A. P. Moller–Maersk Group, known as Maersk, is a Danish business conglomerate. A. P. Møller – Maersk Group has activities in a variety of sectors, primarily within the transport. It has been the largest container ship operator and supply vessel operator in the world since 1996, as of September 2016 the company is in the process of splitting its shipping and energy interests into separate divisions. It ranked 148 on the Forbes Global 2000 list for 2015, a. P. Møller – Maersk Group started as the shipping company Dampskibsselskabet Svendborg founded by captain Peter Mærsk-Møller and his son Arnold Peter Møller in Svendborg, April 1904. A. P. Møller had four children, all by his first wife Chastine Estelle Roberta Mc-Kinney, a. P. Møllers second child was Arnold Mærsk Mc- Kinney Møller. In 1939, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller became a partner in the company, following the death of A. P. Møller in June 1965, he became CEO of the company and held this post until 1993, when he was succeeded by Jess Søderberg.
Beginning in 1965, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller served as chairman and did not relinquish this position until December 2003. Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller was until his one of the managing owners of the company and was chairman of Odense Steel Shipyard until 2 May 2006. Møller, who was a deeply religious Christian, attached a banner with a white seven pointed star on both sides of the black chimney on the steamship Laura when his wife recovered from illness. In a letter to his wife, P. M, the same star became the emblem of the Maersk Group. In May 2014 the company lifted its first-quarter net profit to $1. 02bn as a result of Maersk Line improving its operations. Container shipping and related activities is the largest business area for A. P. Moller – Maersk and it comprises worldwide container services and forwarding solutions and terminal activities under the brand names, Maersk Line and Damco. Since 1996, Mærsk is the largest container shipping company in the world, the largest operating unit in A. P. Moller – Maersk by revenue and staff is Maersk Line.
In 2013 the company described itself as the worlds largest overseas cargo carrier, as per September 2015, being still the largest container fleet, it holds 15. 1% of the global TEU. In 2006, the largest container ship in the world to that date, the E-class vessel Emma Maersk, was delivered to Maersk Line from Odense Steel Shipyard. Seven other sisterships have since been built, and on 21 February 2011, Maersk ordered 10 even larger ships from Daewoo. The first were delivered in 2013 and it held options for 10–20 more, and in June 2011 placed follow-on orders for a second batch of ten sisterships with the same shipyard, but cancelled its option for a third batch of ten. As of February 2010, Maersk had a book for new ships totalling 857000TEU
Novo Nordisk is a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagsværd, with production facilities in eight countries, and affiliates or offices in 75 countries. Novo Nordisk is controlled by majority shareholder, Novo A/S, which holds approximately 25% of its shares, Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Key products include diabetes care medications and devices, Novo Nordisk is involved with hemostasis management, growth hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy. The company makes several drugs under various names, including Levemir, NovoLog, Novolin R, NovoSeven, NovoEight. Novo Nordisk employs more than 40,000 people globally, the corporation was created in 1989 through a merger of two Danish companies which date back to the 1920s. The Novo Nordisk logo is the Apis bull, one of the animals of ancient Egypt. Novo Nordisk is a member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries. The company was ranked 25th among 100 best companies to work for in 2010 by Fortune, in January 2012, Novo Nordisk was named as the most sustainable company in the world by the business magazine Corporate Knights while spin-off company Novozymes was named fourth.
Novo Nordisk was ranked 72nd on “Fortune’s 100 Best Companies to Work For®” list within the U. S. state of New Jersey as of January 2014, behind Novo Nordisk lies a story about two Danish firms - Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium and Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium was founded by Hans Christian Hagedorn, August Krogh, in 1922, August Krogh and his wife Marie Krogh travelled to the US. The couple had heard reports of people with diabetes being treated with insulin – a hormone discovered in 1921 by two Canadians, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, Marie Krogh was a doctor herself and had type 2 diabetes. The couple returned to Denmark with permission to manufacture and sell insulin in Scandinavia, with the economic help from August Kongsted – the owner of Leo Pharmaceutical Products - Insulin Leo was marketed in 1923. When Krogh and Hagedorn started manufacturing insulin, they hired Thorvald Pedersen, Thorvald Pedersen was fired from Nordisk and the two brothers decided to try to manufacture insulin themselves.
