The sibyls were women that the ancient Greeks believed were oracles. The earliest sibyls, according to legend, prophesied at holy sites and their prophecies were influenced by divine inspiration from a deity, originally at Delphi and Pessinos, the deities were chthonic deities. In Late Antiquity, various writers attested to the existence of sibyls in Greece, the Levant, the English word sibyl comes — via the Old French sibile and the Latin sibylla — from the ancient Greek Σίβυλλα. Varro derived the name from theobule, but modern philologists mostly propose an Old Italic or alternatively a Semitic etymology. Walter Burkert observes that frenzied women from whose lips the god speaks are recorded very much earlier in the Near East, as in Mari in the second millennium and in Assyria in the first millennium. Until the literary elaborations of Roman writers, sibyls were not identified by a personal name, but by names that refer to the location of their temenos, or shrine. In Pausanias, Description of Greece, the first sibyl at Delphi mentioned was of great antiquity, Sir James Frazer calls the text defective.
The second sibyl referred to by Pausanias, and named Herophile, seems to have been based ultimately in Samos and Delphi and sang there, but that at the same time, Delphi had its own sibyl. The scholar David S. Potter writes, In the late fifth century BC it does appear that Sibylla was the given to a single inspired prophetess. Like Heraclitus, Plato speaks of only one sibyl, but in course of time the number increased to nine, with a tenth, the Persian Sibyl, by name Sambethe, was reported to be of the family of Noah. Some say she was a Babylonian, while others call her an Egyptian Sibyl, the medieval Byzantine encyclopedia, the Suda, credits the Hebrew Sibyl as author of the Sibylline oracles. The so-called Libyan Sibyl was identified with prophetic priestess presiding over the ancient Zeus-Amon oracle at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt, the oracle here was consulted by Alexander after his conquest of Egypt. The mother of the Libyan Sibyl was Lamia, the daughter of Poseidon, euripides mentions the Libyan Sibyl in the prologue to his tragedy Lamia.
The Delphic Sibyl was a woman from before the Trojan Wars mentioned by Pausanias writing in the 2nd century AD about stories he had heard locally. The Sibyl would have predated the real Pythia, the oracle and priestess of Apollo, naevius names the Cimmerian Sibyl in his books of the Punic War and Piso in his annals. The Sibyls son Evander founded in Rome the shrine of Pan which is called the Lupercal, the Erythraean Sibyl was sited at Erythrae, a town in Ionia opposite Chios. The word acrostic was first applied to the prophecies of the Erythraean Sibyl, the Samian sibyls oracular site was at Samos. The sibyl who most concerned the Romans was the Cumaean Sibyl, located near the Greek city of Naples, Burkert notes that the conquest of Cumae by the Oscans in the 5th century destroyed the tradition, but provides a terminus ante quem for a Cumaean sibyl
E pluribus unum
Never codified by law, E Pluribus Unum was considered a de facto motto of the United States until 1956 when the United States Congress passed an act, adopting In God We Trust as the official motto. The 13-letter motto was suggested in 1776 by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere to the responsible for developing the seal. This in turn can be traced back to the London-based Huguenot Peter Anthony Motteux, the phrase is similar to a Latin translation of a variation of Heraclituss 10th fragment, The one is made up of all things, and all things issue from the one. In the poem text, color est e pluribus unus describes the blending of colors into one, st Augustine used the non-truncated variant of the phrase, ex pluribus unum, in his Confessions. The first coins with E pluribus unum were dated 1786 and struck under the authorization of the State of New Jersey by Thomas Goadsby and Albion Cox in Rahway, New Jersey. The motto had no New Jersey linkage but was likely an available die that had created by Walter Mould the previous year for a failed federal coinage proposal.
Walter Mould was authorized by New Jersey to strike state coppers with this motto and did so beginning in early 1787 in Morristown, New Jersey. In March 1786, Seth Read petitioned the Massachusetts General Court, E pluribus unum, written in capital letters, is included on most U. S. currency, with some exceptions to the letter spacing. It is embossed on the edge of the dollar coin, E pluribus unum is inscribed on the Great Seals scroll. The motto was added to silver coins in 1798. In 1834, it was dropped from most of the coins to mark the change in the standard fineness of the coins. In 1837, it was dropped from the coins, marking the era of the Revised Mint Code. An Act of February 12,1873 made the inscription a requirement of law upon the coins of the United States, after the Revolution, New Jersey became the home of the first national mint to create a coin bearing the inscription E pluribus unum. In a quality control error in early 2007 the Philadelphia Mint issued some one-dollar coins without E pluribus unum on the rim, the 2009 and new 2010 penny features a new design on the back, which displays the phrase E Pluribus unum in larger letters than in previous years.
