Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years, it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. According to its statutes, the school is called in Latin Collegium Sanctae Mariae prope Wintoniam, or Collegium Beatae Mariae Wintoniensis prope Winton, which translates as St Mary's College, near Winchester, or The College of the Blessed Mary of Winchester, near Winchester, it is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as "Win: Coll:", is more known as just "Winchester". Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor to both Edward III and Richard II, the first 70 poor scholars entered the school in 1394. In the early 15th century the specific requirements was that that scholars come from families where the income was less than five marks sterling per annum.
It was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder: the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. This double foundation was the model for Eton College and King's College, some 50 years and for Westminster School, Christ Church and Trinity College, Cambridge, in Tudor times. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 "Quiristers", the statutes provided for ten "noble Commoners"; these Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his official apartments in College. Other paying pupils, either guests of one of the Masters in his private house or living in lodgings in town, grew in numbers till the late 18th century, when they were all required to live in "Old Commoners" and town boarding was banned. In the 19th century this was replaced by "New Commoners", the numbers fluctuated between 70 and 130: the new building was compared unfavourably to a workhouse, as it was built over an underground stream, epidemics of typhus and malaria were common.
In the late 1850s four boarding houses were planned, to be headed by housemasters: the plan, since dropped, was to increase the number of scholars to 100 so that there would be "College", "Commoners" and "Houses" consisting of 100 pupils each. In the 1860s "New Commoners" was closed and converted to classrooms, its members were divided among four further boarding houses. At the same time two more houses were added to the "Houses" category. There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, the total number of pupils is 700. From the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers; the Scholars live in the original buildings, known as College. College is not referred to as a house: hence the terms'housemaster of College' and'College house' are not used; the housemaster of College is now known as the'Master in College', though these duties belonged to the Second Master. Within the school,'College' refers only to the body of scholars.
Every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps; each house is presided over by a number of house tutors. Houses compete in school competitions in sporting competitions; each house has an official name based on the family name of the first housemaster, used as a postal address. Each house has an informal name, more used in speech based on the name or nickname of an early housemaster; each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the informal name of the house with "-ite" suffixed, as "a Furleyite", "a Toyeite", "a Cookite" and so on; the houses have been ordered by their year of founding. College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used on written work, it has a letter assigned to it, X, but it is considered bad form to use this except as a laundry mark or in lists of sporting fixtures.
Each house had a set of house colours, which adorned the ribbon worn around boys' "strats". The wearing of strats was abolished for Commoners in around 1984 – Collegemen had ceased to wear them years earlier, they can however still be seen being sported on Winchester Day. House colours are now used on socks and "pussies", scarves awarded for exceptional contribution to the house or society. Winchester has its own entrance examination, does not use Common Entrance like other major public schools; those wishing to enter a Commoner House make their arrangements with the relevant housemaster some two years before sitting the exam sitting
Rev. Dr. Bulkeley Bandinel was a British scholar and librarian, he was born in the parish of St Peter-in-the-East, firstborn son of Rev. Dr. James Bandinel of Netherbury by his wife, Margaret. Educated at Reading under Richard Valpy and at Winchester College, Bandinel entered New College, Oxford, in 1800 and was a Fellow there until 1813, he was ordained as a priest in the Church of England in 1805. During Admiral Sir James Saumarez's Baltic campaign of 1808, Bandinel served a short while as chaplain on board HMS Victory. From 1810 he was Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library under his godfather John Price, rose to become Bodley's Librarian in 1813 upon Price's death, it was a position he held until his own death in 1861. Bandinel was Dean of New College and Proctor of the University in 1814, a Delegate of the University Press from 1813. In addition, his clerical posts included curacies at nearby Wytham from 1816, at Albury, from 1820, but Bandinel, occupied with administering the Bodleian and paying from his own purse for bold acquisitions of rare books and manuscripts visited his living in the North and the parish was run by a curate in his place.
