future service; the stations being constructed under Stalin's regime, in the style of socialist classicism, were meant as underground palaces of the people. Stations such as Komsomolskaya, Kiyevskaya or Mayakovskaya and others built after 1935 in the second phase of the evolution of the network are tourist landmarks, their photogenic architecture, large chandeliers and detailed decoration unusual for an urban transport system; each line is identified by an alphanumeric index and a colour.
The colour assigned to each line for display on maps and signs is its colloquial identifier, except for the nondescript greens and blues assigned to the Kakhovskaya, the Zamoskvoretskaya, the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya, Butovskaya lines. The upcoming station is announced by a male voice on inbound trains to the city center and by a female voice on outbound trains; the metro has a connection to the Moscow Monorail, a 4.7-kilometre, six-station monorail line between Timiryazevskaya and VDNKh which opened in January 2008. Prior to the official opening, the monorail had operated in "excursion mode" since 2004. Sokolnicheskaya line was named Kirovsko-Fruzenskaya Zamoskvoretskaya line was named Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya. Filyovskaya line was named Arbatsko-Filyovskaya. Since the beginning, platforms have been at least 155 metres long to accommodate eight-car trains; the only exceptions are on the Filyovskaya Line: Vystavochnaya, Studencheskaya, Fili, Filyovsky Park and Pionerskaya, which only allows six-car trains.
Trains on the Zamoskvoretskaya, Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya, Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya, Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya and Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya lines have eight cars, on the Sokolnicheskaya line seven cars and on the Koltsevaya and Kakhovskaya lines six cars. The Filyovskaya and Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya lines had six- and seven-car trains as well, but now use four- and five-car trains of another type; the V-type trains were from Berlin U-Bahn C-class trains from 1945 to 1969, until its complete demi
Nizhny Novgorod Metro
The Nizhny Novgorod Metro known as the Gorky Metro, is a rapid-transit system which serves the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. Opened in 1985, it is 21.6 kilometres long. The metro connects with the City Rail system at the Moskovskaya station, it has the third-largest number of stations of any Russian subway system, the largest two being Moscow and St. Petersburg. Nizhny Novgorod is a large city on the Volga River. In the mid-1970s its population exceeded one million, meeting the Soviet requirement for the development of a rapid-transit system. Construction began on December 17, 1977, the network was opened to the public on November 20, 1985. Russia's third subway system, it is the tenth in the former Soviet Union. Drilling of tunnels began in September 1978 from the Leninskaya station. Developing design documentation, modifying roads and tram lines, demolishing houses were time-consuming. In 1979, piles were driven for the foundation of the Moskovskaya station. In June 1980, it was proposed to expand the Gorky Metro to three lines.
On July 13, 1984, during construction of the Moskovskaya station, its walls collapsed. According to urban legend, the ghosts of the dead students still walk through the tunnels and metro stations. On November 20, 1985, the Gorky Metro was opened; the first line was 7.8 km long, with a depot and an engineering building. Two more stations were opened in 1987, Kirovskaya and Park Kultury opened in 1989. Although the pace of metro construction in the Soviet Union was impressive, the consequences of the dissolution of the Soviet Union complicated the metro's future; when the first stage was completed in 1989, construction began on the second stage. Throughout Russia, segments which opened in the early 1990s were completed. On December 20, 1993, two stations opened on the new Line 2: Burnakovskaya. On September 9, 2002, the 13th station was opened. On September 22, 2012, the metro was closed for the first time to switch power to the new control system of the Line 1 Gorkovskaya station, under construction.
The Line 2 Strelka station was opened on June 12, 2018. The metro has 14 stations. There is a ghost station: Yarmarka, whose construction was abandoned in favour of the Strelka station; the system has two lines, with a cross-platform interchange at Moskovskaya. After the construction of Line 3, there will be two more transfer stations: Olgino. Line 1 has right-hand traffic. Line 2 has left-hand traffic because the rails split at Moskovskaya due to the lack of a full-length tunnel on that line; the underground stations have shallow level designs. Moskovskaya has the typical USSR five-pillar span; the surface station, has a side-platform layout. The metro's rolling stock, supplied by the Proletarskoye depot, consists of eighty Metrovagonmash 81-717/81-714s; the interval between trains is 7½ to eight minutes at midday. Unlike other Soviet-era metros, Nizhny Novgorod does not have the usual triangular layout because of the city's unusual layout. Nizhny Novgorod is at its confluence with the Oka River. During the 20th century, the city developed polycentrically.
The historic city centre, including most of its administrative and educational facilities, is on the high, hilly bank of the Oka. The low, opposite bank contains most of the city's industries and some large residential districts grouped around Kanavino. Kanavino has the city's central railway station and the largest urban transport hubs. Faced with such a geographical arrangement, the metro planners adopted a design which would have two lines with four spokes, opened in a series of stages; the system's hub, the Moskovskaya station, would have a four-track, two-island platform for cross-platform transfer. The first stage would be the Avtozavodskaya Line, following the south bank of the Oka through the residential and industrial zones of the Leninsky district, the GAZ automobile plant and into the Avtozavodsky City District; the second stage, the Sormovskaya Line, would run west from Moskovskaya into the Sormovo districts. The third stage would incorporate a combined auto-metro bridge across the Oka, bringing the Avtozavodskaya Line into the city centre.