The motto E pluribus unum is used by Portuguese multi-sport club Benfica and this motto has been used by the Scoutspataljon, a professional infantry battalion of the Estonian Defence Forces, since 1918. A variant of the motto, unum e pluribus is used by the Borough of Wokingham in Berkshire, E Pluribus Unum is a march by the composer Fred Jewell, written in 1917 during World War I. In the film The Wizard of Oz, the wizard gives the Scarecrow a diploma from the society of E Pluribus Unum. In the Twilight Zone episode A Kind of a Stopwatch, a man receives a stopwatch that can stop time and is told, remember, a short story collection by Theodore Sturgeon is called E Pluribus Unicorn
My Country, 'Tis of Thee
My Country, Tis of Thee, known as America, is an American patriotic song, whose lyrics were written by Samuel Francis Smith. The melody used is the same as that of the anthem of the United Kingdom, God Save the Queen. The song served as one of the de facto national anthems of the United States before the adoption of The Star-Spangled Banner as the anthem in 1931. Samuel Francis Smith wrote the lyrics to My Country Tis of Thee in 1831, while he was a student at the Andover Theological Seminary in Andover and his friend Lowell Mason had asked him to translate the lyrics in some German school songbooks or to write new lyrics. A melody in Muzio Clementis Symphony No.3 caught his attention, rather than translating the lyrics from German, Smith wrote his own American patriotic hymn to the melody, completing the lyrics in thirty minutes. Smith gave Mason the lyrics he had written and the song was first performed in public on July 4,1831, first publication of America was in 1832. 1 My country, tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing, Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrims pride, From evry mountainside Let freedom ring.
2 My native country, Land of the free, Thy name I love, I love thy rocks and rills, Thy woods and templed hills, My heart with rapture thrills. 3 Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees Sweet freedoms song, Let mortal tongues awake, Let all that breathe partake, Let rocks their silence break,4 Our fathers God to Thee, Author of liberty, To Thee we sing. Long may our land be bright, With freedoms holy light, Protect us by Thy might, Great God our King. 7 Thy silver Eastern strands, Thy Golden Gate that stands Fronting the West, Thy flowery Southland fair, Thy Norths sweet, crystal air, O Land beyond compare, We love thee best. 9 My native country, Where all men are free, if white’s their skin, I love thy hills and dales, Thy mounts and pleasant vales, But hate thy negro sales. 10 Let wailing swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees the black man’s wrong, Let every tongue awake, Let bond and free partake, Let rocks their silence break, the sound prolong. To thee, Author of Liberty, to thee we sing, Soon may our land be bright, With holy freedom’s right, Protect us by thy might, Great God, our King.
12 It comes, the day, When tyranny’s proud sway, stern as the grave, Shall to the ground be hurl’d, And freedom’s flag, unfurl’d, Shall wave throughout the world. Echo o’er land and sea freedom for all, Let the glad tidings fly, And every tribe reply, “Glory to God on high, ” at Slavery’s fall. Marian Anderson performed the song at the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday, cary Grant and Jim Hutton sang the first verse in the 1966 film Walk, Dont Run, while simultaneously Grant and Samantha Eggar sang God Save the Queen. Crosby, Stills & Nash performed the song on the first episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno to air after the September 11 attacks in 2001, on January 20,2009, Aretha Franklin sang the song at the first inauguration of President Barack Obama
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil /ˈvɜːrdʒᵻl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature, the Eclogues, the Georgics, a number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Romes greatest poets and his Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome from the time of its composition to the present day. Virgils work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dantes Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dantes guide through Hell, the tradition holds that Virgil was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists, modern speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his biographers. Macrobius says that Virgils father was of a background, however.
He attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum and Naples, after considering briefly a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry. From Virgils admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, according to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil extremely shy and reserved, and he was nicknamed Parthenias or maiden because of his social aloofness. Virgil seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life, according to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro the Epicurean at Naples. A group of works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen poems, some of which may be Virgils, and another. The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, the Eclogues are a group of ten poems roughly modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus.