The Bodleian's collections increased under his direction and his knowledge of literary circles was seconded. His patience with both ill-informed library visitors and colleagues would run thin, many a guest falling victim to his short temper, but it is said that his courtesy was guaranteed to anyone of note who wished to consult him, he was one of the three contributors to Collectanea Genealogica. Macray in his Annals of the Bodleian Library recounts that Bandinel resigned his librarianship in 1860 "after forty-seven years of office as in the capacity of Head, a total of fifty of work in the Library... At the age of seventy-nine the natural infirmities of age were felt by himself to incapacitate him for the duties which he had so long and so discharged, he gave way to Henry Octavius Coxe. Bandinel married, in 1813, Mary Phillips, daughter of John Phillips of Culham and died without issue in 1861 at his home, 31 Beaumont Street, Oxford
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. With over 12 million items, it is the second-largest library in Britain after the British Library. Under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 it is one of six legal deposit libraries for works published in the United Kingdom and under Irish Law it is entitled to request a copy of each book published in the Republic of Ireland. Known to Oxford scholars as "Bodley" or "the Bod", it operates principally as a reference library and, in general, documents may not be removed from the reading rooms. In 2000, a number of libraries within the University of Oxford were brought together for administrative purposes under the aegis of what was known as Oxford University Library Services, since 2010 as the Bodleian Libraries, of which the Bodleian Library is the largest component. All colleges of the University of Oxford have their own libraries, which in a number of cases were established well before the foundation of the Bodleian, all of which remain independent of the Bodleian.
They do, participate in OLIS, the Bodleian Libraries' online union catalogue. Much of the library's archives were digitized and put online for public access in 2015; the Bodleian Library occupies a group of five buildings near Broad Street: the 15th-century Duke Humfrey's Library, the 17th-century Schools Quadrangle, the 18th-century Clarendon Building and Radcliffe Camera, the 20th- and 21st-century Weston Library. Since the 19th century a number of underground stores have been built, while the principal off-site storage area is located at South Marston on the edge of Swindon. Before being granted access to the library, new readers are required to agree to a formal declaration; this declaration was traditionally an oral oath, but is now made by signing a letter to a similar effect. Ceremonies in which readers recite the declaration are still performed for those who wish to take them. External readers are still required to recite the declaration orally prior to admission; the Bodleian Admissions Office has amassed a large collection of translations of the declaration — covering over one hundred different languages as of spring 2017 — allowing those who are not native English speakers to recite it in their first language.
The English text of the declaration is as follows: I hereby undertake not to remove from the Library, nor to mark, deface, or injure in any way, any volume, document or other object belonging to it or in its custody. This is a translation of the traditional Latin oath: Do fidem me nullum librum vel instrumentum aliamve quam rem ad bibliothecam pertinentem, vel ibi custodiae causa depositam, aut e bibliotheca sublaturum esse, aut foedaturum deformaturum aliove quo modo laesurum. Whilst the Bodleian Library, in its current incarnation, has a continuous history dating back to 1602, its roots date back further; the first purpose-built library known to have existed in Oxford was founded in the 14th century under the will of Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester. This small collection of chained books was situated above the north side of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin on the High Street; this collection continued to grow but when Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester donated a great collection of manuscripts between 1435 and 1437, the space was deemed insufficient and a larger building was required.
A suitable room was built above the Divinity School, completed in 1488. This room continues to be known as Duke Humfrey's Library. After 1488, the university stopped spending money on the library's upkeep and acquisitions, manuscripts began to go unreturned to the library; the library went through a period of decline in the late 16th century: the library’s furniture was sold, only three of the original books belonging to Duke Humphrey remained in the collection. During the reign of Edward VI, there was a purge of "superstitious" manuscripts, it was not until 1598 that the library began to thrive once more, when Thomas Bodley wrote to the Vice Chancellor of the University offering to support the development of the library: "where there hath bin hertofore a publike library in Oxford: which you know is apparent by the rome it self remayning, by your statute records I will take the charge and cost upon me, to reduce it again to his former use." Six of the Oxford University dons were tasked with helping Bodley in refitting the library in March 1598.
Duke Humfrey’s Library was refitted, Bodley donated a number of his own books to furnish it. The library was formally re-opened on 8 November 1602 under the name “Bodleian Library”. There were around two thousand books in the library at this time, with an ornate Benefactor's Register displayed prominently, to encourage donations. Early benefactors were motivated by the recent memory of the Reformation to donate books in the hopes that they would be kept safe. Bodley’s collecting interests were varied.
