United States Army Air Corps
For the current active service branch, see United States Air Force The United States Army Air Corps was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America between 1926 and 1941. After World War I, as early aviation became an important part of modern warfare, a philosophical rift developed between more traditional ground-based army personnel and those who felt that aircraft were being underutilized and that air operations were being stifled for political reasons unrelated to their effectiveness; the USAAC was renamed from the earlier United States Army Air Service on 2 July 1926, was part of the larger United States Army. The Air Corps became the United States Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, giving it greater autonomy from the Army's middle-level command structure. During World War II, although not an administrative echelon, the Air Corps remained as one of the combat arms of the Army until 1947, when it was abolished by legislation establishing the Department of the Air Force; the Air Corps was renamed by the United States Congress as a compromise between the advocates of a separate air arm and those of the traditionalist Army high command who viewed the aviation arm as an auxiliary branch to support the ground forces.
Although its members worked to promote the concept of air power and an autonomous air force in the years between the world wars, its primary purpose by Army policy remained support of ground forces rather than independent operations. On 1 March 1935, still struggling with the issue of a separate air arm, the Army activated the General Headquarters Air Force for centralized control of aviation combat units within the continental United States, separate from but coordinate with the Air Corps; the separation of the Air Corps from control of its combat units caused problems of unity of command that became more acute as the Air Corps enlarged in preparation for World War II. This was resolved by the creation of the Army Air Forces, making both organizations subordinate to the new higher echelon. On June 20, 1941, the Army Air Corps' existence as the primary air arm of the U. S. Army changed to that of being the training and logistics elements of the then-new United States Army Air Forces, which embraced the formerly-named General Headquarters Air Force under the new Air Force Combat Command organization for front-line combat operations.
The Air Corps ceased to have an administrative structure after 9 March 1942, but as "the permanent statutory organization of the air arm, the principal component of the Army Air Forces," the overwhelming majority of personnel assigned to the AAF were members of the Air Corps. The U. S. Army Air Service had a turbulent history. Created during World War I by executive order of 28th President Woodrow Wilson after American entrance in April 1917 as the increasing use of airplanes and the military uses of aviation were apparent as the war continued to its climax, the U. S. Army Air Service gained permanent legislative authority in 1920 as a combatant arm of the line of the United States Army. There followed a six-year struggle between adherents of airpower and the supporters of the traditional military services about the value of an independent Air Force, intensified by struggles for funds caused by skimpy budgets, as much an impetus for independence as any other factor; the Lassiter Board, a group of General Staff officers, recommended in 1923 that the Air Service be augmented by an offensive force of bombardment and pursuit units under the command of Army general headquarters in time of war, many of its recommendations became Army regulations.
The War Department desired to implement the Lassiter Board's recommendations, but the administration of President Calvin Coolidge chose instead to economize by radically cutting military budgets the Army's. The Lampert Committee of the House of Representatives in December 1925 proposed a unified air force independent of the Army and Navy, plus a department of defense to coordinate the three armed services; however another board, headed by Dwight Morrow, was appointed in September 1925 by Coolidge ostensibly to study the "best means of developing and applying aircraft in national defense" but in actuality to minimize the political impact of the pending court-martial of Billy Mitchell. It declared that no threat of air attack was to exist to the United States, rejected the idea of a department of defense and a separate department of air, recommended minor reforms that included renaming the Air Service to allow it "more prestige."In early 1926 the Military Affairs Committee of the Congress rejected all bills set forth before it on both sides of the issue.
They fashioned a compromise in which the findings of the Morrow Board were enacted as law, while providing the air arm a "five-year plan" for expansion and development. Maj. Gen. Mason Patrick, the Chief of Air Service, had proposed that it be made a semi-independent service within the War Department along the lines of the Marine Corps within the Navy Department, but this was rejected; the legislation changed the name of the Air Service to the Air Corps, "thereby strengthening the conception of military aviation as an offensive, striking arm rather than an auxiliary service." The Air Corps Act became law on 2 July 1926. In accordance with the Morrow Board's recommendations, the act created an additional Assistant Secretary of War to "help foster military aeronautics", established an air section in each division of the General Staff for a period of three years. Two additional brigadier generals would serve as assistant chiefs of the A
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill, was a law, it was designed by the American Legion, who helped to push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters. The act avoided the disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans that caused political turmoil for a decade and a half after that war. Benefits included dedicated payments of tuition and living expenses to attend high school, college or vocational/technical school, low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, as well as one year of unemployment compensation, it was available to all veterans, on active duty during the war years for at least 90 days and had not been dishonorably discharged—exposure to combat was not required. The recipients did not pay any income tax on the G. I. benefits, since they were not considered earned income. By 1956 7.8 million veterans had used the G. I. Bill education benefits, some 2.2 million to attend colleges or universities and an additional 5.6 million for some kind of training program.