The loss of his farm and the attempt through poetic petitions to regain his property have traditionally been seen as Virgils motives in the composition of the Eclogues. This is now thought to be an unsupported inference from interpretations of the Eclogues, the ten Eclogues present traditional pastoral themes with a fresh perspective. Eclogues 1 and 9 address the land confiscations and their effects on the Italian countryside,2 and 3 are pastoral and erotic, discussing both homosexual love and attraction toward people of any gender. Eclogue 4, addressed to Asinius Pollio, the so-called Messianic Eclogue uses the imagery of the age in connection with the birth of a child. Virgil came to many of the other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace, in whose poetry he is often mentioned, and Varius Rufus. At Maecenas insistence Virgil spent the years on the long didactic hexameter poem called the Georgics which he dedicated to Maecenas
Dixie, known as Dixies Land, I Wish I Was in Dixie, and other titles, is a popular American song. It is one of the most distinctively American musical products of the 19th century, although not a folk song at its creation, Dixie has since entered the American folk vernacular. The song likely cemented the word Dixie in the American vocabulary as a toponym for the Southern United States, although most sources credit Ohio-born Daniel Decatur Emmett with the songs composition, other people have claimed to have composed Dixie, even during Emmetts lifetime. Compounding the problem of establishing the songs authorship are Emmetts own confused accounts of its writing. The latest challenge has come on behalf of the Snowden Family of Knox County, the song originated in the blackface minstrel shows of the 1850s and quickly became popular across the United States. During the American Civil War, Dixie was adopted as a de facto anthem of the Confederacy, New versions appeared at this time that more explicitly tied the song to the events of the Civil War.
Since the advent of the Civil Rights Movement, many have identified the lyrics of the song with the iconography, Dixie is sometimes considered offensive, and its critics link the act of singing it to sympathy for slavery or racial separation in the American South. Its supporters, on the hand, view it as a legitimate aspect of Southern culture and heritage. The song was a favorite of President Abraham Lincoln, he had it played at some of his political rallies, Dixie is structured into five 2-measure groups of alternating verses and refrains, following an AABC pattern. As the song became popular, the audience joined the troupe in singing the chorus. Traditionally, another eight measures of unaccompanied fiddle playing followed, coming to a close in the middle, since 1936. The song was played at a tempo slower than the one usually played today. Rhythmically, the music is characterized by a heavy, inelegant strut, and is in duple meter, Dixie employs a single rhythmic motive, which is integrated into long, melodic phrases.
The melodic content consists primarily of arpeggiations of the tonic triad, the melody of the chorus emulates natural inflections of the voice, and may account for some of the songs popularity. According to musicologist Hans Nathan, Dixie resembles other material that Dan Emmett wrote for Bryants Minstrels, and, in writing it, the second part is probably related to even older material, most likely Scottish folk songs. The chorus follows portions of Johnny Roach, an Emmett piece from earlier in 1859, as with other blackface material, performances of Dixie were accompanied by dancing. The song is a walkaround, which began with a few minstrels acting out the lyrics. Dancers probably performed between verses, and a single used the fiddle solo at the end of the song to strut, twirl his cane, or mustache
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
United States Declaration of Independence
Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was passed on July 2 with no opposing vote cast, a committee of five had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when Congress voted on independence. The term Declaration of Independence is not used in the document itself, John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress would edit to produce the final version. The next day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, but Independence Day is actually celebrated on July 4, the date that the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms and it was initially published as the printed Dunlap broadside that was widely distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for printing has been lost.
Jeffersons original draft, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, the best known version of the Declaration, a signed copy that is popularly regarded as the official document, is displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19, the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. Having served its purpose in announcing independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his rhetoric, and his policies and this has been called one of the best-known sentences in the English language, containing the most potent and consequential words in American history. The passage came to represent a standard to which the United States should strive. Believe me, dear Sir, there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose, and in this, I think I speak the sentiments of America.
By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765, Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, had developed a different conception of the empire, the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, and colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliaments authority in the colonies. In the colonies, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, after the Townshend Acts, some essayists even began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at all
Eye of Providence
The Eye of Providence is a symbol showing an eye often surrounded by rays of light or a glory and usually enclosed by a triangle. It represents the eye of God watching over mankind, in the modern era, a notable depiction of the eye is the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, which appears on the United States one-dollar bill. Seventeenth-century depictions of the Eye of Providence sometimes show it surrounded by clouds or sunbursts, in 1782, the Eye of Providence was adopted as part of the symbolism on the reverse side of the Great Seal of the United States. It was first suggested as an element of the Great Seal by the first of three committees in 1776 and is thought to be the suggestion of the artistic consultant. In his original proposal to the committee, Du Simitiere placed the Eye over shields symbolizing each of the thirteen states of the Union. On the version of the seal that was approved, the Eye is positioned above an unfinished pyramid of thirteen steps. The symbolism is explained by the motto that appears above the Eye, Annuit Cœptis, meaning approves undertakings.