Falconer Madan was Librarian of the Bodleian Library of Oxford University. Falconer Madan was born in Cam, the fifth son of George and Harriet Madan, he was educated at Marlborough College and Brasenose College, where he took part in Oxford and Cambridge Chess matches in 1873 and 1874, won the University Singles Fives prize in 1874. Madan was a Fellow of Brasenose from 1875 until 1880, when he was appointed sub-librarian of the Bodleian Library. In 1890 he was given the task of the creating a summary catalogue of the manuscripts of the Bodleian beginning with those not included in the catalogue of 1697; the completion of the Summary Catalogue is the chief monument of his work. In 1889 Madan became a Fellow again and lecturer in palaeography until 1913. Another significant publication of this period is his The Early Oxford Press: a bibliography of printing and publishing at Oxford, 1468–1640. In 1912 Madan became Librarian of the Bodleian. During this time, a new underground book-store under Radcliffe Square was opened, the Library records were put into systematic arrangement, the Bodleian Quarterly Record, a periodical of more than local interest, was started.
He resigned the Librarianship in 1919. He was president of the Library Association in 1914 and 1915, President of the Bibliographical Society from 1919 to 1921, President of the Oxford Bibliographic Society in 1924 and 1925, he published many library related works. In 1932 received the Gold Medal of the Bibliographical Society. Madan helped Sidney Herbert Williams revise his A Bibliography of Lewis Carroll, the first such, into A Handbook of the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson, receiving co-author credit, published a supplement thereto in 1935, he edited The Lewis Carroll Centenary in London, a catalogue of the exhibition. Falconer Madan married Frances Jane Hayter second daughter of Harrison Hayter the engineer, his son, was a celebrated anthologist. His daughter Ethel married Charles Fox Burney and his granddaughter Venetia Burney is noteworthy for proposing the name Pluto for the newly discovered planet. Oxford Books: a bibliography of printed works relating to the university and city of Oxford or printed or published there v.1 The Early Oxford Press, 1468–1640 v.2 Oxford Literature, 1450–1640, 1641–1650 v.3 Oxford Literature, 1651–1680Books in Manuscript The Gresleys of Drakelowe History of the Madan Family The Daniel Press: memorials of C. H. O. Daniel, with a bibliography of the Press 1845–1919.
Oxford Outside the Guide-Books A Handbook of the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson The Lewis Carroll Centenary in London Who's Who Times Obituaries May 1935 Works by or about Falconer Madan at Internet Archive
Society of Antiquaries of London
The Society of Antiquaries of London is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with'the encouragement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, London, is a registered charity. Members of the society are known as fellows and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FSA after their names. Fellows are elected by existing members of the society, to be elected persons shall be "excelling in the knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other nations" and be "desirous to promote the honour and emoluments of the Society." The society retains a selective election procedure, in comparison with many other learned societies. Nominations for fellowship can come only from existing fellows of the society, must be signed by at least five and up to twelve existing fellows, certifying that, from their personal knowledge, the candidate would make a worthy fellow. Elections occur by anonymous ballot, a candidate must achieve a ratio of two'yes' votes for every'no' vote cast by fellows participating in the ballot to be elected as a fellow.
Fellowship is thus regarded as recognition of significant achievement in the fields of archaeology, antiquities and heritage. The first secretary for the society was William Stukeley; as of 2017, the society has a membership of 3,055 fellows. A precursor organisation, the College of Antiquaries, was founded c. 1586 and functioned as a debating society until it was forbidden to do so by King James I in 1614. The first informal meeting of the modern Society of Antiquaries occurred at the Bear Tavern on The Strand on 5 December 1707; this early group, conceived by John Talman, John Bagford, Humfrey Wanley, sought a charter from Queen Anne for the study of British antiquities. The proposal for the society was to be advanced by Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, but his dismissal from government caused it to become idle; the formalisation of proceedings occurred in 1717, the first minutes at the Mitre Tavern, Fleet Street, are dated 1 January 1718. Those attending these meetings examined objects, gave talks, discussed theories of historical sites.
Reports on the dilapidation of significant buildings were produced. The society was concerned with the topics of heraldry and historical documents. In 1751, a successful application for a charter of incorporation was sought by its long-serving vice president Joseph Ayloffe, which allowed the society to own property; the society began to gather large collections of manuscripts and artefacts, housing such gifts and bequests while a proper institution for them did not exist. The acquisition of a large group of important paintings in 1828 preceded the establishment of the National Portrait Gallery by some 30 years. A gift of Thomas Kenwich, which included portraits of Edward IV, Mary Tudor, two of Richard III, reveal anti-Tudor bias in their portrayal. Following the London Blitz, the society organized many of the excavations of Roman and medieval ruins exposed by the bombing of the City, with annual surveys performed every year between 1946 and 1962. Among other finds, they discovered the unknown London citadel in the northwest corner of the London Wall.