Thorvald and Harald Pedersen managed to produce a stable liquid insulin, the brothers named their firm Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. Over the next decades the products were further improved, e. g, in 1982, Novo succeeded and launched the world’s first insulin preparation identical to human insulin. In 1989, Novo Industri A/S and Nordisk Gentofte A/S merged to become Novo Nordisk A/S, in 2000 the company demerged into NovoZymes A/S and Novo Nordisk A/S. In 2015, the company announced it would collaborate with Ablynx, jesper Brandgaard is the Executive Vice President and CFO of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk A/S. Brandgaard has been the Vice Chairman of the board of directors in the Danish company SimCorp since 2007, Tresiba - is a Diabetes mellitus type 1 and Type 2 diabetes drug
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyses proteins. Trypsin is formed in the small intestine when its proenzyme form, trypsin cleaves peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine, except when either is followed by proline. It is used for numerous biotechnological processes, the process is commonly referred to as trypsin proteolysis or trypsinisation, and proteins that have been digested/treated with trypsin are said to have been trypsinized. In the duodenum, trypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, the peptide products are further hydrolyzed into amino acids via other proteases, rendering them available for absorption into the blood stream. Tryptic digestion is a step in protein absorption as proteins are generally too large to be absorbed through the lining of the small intestine. Trypsin is produced as the inactive zymogen trypsinogen in the pancreas, when the pancreas is stimulated by cholecystokinin, it is secreted into the first part of the small intestine via the pancreatic duct.
Once in the intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase activates trypsinogen into trypsin by proteolytic cleavage. Auto catalysis can happen with trypsin using trypsinogen as the substrate and this activation mechanism is common for most serine proteases, and serves to prevent autodegradation of the pancreas. The enzymatic mechanism is similar to that of other serine proteases and these enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of histidine-57, aspartate-102, and serine-195. These three residues form a charge relay that increases nucleophilicity of the active site serine and this is achieved by modifying the electrostatic environment of the serine. The enzymatic reaction that trypsin catalyzes is thermodynamically favorable but requires significant activation energy, trypsin is considered an endopeptidase, i. e. the cleavage occurs within the polypeptide chain rather than at the terminal amino acids located at the ends of polypeptides. Human trypsin has an operating temperature of about 37 °C.
In contrast, the Atlantic cod has several types of trypsins in order for the fish to survive at different body temperatures. Cod trypsins include trypsin I with an activity range of 4 to 65 °C and maximal activity at 55 °C, as well as trypsin Y with a range of 2 to 30 °C, as a protein trypsin has various molecular weights depending on the source. For example, a weight of 23.3 kDa is reported for trypsin from bovine and porcine sources. The activity of trypsin is not affected by the enzyme inhibitor tosyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone, TPCK and this is important because, in some applications, like mass spectrometry, the specificity of cleavage is important. Trypsin should be stored at cold temperatures to prevent autolysis. When the pH is adjusted back to pH8, activity returns, the following human genes encode proteins with trypsin enzymatic activity, Other isoforms of trypsin may be found in other organisms
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein by promoting the absorption of, glucose from the blood into fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, Glucose production by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin affects the synthesis of proteins in a variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells, low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism. Pancreatic beta cells are known to be sensitive to concentrations in the blood. When glucose concentrations in the blood are high, the pancreatic β cells secrete insulin into the blood, through stimulating the liver to release glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, has the opposite effect of insulin.
If pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by an reaction, insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood. This results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by high blood glucose concentrations. In type 2 diabetes mellitus the destruction of cells is less pronounced than in type 1 diabetes. Instead there is an accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets, Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the concentration of glucose in the blood glucose. Insulin is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose, as a result, the insulin levels, even when the blood sugar level is normal, are much higher than they are in healthy persons. There are a variety of treatment regimens, none of which is entirely satisfactory, when the pancreas’s capacity to secrete insulin can no longer keep the blood sugar level within normal bounds, insulin injections are given. The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a mass of 5808 Da.
It is a dimer of an A-chain and a B-chain, which are linked together by disulfide bonds, insulins structure varies slightly between species of animals. Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness from human insulin because of these variations, porcine insulin is especially close to the human version, and was widely used to treat type 1 diabetics before human insulin could be produced in large quantities by recombinant DNA technologies. The crystal structure of insulin in the state was determined by Dorothy Hodgkin. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a health system
A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with the discovery of microorganisms in 1674 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria and most protozoa. This group contains some fungi and some such as rotifers. Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages, some microbiologists classify viruses and viroids as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving. In July 2016, scientists identified a set of 355 genes from the last universal ancestor of all life, including microorganisms. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space. Microorganisms likely far outweigh all other living things combined, the mass of prokaryote microorganisms including the bacteria and archaea may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon, out of the total biomass of between 1 and 4 trillion tons.
