For the eponymous Kiev monastery, see Brotherhood Monastery The Epiphany Monastery is the oldest male monastery in Moscow, situated in the Kitai gorod, just one block away from the Moscow Kremlin. According to a legend, it was founded by Daniel, the first prince of Moscow, around 1296, it is believed that a would-be metropolitan Alexis was one of the monks at this monastery. Stefan, Sergii Radonezhski's older brother, was the first recorded hegumen of this cloister; the first stone church at the Bogoyavlensky monastery was founded in 1342. In 1382, the monastery was sacked by Tokhtamysh's horde. In 1427, it suffered an outbreak of pestilence; the monastery survived numerous fires, the most important being recorded in 1547, 1551, 1687 and 1737. The Epiphany monastery has always been under the patronage of grand tsars. By the order of Ivan the Terrible, the monastery became a collection facility for metayage and fodder. In 1584, the tsar donated a substantial amount of money for the remembrance of the disgraced.
In 1632, the Epiphany monastery was granted an exclusive right for tax free floating of a certain amount of building materials and firewood. The monastery had its own stables and rented out its own facilities. Vasili III, Ivan the Terrible, Boris Godunov, the Romodanovsky boyars, Xenia Repnina, others donated some of their sizeable estates to the monastery. In 1680-1687, the Epiphany monastery was home to a school of the Likhud brothers, which would be transferred to the Zaikonospassky monastery and transformed into the famous Slavic Greek Latin Academy; the now-existing Epiphany cathedral was consecrated in 1696. A splendid specimen of the Muscovite baroque style, it incorporated some notable medieval sepulchres. In the 1690s, they built cells for monks and abbot's chamber, which would be re-built in the 1880s. In 1739, a belltower was erected. By 1744, the monastery had owned 216 peasant homesteads and 1014 peasants. In 1764, monastic real estate was confiscated. Thenceforth monastery's staff included more than 17 monks.
In 1788, the Epiphany monastery was proclaimed a residence of the vicarian bishop of the Moscow bishopric. In the late 18th century, the buildings enclosing the monastery were rented out to the haberdashers. In 1905-1909, they built a building with "office space" for rent. By 1907, The Bogoyavlensky monastery had had 14 monks and 18 novitiates and owned 60 desyatinas of land, it was receiving an allowance of 1245 rubles from the state treasury. After the October Revolution, the Epiphany monastery was closed down. In 1929, they stopped holding services in the Bogoyavlensky cathedral; the monastic facilities were first transformed into a campus for students of the Mining Academy and workers, engaged in the subway construction, - into metalworks. In the 1950s, they built an office building on the site of the monastery; the cathedral, monk cells and abbot's chamber were the only buildings to survive. In May, 1991, the Epiphany monastery was restored and returned to the Russian Orthodox Church. Media related to Bogoyavlensky Monastery at Wikimedia Commons
Andréi Ivánovich Kobýla was a progenitor of the Romanov dynasty of Russian tsars and many Russian noble families. This boyar was documented in contemporary chronicles only once, in 1347, when he was sent by Grand Duke Simeon the Proud to Tver with the purpose of meeting Simeon's bride, a daughter of Alexander I of Tver. Neither his pedigree nor exact position at court are known, hence speculation abounds. Generations assigned to Kobyla the most illustrious pedigrees, they first claimed that he had arrived in Moscow in 1341 from the old Prussia, where his father, Glanda Kambila, was a famous Prussian holdout against the conquest of pre-German Prussia by the Teutonic knights. Teutonic Order records do speak of a rebel named Glande. In the late 17th century, after the Romanov's elevation to Russia's ruling dynasty, this obscure origin story was replaced by a more grandiose lineage. A fictional line giving Andrei Kobyla's descent from Julius Caesar was published. In fact, it is quite that Kobyla's origins were far less illustrious.
A hint as to his true origins lie in his sobriquet, which functioned more as a nickname than as a hereditary surname. Not only is Kobyla Russian for mare, but Kobyla's known relatives were known by nicknames derived from horses and other domestic animals, thus suggesting descent from some everyday functionary of a noble estate, such as the Ratshid royal equerries. 16th-century genealogies mention five of Andrei's sons: Simeon Zherebets, Alexander Yolka, Vasily Vantey, Gavrila Gavsha, Fyodor Koshka. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. 1906
Nikolo-Ugreshsky Monastery is a walled stauropegic Russian Orthodox monastery of St. Nicholas the Miracle-Worker located in a suburb of Moscow, Dzerzhinsky, it is featured on the city emblem. The monastery is known to have existed as early as 1521, when the Tatar horde of Mehmed I Giray reduced the city to ashes; the old katholikon of St. Nicholas was built in the 16th century; the Ugresha Monastery was one of the walled abbeys defending approaches to the Russian capital from the south. A late legend attributes its foundation to Dmitry Donskoy who, on his way to the Kulikovo Field, is supposed to have made a stay there and determined to give a decisive battle to the Tatars after seeing an image of St. Nicholas in a pious dream, he "is reputed to have called out in ecstasy ugresha and founded a monastery on the spot". The monastery was expanded in the 17th century due to its proximity to the royal residences in Izmailovo and Kolomenskoye. Tsar Alexis made a habit of visiting the monastery several times a year.