The fourth and final stage would be the Sormovskaya Line to the Meshcherskoye Ozero residential area north-west of the railway station, on the Volga. The 25-kilometre system, with over 20 stations, was planned for completion by the late 1990s; the order in which the stages were opened was influenced by industry-specific Soviet-era passenger flow and the depot-placement issue. GAZ was the Avtozavodsky district's chief employer, many workers lived in the northern parts of the city; the only suitable location for the rail depot was near the automobile plant. Line 1, runs between Park Kultury and Gorkovska
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The Moscow Monorail is a 4.7-kilometre long monorail line located in the North-Eastern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. It runs from the Timiryazevskaya via Fonvisinskaya and VDNHa metro stations to Sergeya Eisensteina street; the monorail line has six stations. Planning of the monorail in Moscow started in 1998; this was a unique project for Russian companies, which did not have prior experience in building monorails. 6,335,510,000 rubles were spent by the city of Moscow on the monorail construction. On 20 November 2004, the monorail opened in "excursion mode". On 10 January 2008, the monorail's operation mode was changed to "transportation mode" with more frequent train service. Ticket prices were reduced from 50 rubles to 19 rubles, the standard fare for Moscow rapid transport at that time. In April 2012, one of Moscow's transport officials announced that he believed that the system should be closed down and dismantled in the future. However, on 3 October 2012, the vice mayor of Moscow said that the Moscow Monorail would not be closed because of lack of public transportation and busy highways in that particular part of the city.
Since 1 January 2013, all metro tickets have been valid for the monorail. Interchange from the Metro to the Monorail and vice versa is free for 90 minutes after entering the Metro or Monorail; the Moscow Metro operates the monorail, which in 2016 became the Line 13 of the network. City officials announced in May 2017 plans to shut down the monorail and replace it with a new tram line. In the 1990s, Moscow's streets were suffering from traffic congestion by private cars, which interfered with public transport; this situation renewed interest in the monorail. Estimates were published in the media that showed that building monorails would be 5-7 times cheaper than building new underground metro lines; the decision to start monorail planning in Moscow was made by the Mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov after consultations with Yury Solomonov, the head of state-run Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology and Luzhkov's close associate. MITT developed military technology, but had no prior experience in monorail design.
At the end of the 1990s, MITT urgently needed funding, looked for contracts from the Government of Moscow. On 17 July 1998, Luzhkov tasked MITT, the Office of Transport and Communications and Moskomarchitechtura to draft the Moscow Monorail program and to prepare a preliminary technological and economical justification for the development of monorail routes in Moscow; these tasks were formulated in a short decree 777-RP "On the financing of project works on monorail transportation". MITT received 1.4 million rubles from Moscow budget. Deputy Premier of Moscow Government B. V. Nikolsky was assigned to supervise the project. On 2 September 1998, Luzhkov signed a decree 996-RP "On the design and construction of new types of high-speed transportation in Moscow" which justified the development of monorail lines in Moscow; the decree stated that traditional public transportation could not handle the increasing passenger loads and that cardinal solution to that problem would be possible only through the development of new types of high-speed transportation that meet modern ecological and economical requirements, are comfortable and could be integrated with traditional transportation.
The decree instructed the Office of Transport and Communications and the state-run Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering to continue work on the Moscow monorail transportation and to draft the layout of monorail lines by the first quarter of 1999. Luzhkov's decree proposed three monorail lines: from Novogireevo metro to Nikolo-Archangelskoe cemetery, from the metro Vykhino to Zhulebno district and from Krylatskoe to Krasnaya Presnya. However, these proposed lines were cancelled. Again, B. V. Nikolsky supervised the project. On 16 February 1999, the decree 108-PP established an open joint-stock company Moscow Monorail; the company was co-founded by the Department of State and the municipal property of Moscow City which acted on behalf of the Government of Moscow and had a 25% + 1 share. The total starting capital of Moscow Monorail was 100 million rubles. Vladimir Grigorievich Sister, the prefect of the North-Eastern Administrative Okrug, represented the Government of Moscow in the company. General supervision over the decree implementation was conducted by B.
V. Nikolsky. On 3 August 1999, Luzhkov's decree 738-RP established a commission for the supervision of the monorail works in the North-Eastern Administrative Okrug. Sister became the commission head. By the first quarter of 2000, an experimental monorail test set was built at the MITT campus. Several trains were purchased from the Swiss company Intamin; the decree 49-PP specified the rules and parameters for the construction of the Moscow Monorail. The monorail had been planned to run from the M8 highway overpass to Severyanin railway station, but the project was changed to connect two nearby metro stations with the All-Russia Exhibition Centre. At that time, Moscow competed for hosting Expo 2010 and a modern monorail could improve the image of the exhibition site; this idea was finalized on 13 March 2001 in the Moscow Government decree 241-PP. On 21 June, tasks were assigned to the companies contracted to prepare the monorail project: The development plan o
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.
It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people over short distances with little to no use of land. The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR.
Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; the opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset. Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services.
Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructing or planning a rapid transit system. Rapid transit is used in cities and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people short distances at high frequency.
The extent of the rapid transit system varies between cities, with se