Microorganisms appear to thrive in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earths oceans, in August 2014, scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living 800 m below the ice of Antarctica. According to one researcher, You can find microbes everywhere — theyre extremely adaptable to conditions, microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a part of the nitrogen cycle. Microorganisms are exploited in biotechnology, both in food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering. A small proportion of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing disease and even death in plants, Robert Hooke coined the term cell after viewing plant cells under his microscope. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek was one of the first people to observe microorganisms in 1673, later, in the 19th century, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation.
In 1876 Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms cause diseases, single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on Earth, approximately 3–4 billion years ago. Further evolution was slow, and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, so, for most of the history of life on Earth, the only forms of life were microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi have been identified in amber that is 220 million years old, microorganisms tend to have a relatively fast rate of evolution. Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly, and bacteria are able to freely exchange genes through conjugation and transduction. This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the development of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria, the possible existence of microorganisms was discussed for many centuries before their discovery in the 17th century
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
GN Store Nord
GN Store Nord A/S is a Danish manufacturer of hearing instruments and audiological diagnostics equipments and headsets. It was founded as The Great Northern Telegraph Company in Denmark in June 1869 and it was set up as a merger of three recently established telegraph companies initiated by Danish industrial mogul Carl Frederik Tietgen. The aim of the firm was to create a worldwide telegraph company, the starting point of The Great Northern Telegraph Company was a concession agreement, which C. F. Tietgen made with the Russian Tzar in 1869, the agreement gave The Great Northern Telegraph Company exclusive rights – and obligations – to establish and run a telegraph line in Russia. This represented a great task for the company in establishing connections from Europe to the Far East. The Russian authorities ran the construction work in Russia. They had already set up a line in parts of Siberia but were looking for a business partner to cover China. In the following years, the line expanded massively – both in Europe and in Asia.
First, Oslo and Paris were covered, operations took place along the coast of China ranging from Hong Kong to Shanghai and further into Japan where the first telegraph station opened in Nagasaki in 1897. In addition to the line, telegraph stations and offices opened at several locations. In 1897, negotiations began about a potential connection going from Scotland to the United States through the Faroe Islands, in 1906, the cable was established, although without the final connection to the United States, which had to wait for almost 60 years to become a reality. When the transatlantic connection was established, however, it represented a remarkable expansion. The beginning of the 20th century was characterized by several wars and disputes, world War I and largely the Russian Revolution changed the map of Europe, but this only meant an increase in demand for telegraphy. Thus, the company succeeded in prolonging its concession agreement in 1921, the late 1930s, presented great challenges as competition from wireless telegraphy was becoming increasingly severe.
Although broken lines were repaired and re-established after the war the company had to acknowledge that an era was over, the new strategy was to focus on a broader segment by investing in various companies across sectors. This strategy was initiated in 1939 with the investment in the battery factory Hellesens, over the following decades, The Great Northern Telegraph Company balanced between investing in the telecommunications industry and other industries. On the industry side, it invested in such as Lauritz Knudsen, which produced electrical goods, and in 1947. Other acquisitions were Telematic which produced telephones, Elmi which produced measuring equipment, GN Store Nord In 1985, The Great Northern Telegraph Company changed its name to GN Store Nord with the aim of creating a new group identity and organizing its businesses
A biopharmaceutical, known as a biologic medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances and they are isolated from living sources—human, plant, fungal, or microbial. Terminology surrounding biopharmaceuticals varies between groups and entities, with different terms referring to different subsets of therapeutics within the general biopharmaceutical category, Specialty drugs, a recent classification of pharmaceuticals, are high-cost drugs that are often biologics. In some jurisdictions, biologics are regulated via different pathways than other small molecule drugs, the term biopharmacology is sometimes used to describe the branch of pharmacology that studies biopharmaceuticals. Some of the oldest forms of biologics are extracted from the bodies of animals, as indicated the term biologics can be used to refer to a wide range of biological products in medicine.
However, in most cases, the term biologics is used more restrictively for a class of therapeutics that are produced by means of processes involving recombinant DNA technology. These medications are usually one of three types, Substances that are identical to the bodys own key signalling proteins, examples are the blood-production stimulating protein erythropoetin, or the growth-stimulating hormone named growth hormone or biosynthetic human insulin and its analogues. Receptor constructs, usually based on a naturally occurring receptor linked to the immunoglobulin frame, in this case, the receptor provides the construct with detailed specificity, whereas the immunoglobulin-structure imparts stability and other useful features in terms of pharmacology. Some examples are listed in the table below, the cost of treatment with a typical monoclonal antibody therapy for relatively common indications is generally in the range of €7, 000–14,000 per patient per year. The first such substance approved for use was biosynthetic human insulin made via recombinant DNA.