After the Great Moscow Synod the sanctuary was visited by the Patriarchs of Moscow and Antioch. Metropolitan Macarius II spent the latter years of his life in the monastery, Archpriest Avvakum was imprisoned there; the great katholikon of the monastery was built to a Russian-Byzantine design by Alexander Kaminsky between 1880 and 1894. It is one of the largest churches in the Moscow region and has a set of new frescoes dating from 2009. After the Russian Revolution, the monastery was closed and its grounds were given over to a children labour colony in 1920. In an effort to fight children homelessness, Felix Dzerzhinsky had it transformed into a labour commune; the town was renamed after Dzerzhinsky. Many church buildings were destroyed; the ruined buildings were returned to the Russian Orthodox Church in 1991. The monastery has since been restored and operates several museums, including one dedicated to Nicholas II of Russia. There is a new seminary on the grounds. List of largest Orthodox cathedrals Official website
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Andronikov Monastery of the Saviour is a former monastery on the left bank of the Yauza River in Moscow, consecrated to the Holy Image of Saviour Not Made by Hands and containing the oldest extant building in Moscow. It is home to Andrei Rublev Museum of Old Russian Art, named after the most famous monk of this abbey; the monastery was established in 1357 by Metropolitan Alexis as a way of giving thanks for his survival in a storm. Its first hegumen was one of Sergii Radonezhsky's disciples; the extant four-pillared Saviour Cathedral was constructed from 1420–1427. The great medieval painter Andrei Rublev spent the last years of his life at the monastery and was buried there. In addition, one of the largest mass graves for lay brothers was located on the cloister's premises. In the second half of the 14th century, a monastic quarter formed outside the walls of the Andronikov Monastery, which started producing bricks for the ongoing construction of the Moscow Kremlin. From its beginning, Andronikov Monastery was one of the centres of book copying in Muscovy.
Manuscript collection of the cloister included most of the works by Maximus the Greek. In August 1653, archpriest Avvakum was held under arrest at this monastery. Andronikov Monastery has been ransacked on numerous occasions. In 1748 and 1812, its archives were lost in fires. In the 19th century, there were a library on the cloister's premises. In 1917, there were one novice in the monastery. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Andronikov Monastery was closed. One of the first Cheka's penal colonies was located within the walls of the monastery. In 1928, the Soviets destroyed the necropolis of the Andronikov Monastery, where Andrei Rublev and soldiers of the Great Northern War and the Patriotic War had been interred. In 1947, Andronikov Monastery was declared a national monument. In 1985, the Andrei Rublev Central Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art was opened on the cloister's premises. In 1991, the Saviour cathedral was returned to the Russian Orthodox Church. Archaeological excavations on the cloister's territory in 1993 uncovered an ancient altar and other relics.
Since the 1930s, when the Communists destroyed the 14th-century Saviour Cathedral in the Wood, the monastery's cathedral has attracted a renewed interest as the oldest preserved in Moscow. Its present outlook is the result of a controversial Soviet restoration, which sought to remove all additions from periods. Nothing but traces of the frescoes by Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chyorny remain visible on its walls; the second oldest monument in the abbey is a spacious refectory, the third largest such structure after those in the Palace of Facets and Joseph-Volotsky Monastery. The adjacent baroque church was commissioned by Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1694 to commemorate the birth of her son, Tsarevich Alexis, contains a burial vault of the Lopukhin family. Massive 17th-century walls and towers are reminiscent of the period when the monastery defended the eastern approaches against the Moscow Kremlin. In 1795, they started one of the tallest in Moscow; this astonishing belfry was destroyed in 1929–1932, its bricks were subsequently reused in construction of nearby buildings.