The findings were summarized in 1968 by W. F. Grimes. In 2007, the society celebrated its tercentennial year with an exhibition at the Royal Academy entitled Making History: Antiquaries in Britain 1707-2007; the tercentenary was marked by two substantial publications: a collection of seventeen scholarly essays on the parallel themes of the history of the society itself and changing interpretations of the material relics of the past over the three centuries of its existence. The society's library is the major archaeological research library in the UK. Having acquired material since the early 18th century, the Library's present holdings number more than 100,000 books and around 800 received periodical titles; the catalogue include rare drawings and manuscripts, such as the inventory of all Henry VIII's possessions at the time of his death. As the oldest archaeological library in the country, the Library holds an outstanding collection of British county histories, a fine collection of 18th- and 19th-century books on the antiquities of Britain and other countries and an exceptionally wide-ranging collection of periodical titles with runs dating back to the early to mid-19th century.
In 1718, the society began to publish a series of illustrated papers on ancient buildings and artefacts those of Britain and written by members of the society, under the title Vetusta Monumenta. The series continued to appear on an irregular basis until 1906; the papers were published in a folio format, were notable for the inclusion of finely engraved views and reproductions of artefacts. An engraver was employed by the society from its inception – the earliest were George Vertue, James Basire and successors – labouring to produce the copperplate used in the printing of the folio editions; the prints were large and appealing, were intended to satisfy popular demand for archæological subject matter. A fellow of the society, Richard Gough, sought to expand and improve publication of the society's research, motivated by the steady dilapidation of examples
Sir Thomas Bodley was an English diplomat and scholar who founded the Bodleian Library in Oxford. Thomas Bodley was born on 2 March 1545, in the second-to-last year of the reign of King Henry VIII, in the City of Exeter in Devon, he was one of the seven sons of John Bodley of Exeter, a Protestant merchant who chose foreign exile rather than staying in England under the Roman Catholic government of Queen Mary. John's father John Bodley, was a younger son of the gentry family of Bodley of Dunscombe, near Crediton in Devon. Thomas's mother was a daughter and co-heiress of Robert Hone of Ottery St Mary, Devon. Thomas's younger brother was Sir Josias Bodley, knighted in Ireland by the Earl of Devon; the family, including Thomas' younger brother Josias Bodley, sought refuge in the Duchy of Cleves, staying in the town of Wesel in the imperial free city of Frankfurt, before settling in Geneva, home of Calvinism and a great centre of the Reformation. There, Thomas had the opportunity to study at John Calvin's newly erected Academy.
He attended lectures in Divinity given by Theodore Beza and Calvin himself and attended services led by John Knox. He learned Greek from Mattheus Hebrew from Antoine Chevallier; the study of these languages remained enduring passions for Bodley throughout his life. After Mary's death in 1558 and the accession of Queen Elizabeth, the family returned to England, Bodley entered Magdalen College, Oxford, to study under Lawrence Humphrey. In 1563 he took his B. A. degree, was shortly thereafter, in 1564, admitted as a Fellow of Merton College. He began lecturing at Merton and in April 1565 was formally appointed as the college's first Lecturer in Ancient Greek, a post, subsequently made permanent, he served in many college offices: in 1569 he was elected as one of the University's junior proctors and for some time after was deputy Public Orator. Leaving Oxford in 1576 with a license to study abroad and a grant from his college of £6. 13s. 4d. Bodley toured France and the Holy Roman Empire, visiting scholars and adding French and Spanish to his repertoire of languages.
It has been suggested that during his tour in Italy he was in initiated in Forlì in some form of Pythagorean initiation in a platonic academy. On his return to England Bodley was appointed a gentleman-usher to Queen Elizabeth and in 1584 entered the House of Commons as one of the members for Portsmouth. In 1585 he was entrusted with a mission to form a league between Frederick II of Denmark and certain German princes to assist Henry of Navarre, the future Henry IV of France, he was next dispatched on a secret mission to France. In 1586 he was elected to represent St Germans in parliament, in 1588 he was sent to the Hague as minister, a post which demanded great diplomatic skill, for it was in the Netherlands that the power of Spain had to be fought; the essential difficulties of his mission were complicated by the intrigues of the queen's ministers at home, Bodley asked to be recalled. He was permitted to return to England in 1596, but finding his hoped-for preferment of becoming Secretary of State obstructed by the competing interests of Burghley and Essex, he retired from public life and returned to Oxford.