Sometimes referred to as rHI, under the trade name Humulin, was developed by Genentech, but licensed to Eli Lilly and Company, a few examples of biologics made with recombinant DNA technology include, Many vaccines are grown in tissue cultures. Viral gene therapy involves artificially manipulating a virus to include a piece of genetic material. With the expiration of patents for blockbuster biologics between 2012 and 2019, the interest in biosimilar production, i. e. follow-on biologics, has increased. Compared to small molecules that consist of chemically identical active ingredients, biologics are vastly more complex, due to their heterogeneity and the high process sensitivity, neither originators nor follow-on manufacturers produce reliably constant quality profiles over time. The process variations are monitored by modern tools and describe a unique design space for each biologic. Thus, biosimilars require a different regulatory framework compared to small-molecule generics, legislation in the 21st century has addressed this by recognizing an intermediate ground of testing for biosimilars.
The filing pathway requires more testing than for generics. In 2003, the European Medicines Agency introduced an adapted pathway for biosimilars and this pathway is based on a thorough demonstration of comparability of the similar product to an existing approved product
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Pandora A/S is an international Danish jewellery manufacturer and retailer founded in 1982 by Per Enevoldsen. The company started as a jewellery shop in Copenhagen. Pandora is known for its customizable charm bracelets, designer rings, the company has a production site in Thailand and markets its products in more than 100 countries on 6 continents with more than 8,100 points of sale. Pandora was founded in 1982 by Danish goldsmith Per Enevoldsen and his wife Winnie Enevoldsen, the pair began on a small scale by importing jewellery from Thailand and selling to consumers. After a successful venture, in 1989 Enevoldsen hired in-house designers and established a manufacturing site in Thailand. With low production costs and an efficient supply chain, the Enevoldsens could provide affordable, pandoras collection grew to include an assortment of rings, necklaces and watches. Pandora started selling its signature bracelets in 2000 after a patent, the Danish private equity group Axcel bought a 60% stake in the company from the Enevoldsen family in 2008.
Shares totalling DKK9.96 billion were sold in an IPO in October 2010, one of the biggest IPOs in Europe that year, the company is publicly listed on the NASDAQ OMX Copenhagen Stock Exchange in Denmark and is a component of the OMX Copenhagen 20 index. Pandora became the worlds third-largest jewellery company in terms of sales, after Cartier, in 2011, more than one piece of Pandora jewellery was sold every second.9 billion and net profit in excess of DKK3 billion in 2014. Sales of the Pandora brand began in Europe and it first entered North America in 2003, the company opened concept stores around the world before its franchising model began in Australia in 2009. Pandora products are sold in more than 100 countries on six continents through approximately 8,100 points of sale, the company employs over 21,500 people, of whom 12,400 are located in Gemopolis, the companys sole manufacturing site since 1989. Pandora launched a sales platform in Europe in 2011. Europe and the United States accounted for nearly 90% of group sales in 2014, the group announced a Chinese distribution deal in 2015, with plans to increase store numbers to a couple of hundred in China.
In 2015, it bought out Oracle Investments shares in its Chinese distribution service
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate, or catalyze, chemical reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts these into different molecules, called products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. The study of enzymes is called enzymology, enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules, enzymes specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures. Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by lowering its activation energy, some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylase, which allows a reaction that would take millions of years to occur in milliseconds.
Chemically, enzymes are like any catalyst and are not consumed in chemical reactions, enzymes differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules, inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity, many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. An enzymes activity decreases markedly outside its optimal temperature and pH, some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. French chemist Anselme Payen was the first to discover an enzyme, diastase and he wrote that alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells. In 1877, German physiologist Wilhelm Kühne first used the term enzyme, the word enzyme was used to refer to nonliving substances such as pepsin, and the word ferment was used to refer to chemical activity produced by living organisms. Eduard Buchner submitted his first paper on the study of yeast extracts in 1897, in a series of experiments at the University of Berlin, he found that sugar was fermented by yeast extracts even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture.
He named the enzyme that brought about the fermentation of sucrose zymase, in 1907, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of cell-free fermentation. Following Buchners example, enzymes are usually named according to the reaction they carry out, the biochemical identity of enzymes was still unknown in the early 1900s. Sumner showed that the enzyme urease was a protein and crystallized it. These three scientists were awarded the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the discovery that enzymes could be crystallized eventually allowed their structures to be solved by x-ray crystallography. This high-resolution structure of lysozyme marked the beginning of the field of structural biology, an enzymes name is often derived from its substrate or the chemical reaction it catalyzes, with the word ending in -ase