Perhaps due to its use in the design of the Great Seal, the Eye has made its way into other American seals and logos, for example, the Eye of Providence is often associated with Freemasonry. The Eye first appeared as part of the iconography of the Freemasons in 1797. Here, it represents the eye of God and is a reminder that mans thoughts. Typically, the Masonic Eye of Providence has a semi-circular glory below the eye, sometimes the Eye is enclosed by a triangle. However, common Masonic use of the Eye dates to 14 years after the creation of the Great Seal, among the members of the various design committees for the Great Seal, only Benjamin Franklin was a Mason. Indeed, many Masonic organizations have explicitly denied any connection to the creation of the Seal, a common occurrence is in the context of a reference to the Illuminati. The logo for the WWE tag team, The Ascension, media related to Eye of Providence at Wikimedia Commons
Great Seal of the United States
The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the U. S. federal government. The phrase is used both for the seal itself, and more generally for the design impressed upon it. The Great Seal was first used publicly in 1782, the obverse of the great seal is used as the national coat of arms of the United States. It is officially used on such as United States passports, military insignia, embassy placards. As a coat of arms, the design has official colors, since 1935, both sides of the Great Seal have appeared on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. The Seal of the President of the United States is directly based on the Great Seal, the design on the obverse of the seal is the coat of arms of the United States. The shield, though sometimes drawn incorrectly, has two differences from the American flag. First, it has no stars on the blue chief, unlike the American flag, the outermost stripes are white, not red, so as not to violate the heraldic rule of tincture.
The supporter of the shield is an eagle with its wings outstretched. Although not specified by law, the branch is usually depicted with 13 leaves and 13 olives. The eagle has its head turned towards the branch, on its right side. In its beak, the eagle clutches a scroll with the motto E pluribus unum, over its head there appears a glory with 13 mullets on a blue field. In the current dies of the seal, the 13 stars above the eagle are arranged in rows of 1-4-3-4-1. The 1782 resolution of Congress adopting the arms, still in force, legally blazoned the shield as Paleways of 13 pieces and gules, a more technically proper blazon would have been argent, six pallets gules. But the phrase used was chosen to preserve the reference to the 13 original states, the 1782 resolution adopting the seal blazons the image on the reverse as A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, surrounded by a glory, the pyramid is conventionally shown as consisting of 13 layers to refer to the 13 original states.
The adopting resolution provides that it is inscribed on its base with the date MDCCLXXVI in Roman numerals, where the top of the pyramid should be, the Eye of Providence watches over it. Two mottos appear, Annuit cœptis signifies that Providence has approved of undertakings, Novus ordo seclorum, freely taken from Virgil, is Latin for a new order of the ages
In Christology, the Person of Christ refers to the study of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ as they co-exist within one person. There is no discussion in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human. Hence, since the days of Christianity theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures. In the period following the Apostolic Age, specific beliefs such as Arianism and Docetism were criticized. On the other end of the spectrum, Docetism argued that Jesus physical body was an illusion, docetic teachings were attacked by St. Ignatius of Antioch and were eventually abandoned by proto-orthodox Christians. However, after the First Council of Nicaea in 325 the Logos, historically in the Alexandrian school of christology, Jesus Christ is the eternal Logos paradoxically humanized in history, a divine Person who became enfleshed, uniting himself to the human nature. The views of these schools can be summarized as follows, Antioch, Logos assumes a specific human being The First Council of Ephesus in 431 debated a number of views regarding the Person of Christ.
At the same gathering the council debated the doctrines of monophysitism or miaphysitism. The council rejected Nestorianism and adopted the term hypostatic union, referring to divine, the language used in the 431 declaration was further refined at the 451 Council of Chalcedon. However, the Chalcedon creed was not accepted by all Christians, because Saint Augustine died in 430 he did not participate in the Council of Ephesus in 431 or Chalcedon in 451, but his ideas had some impact on both councils. On the other hand, the major theological figure of the Middle Ages. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680 held that both divine and human wills exist in Jesus, with the divine will having precedence and guiding the human will. John Calvin maintained that there was no element in the Person of Christ which could be separated from the person of The Word. Calvin emphasized the importance of the Work of Christ in any attempt at understanding the Person of Christ, the study of the Person of Christ continued into the 20th century, with modern theologians such as Karl Rahner and Hans von Balthasar.
Balthasar argued that the union of the human and divine natures of Christ was achieved not by the absorption of human attributes, thus in his view the divine nature of Christ was not affected by the human attributes and remained forever divine