Following his marriage in 1587 he was obliged to resign his fellowship at Merton, but he retained many friends there and in the spring of 1598 the college gave a dinner in his honour. G. H. Martin speculates that the inspiration to restore the old Duke Humfrey's Library may have come from the renewal of Bodley's contact with Henry Savile and other former colleagues at this dinner. Once his proposal was accepted, he devoted the rest of his life to the library project, he was knighted on 18 April 1604. In 1587 he married Ann Carew, the wealthy widow of a certain Mr Ball, the daughter of a certain Mr Carew of Bristol in Somerset, his monument in Merton College Chapel displays the arms of Bodley impaling Carew, an ancient Devonshire family seated at Mohuns Ottery, descended from Nicholas Carew, feudal lord of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, feudal lord of Odrone in Ireland and lord of the manor of Moulsford in Berkshire. He died on 28 January 1613, was buried in the choir of Merton College Chapel.
His monument survives on the western wall of the north transept of the chapel, formed of black and white marble with pillars representing books and allegories of learning. Bodley's greatest achievement was the re-founding of the library at Oxford. In 1444, the existing university library was augmented by a gift of some 300 manuscripts from Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest son of Henry IV. However, during the Reformation of the 1550s, the library had been stripped and abandoned, remaining untouched until the return of Bodley in 1598; the library was named the Bodleian Library in his honour. He determined, he said, "to take his farewell of state employments and to set up his staff at the library door in Oxford." In 1598 his offer to restore the old library was accepted by the university. Bodley began his book collection effort in 1600, using the site of the former library above the Divinity School, in near ruin. Although Bodley lived over 400 years ago, modern libraries benefit from some of his ideas and practices.
One important idea that Bodley implemented was the creation of a "Benefactors' Book" in 1602, bound and put on display in the library in 1604. While he did have funding through the wea
Charles Francis Christopher Hawkes, FBA, FSA was an English archaeologist specialising in European prehistory. He was Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford from 1946 to 1972, he was educated at Winchester College and New College, where he obtained first class honours in classics. He began archaeological work at the British Museum and was appointed Professor of European Archaeology at Oxford in 1946, he was a Fellow of Keble College. He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Society of Antiquaries in 1981. In 1933 he was married to Jacquetta Hopkins, but they were divorced in 1953. With Jacquetta Hawkes, he co-authored Prehistoric Britain, he married Sonia Chadwick an archaeologist, in 1959. They jointly edited Greeks and Romans: studies in venture and resistance, 1973, he was survived by his wife Sonia and son Nicholas. Hawkes' paternal family had been ironmasters in Birmingham, his paternal grandfather Charles Samuel Hawkes moved to Beckenham in Kent with his seven children following the death of his wife.
Hawkes' father was raised in Kent, before studying History at Trinity College, Cambridge from 1894 to 1897. He travelled to the Canary Islands, where he met a woman, half-Spanish and half-English, they subsequently married, resulting in Hawkes' birth. Being schooled in London, Hawkes inherited his father's fascination with past societies, influenced in this by the scenery of southern England and what he had read in the works of Rudyard Kipling; when the First World War broke out in August 1914, Hawkes' father volunteered to join several friends in the Special Reserve of the Northumberland Fusiliers. According to Brian Fagan, Hawkes was "a complex character" and "an ardent and skilled typologist". Myres, J. N. L.. "The Archaeology of Lincolnshire and Lincoln: Anglian and Anglo-Danish Lincolnshire". The Archaeological Journal. Royal Archaeological Institute. CIII: 85–101. Daniel, Glyn Edmund. J. Mulvaney. New York: Thames and Hudson. Harding, D. W. "Christopher Hawkes", in: The Record. Keble College. Stroud: Alan Sutton (hardcover, ISBN 0-86299-881-6 Díaz-Andreu, Megan Price and Chris Gosden 2009.
"Christopher Hawkes, his archive and networks in British and European archaeology". The Antiquaries Journal 89: 1-22 Christopher Hawkes: his archive and networks in British and European archaeology.