Historians and economists judge the G. I. Bill a major political and economic success—especially in contrast to the treatments of World War I veterans—and a major contribution to America's stock of human capital that encouraged long-term economic growth. Canada operated a similar program for its World War II veterans, with a beneficial economic impact. Since the original U. S. 1944 law, the term has come to include other benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service. During the 1940s, "fly-by-night" for-profit colleges sprang up to collect veterans' education grants, because the program provided limited oversight. Today, for-profit colleges and their lead generators have taken advantage of the post-9/11 G. I. Bill to target veterans for subpar products and services. According to CBS News, about 40 percent of all G. I. Bill education funds go to for-profit colleges; the Department of Veterans Affairs has a G. I. Bill feedback form for recipients to address their complaints against colleges.
In 2012, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13607, to ensure that predatory colleges did not aggressively recruit military service members and their families. In 2017, President Donald Trump signed the Forever GI Bill extending the allowable time period for veterans to pursue educational opportunities. On June 22, 1944, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill of Rights, was signed into law. During the war, politicians wanted to avoid the postwar confusion about veterans' benefits that became a political football in the 1920s and 1930s. Veterans' organizations that had formed after the First World War had millions of members. Ortiz says their efforts "entrenched the VFW and the Legion as the twin pillars of the American veterans' lobby for decades."Harry W. Colmery, Republican National Committee chairman and a former National Commander of the American Legion, is credited with writing the first draft of the G. I. Bill, he jotted down his ideas on stationery and a napkin at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.
C. U. S. Senator Ernest McFarland, AZ, National Commander of the American Legion Warren Atherton, CA were involved in the bill's passage and are known the "fathers of the G. I. Bill." One might term Edith Nourse Rogers, MA, who helped write and who co-sponsored the legislation, as the "mother of the G. I. Bill"; as with Colmery, her contribution to writing and passing this legislation has been obscured by time. The bill that President Roosevelt proposed had a means test—only poor veterans would get one year of funding; the American Legion proposal provided full benefits for all veterans, including women and minorities, regardless of their wealth. An important provision of the G. I. Bill was low interest, zero down payment home loans for servicemen, with more favorable terms for new construction compared to existing housing; this encouraged millions of American families to move out of urban apartments and into suburban homes. Another provision was known as the 52–20 clause for unemployment. Unemployed war veterans would receive $20 once a week for 52 weeks for up to one year while they were looking for work.
Less than 20 percent of the money set aside for the 52–20 Club was distributed. Rather, most returning servicemen found jobs or pursued higher education; the original G. I. Bill ended in 1956. A variety of benefits have been available to military veterans since the original bill, these benefits packages are referred to as updates to the G. I. Bill. A greater percentage of Vietnam veterans used G. I. Bill education benefits than Korean War veterans. Although the G. I. Bill did not advocate discrimination, it was interpreted differently for blacks than for whites. Historian Ira Katznelson argued that "the law was deliberately designed to accommodate Jim Crow"; because the programs were directed by local, white officials, many veterans did not benefit. In the New York and northern New Jersey suburbs 67,000 mortgages were insured by the G. I. Bill, but fewer than 100 were taken out by non-whites. By 1946, only one-fifth of the 100,000 blacks who had applied for educational benefits had registered in college.
Furthermore black colleges an
God Knows (novel)
God Knows is a tragicomedic novel written by Joseph Heller and published in 1984. It is narrated by the Biblical King David of Israel, purports to be his deathbed memoirs. Indeed, it is possible to read the book as Heller's meditation upon his own mortality, an exploration of the Jewish view of family, death, etc. All of the major touchstones of King David's life are in place: his childhood herding sheep, the prophet Samuel, King Saul, Jonathan and Uriah, the Psalms, the treachery of Absalom, etc. At some points, David betrays knowledge of the future, of heaven – we are left to guess whether or not this stems from his special relationship with God, as no answers are forthcoming. Though not nearly as famous as Heller's Catch-22, God Knows explores many of the same themes
A memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life. The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual. While memoir has been defined as a subcategory of biography or autobiography since the late 20th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus. A biography or autobiography tells the story "of a life", while a memoir tells a story "from a life", such as touchstone events and turning points from the author's life; the author of a memoir may be referred to a memorialist. Memoirs have been written since the ancient times, as shown by Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars, his second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
The noted Libanius, teacher of rhetoric who lived between an estimated 314 and 394 AD, framed his life memoir as one of his literary orations, which were written to be read aloud in the privacy of his study. This kind of memoir refers to the idea in ancient Greece and Rome, that memoirs were like "memos", or pieces of unfinished and unpublished writing, which a writer might use as a memory aid to make a more finished document on; the Sarashina Nikki is an example of an early Japanese memoir, written in the Heian period. A genre of book writing, Nikki Bungaku, emerged during this time. In the Middle Ages, Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Jean de Joinville, Philippe de Commines wrote memoirs, while the genre was represented toward the end of the Renaissance, through the works of Blaise de Montluc and Margaret of Valois, that she was the first woman to write her Memoirs in modern-style; until the Age of Enlightenment encompassing the 17th and 18th centuries, works of memoir were written by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury.