St. Andronik's Monastery, Andronikov Monastery Description of monastery on "Pravoslavie" web-site, Russian
Sretensky Monastery (Moscow)
Sretensky Monastery is an Orthodox monastery in Moscow, founded by Grand Prince Vasili I in 1397. It used to be located close to the present-day Red Square, but in the early 16th century it was moved northeast to what is now Bolshaya Lubyanka Street; the Sretensky Monastery gave its name to adjacent streets and byways, namely Sretenka Street, Sretensky Boulevard, Sretensky Lane, Sretensky Deadend, Sretensky Gates Square. Unlike most other Russian Orthodox churches of the same name the monastery is not, as might be expected, named after one of the twelve Great Feasts of Russian Orthodox Church Sretenie Gospodne, with Sretenie being a Church Slavonic word for "meeting"; the origin of the monastery's name comes from the fact that it was built on the spot where the muscovites and the ruling Prince had met the icon of Our Lady of Vladimir on August 26, 1395, moved from Vladimir to Moscow to protect the capital from the imminent invasion of Tamerlane. Soon thereafter, the armies of Tamerlane retreated and the grateful monarch founded the monastery to commemorate the miracle.
In 1552, the Muscovites gathered at the walls of the monastery to meet the Russian army returning after the conquest of Kazan. In 1925, the monastery was closed down. In 1928-1930, most of its buildings were dismantled by the Soviets, including the Church of Mary of Egypt and Church of Saint Nicholas. Only the Cathedral of the Meeting of the Icon of Our Lady of Vladimir with a side chapel to the Nativity of John the Forerunner survived to this day. Services in the Vladimirsky Cathedral resumed in 1991; the cathedral was transferred to the authority of the Pskovo-Pechorsky Monastery in 1994, but nowadays it is a separate monastic establishment, with Patriarch Kirill as its archimandrite. Since 1998 the Monasteries is headed by Bishop Tikhon as the Patriarch's representative. In November 2013, an official body that oversees construction on heritage sites approved the construction of a huge monastery church dedicated to the New Martyrs and Confessors of the Russian Orthodox Church; the 61-metre-high building, fittingly situated next door to the infamous Lubyanka Prison, was completed in early 2017, in time for the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution when attacks on the Russian Orthodox Church had begun.
Architectural preservationists voiced their concern that the outsize building would irrevocably alter the surrounding cityscape. English web-site of Sretensky monastery Official website
A refectory is a dining room in monasteries, boarding schools, academic institutions. One of the places the term is most used today is in graduate seminaries, it derives from the Latin reficere "to remake or restore," via Late Latin refectorium, which means "a place one goes to be restored". Communal meals are the times. Diet and eating habits differ somewhat by monastic order, more by schedule; the Benedictine rule is illustrative. The Rule of St Benedict orders two meals. Dinner is provided year-round; the diet consisted of simple fare: two dishes, with fruit as a third course if available. The food was simple, with the meat of mammals forbidden to all but the sick. Moderation in all aspects of diet is the spirit of Benedict's law. Meals are eaten in silence, facilitated sometimes by hand signals. A single monk might read aloud from the writings of the saints during the meals. Refectories vary in size and dimension, based on wealth and size of the monastery, as well as when the room was built, they share certain design features.
Monks eat at long benches. A lavabo, or large basin for hand-washing stands outside the refectory. Tradition fixes other factors. In England, the refectory is built on an undercroft on the side of the cloister opposite the church. Benedictine models are traditionally laid out on an east–west axis, while Cistercian models lie north–south. Norman refectories could be as large as 160 feet long by 35 feet wide. Early refectories might have windows, but these became larger and more elaborate in the high medieval period; the refectory at Cluny Abbey was lit through thirty-six large glazed windows. The twelfth-century abbey at Mont Saint-Michel had six windows, five feet wide by twenty feet high. In Eastern Orthodox monasteries, the trapeza is considered a sacred place, in some cases is constructed as a full church with an altar and iconostasis; some services are intended to be performed in the trapeza. There is always at least one icon with a lampada kept burning in front of it; the service of the Lifting of the Panagia is performed at the end of meals.
During Bright Week, this service is replaced with the Lifting of the Artos. In some monasteries, the Ceremony of Forgiveness at the beginning of Great Lent is performed in the trapeza. All food served in the trapeza should be blessed, for that purpose, holy water is kept in the kitchen; as well as continued use of the historic monastic meaning, the word refectory is used in a modern context to refer to a café or cafeteria, open to the public—including non-worshipers such as tourists—attached to a cathedral or abbey. This usage is prevalent in Church of England buildings, which use the takings to supplement their income. Many universities in the UK call their student cafeteria or dining facilities the refectory; the term is rare at American colleges, although Brown University calls its main dining hall the Sharpe Refectory and the main dining hall at Rhodes College is known as the Catherine Burrow Refectory. Refectory table Adams, Mont Saint-Michel and Chartres. New York: Penguin, 1986. Fernie, E. C.
The Architecture of Norman England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1450. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Singman, Jeffrey. Daily Life in Medieval Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. Webb, Geoffrey. Architecture in Britain: the Middle Ages. Baltimore: Penguin, 1956. Refectory in Russian Orthodox Convent, Jerusalem