While Saint-Simon was considered a writer possessing a high level of skill for narrative and character development, it wasn't until well after his death that his work as a memoirist was recognized, resulting in literary fame. Over the latter half of the 18th through the mid-20th century, memoirists included those who were noted within their chosen profession; these authors wrote as a way to publish their own account of their public exploits. Authors included politicians or people in court society and were joined by military leaders and businessmen. An exception to these models is Henry David Thoreau's 1854 memoir Walden, which presents his experiences over the course of two years in a cabin he built near Walden Pond. Twentieth-century war memoirs became a genre of their own, from the First World War, Ernst Jünger and Frederic Manning's Her Privates We. Memoirs documenting incarceration by Nazi Germany during the war include Primo Levi's If This Is a Man, which covers his arrest as a member of the Italian Resistance Movement, followed by his life as a prisoner in Auschwitz.
In the early 1990s, memoirs written by ordinary people experienced a sudden upsurge, as an increasing number of people realized that their ancestors’ and their own stories were about to disappear, in part as a result of the opportunities and distractions of technological advances. At the same time and other research began to show that familiarity with genealogy helps people find their place in the world and that life review helps people come to terms with their own past. With the advent of inexpensive digital book production in the first decade of the 21st century, the genre exploded. Memoirs written as a way to pass down a personal legacy, rather than as a literary work of art or historical document, are emerging as a personal and family responsibility; the Association of Personal Historians formed in Amherst, Massachusetts, in the early days of the modern memoir, as an international trade association for professionals who assist individuals and organizations in documenting their life stories, preferably in archival formats.
With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, some organizations work with potential memoirists to bring their work to fruition. The Veterans History Project, for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the United States Armed Forces – those who have seen active combat. Association of Personal Historians Diary Fake memoirs Histoire de ma vie Last will and testament Time Magazine. Memoir Network
Portrait of an Artist, as an Old Man
Portrait of an Artist, as an Old Man is a novel by Joseph Heller, published posthumously in 2000. His final work, it depicts an elderly author as he tries to write a novel, as successful as his earlier work, mirroring Heller's own career after the success of Catch-22; the story is of Eugene Pota, a prominent writer who, in his old age, is struggling for that last piece of fiction that could be his magnum opus, or at least on par with his earlier writings. Littered throughout the novel are many of Pota's ideas and drafts of possible stories, such as the sexual biography of his wife, or of Hera's trouble with Zeus; the title is evocatively similar to James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. The main character's name "Pota" is the abbreviation of the phrase "Portrait Of The Artist". Critical reception to the novel was mixed. Michiko Kakutani, chief book critic for The New York Times, judged that "skills Heller did possess in abundance at the height of his career are sorely lacking in this novel", called it "a sad coda to a distinguished career."
Tim Adams, writing for The Guardian, was more positive, calling it a "moderate success" and describing it as a "caustic self-parody". "My lord came home from the wars today and pleasured me twice with his boots on" -- Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. This quote influenced the main character to write about his sex book or "The Sexual Biography of My Wife."
Something Happened is Joseph Heller's second novel. Its main character and narrator is Bob Slocum, a businessman who engages in a stream of consciousness narrative about his job, his family, his childhood, his sexual escapades, his own psyche. While there is an ongoing plot about Slocum preparing for a promotion at work, most of the book focuses on detailing various events from his life, ranging from early childhood to his predictions for the future in non-chronological order and with little if anything to connect one anecdote to the next. Near the end of the book, Slocum starts worrying about the state of his own sanity as he finds himself hallucinating or remembering events incorrectly, suggesting that some or all of the novel might be the product of his imagination, making him an unreliable narrator. Something Happened has failed to achieve the renown of Catch-22 but has a cult following, with some considering it one of Heller's finest works. Something Happened has been criticized as overlong and unhappy.
These sentiments are echoed in a review of the novel by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. but are balanced with praise for the novel's prose and the meticulous patience Heller took in the creation of the novel. In a contemporary write-up for Kirkus Reviews, the reviewer states that "there is none of the rogue absurdism or imaginative verve" of Heller's previous novel, but praises the book's "bravura and cumulative hook". Something Happened has since garnered a small base of devoted fans. In 2015, Carmen Petaccio referred to it as the "most criminally overlooked great novel of the past half century one of the most pleasurable, in retrospect moving American novels written." Naturi Thomas-Millard called it the "best book you've never read". Novelist Jonathan Franzen prefers Something Happened to Catch-22, Christopher Buckley referred to the work as "dark and brilliant". Comedian Richard Lewis claims. Kurt Vonnegut on'Something Happened' from The New York Times Book Review