Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Haumea, Papahānaumoku, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more guardian spirits known as ʻaumakua that protected family. One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups: the four gods – Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne the four hundred gods and goddesses the great multitude of gods and goddesses the spirits the guardians Another breakdown consists of three major groups: the four gods, or akua: Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions guardian spirits, ʻaumakua, associated with particular families One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the aliʻi, or Hawaiian royalty, to the gods.
The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or pō, day, or ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the birth of Laʻilaʻi, the woman, Kiʻi, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with the woman before the god Kāne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of mankind from being symbols for the gods into the keeper of these symbols in the form of idols and the like; the Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to honor the god of Lono. The kahuna were well respected, educated individuals that made up a social hierarchy class that served the King and the Courtiers and assisted the Maka'ainana. Selected to serve many practical and governmental purposes, Kahuna were healers, builders, prophets/temple workers, philosophers, they talked with the spirits. Kahuna Kūpaʻiulu of Maui in 1867 described a counter-sorcery ritual to heal someone ill due to hoʻopiʻopiʻo, another’s evil thoughts.
He said. Prayers were said. "If the evil spirit appears and possesses the patient he or she can be saved by the conversation between the practitioner and that spirit."Pukui and others believed kahuna did not have mystical transcendent experiences as described in other religions. Although a person, possessed would go into a trance-like state, it was not an ecstatic experience but a communion with the known spirits. Kapu refers to a system of taboos designed to separate the spiritually pure from the unclean. Thought to have arrived with Pāʻao, a priest or chief from Tahiti who arrived in Hawaiʻi sometime around 1200 AD, the kapu imposed a series of restrictions on daily life. Prohibitions included: The separation of men and women during mealtimes Restrictions on the gathering and preparation of food Women separated from the community during their menses Restrictions on looking at, touching, or being in close proximity with chiefs and individuals of known spiritual power Restrictions on overfishingHawaiian tradition shows that ʻAikapu was an idea led by the kahuna in order for Wākea, the sky father, to get alone with his daughter, Hoʻohokukalani without his wahine, or wife, the earth mother, noticing.
The spiritually pure or laʻa, meaning "sacred" and unclean or haumia were to be separated. ʻAikapu included: The use of a different ovens to cook the food of male and female Different eating places Women were forbidden to eat pig, coconut and certain red foods because of their male symbolism. During times of war, the first two men to be killed were offered to the gods as sacrifices. Other Kapus included Mālama ʻĀina, meaning Niʻaupiʻo. Tradition says that mālama ʻāina originated from the first child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani being deformed so they buried him in the ground and what sprouted became the first kalo known as taro; the Hawaiian islands are all children of Papa, Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani so meaning that they are older siblings of the Hawaiian chiefs. Second child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani became the first Aliʻi Nui, or "Grand Chief"; this came to be called Niʻaupiʻo, the chiefly incest to create the "godly child". Punishments for breaking the kapu could include death, although if one could escape to a puʻuhonua, a city of refuge, one could be saved.
Kāhuna nui mandated long periods. No baby could cry, dog howl, or rooster crow, on pain of death. Human sacrifice was not unknown; the kapu system remained in place until 1819. Prayer was an essential part of Hawaiian life, employed when building a house, making a canoe, giving lomilomi massage. Hawaiians addressed prayers to various gods depending on the situation; when healers picked herbs for medicine, they prayed to Kū and Hina and female, right and left and supine. The people worshiped Lono during Kū during times of war. Histories from the 19th century describe prayer throughout the day, with specific p
A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primaeval waters found in certain creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth. Most flood myths contain a culture hero, who "represents the human craving for life"; the flood myth motif is found among many cultures as seen in the Mesopotamian flood stories and Pyrrha in Greek mythology, the Genesis flood narrative, Pralaya in Hinduism, the Gun-Yu in Chinese mythology, Bergelmir in Norse mythology, in the lore of the K'iche' and Maya peoples in Mesoamerica, the Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwa tribe of Native Americans in North America, the Muisca, Cañari Confederation, in South America and the Aboriginal tribes in southern Australia. Though the account of Noah in the Hebrew Bible has long been the most studied flood story by scholars, in the 19th century Assyriologist George Smith translated the first Babylonian account of a great flood.
Further discoveries produced several versions of the Mesopotamian flood myth, with the account closest to that in Genesis found in a 700 BC Babylonian copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The known versions of the Mesopotamian flood myths have as their protagonists Atrahasis and Utnapishtim; the Sumerian King List relies on the flood motif to divide its history into preflood and postflood periods. The preflood kings had enormous lifespans; the Sumerian flood myth found in the Deluge tablet was the epic of Ziusudra, who heard the gods' plan to destroy humanity, in response to which he constructed a vessel that delivered him from great waters. In the more detailed Mesopotamian accounts of the flood, the Gilgamesh flood myth and the epic of Atrahasis, the highest god Enlil decides to destroy the world with a flood because humans have become too noisy; the god Ea, who created humans out of clay and divine blood, secretly warns the hero Utnapishtim of the impending flood and gives him detailed instructions for building a boat so that life may survive.
In the c. 6th century BC Book of Genesis, the god Yahweh, who created man out of clay, decides to flood the earth because of the sinful state of mankind. It is Yahweh who gives the protagonist Noah instructions to build an ark in order to preserve human and animal life; when the ark is completed, his family, representatives of all the animals of the earth are called upon to enter the ark. When the destructive flood begins, all life outside of the ark perishes. After the waters recede, all those aboard the ark disembark and have Yahweh's promise that he will never judge the earth with a flood again, he causes a rainbow to form as the sign of this promise. In Hindu mythology, texts such as the Satapatha Brahmana and the Puranas contain the story of a great flood, "Pralaya", wherein the Matsya Avatar of the Vishnu warns the first man, Manu, of the impending flood, advises him to build a giant boat. In Plato's Timaeus, written c. 360 BC, Timaeus describes a flood myth similar to the earlier versions.
In it, the Bronze race of humans angers the high god Zeus with their constant warring. Zeus decides to punish humanity with a flood; the Titan Prometheus, who had created humans from clay, tells the secret plan to Deucalion, advising him to build an ark in order to be saved. After nine nights and days, the water starts the ark lands on a mountain. A world-wide deluge, such as described in Genesis, is incompatible with modern scientific understanding of natural history geology and paleontology. In ancient Mesopotamia, the Sumerian King List reads After kingship came down from heaven.... The kingship was taken to Shuruppak. In Shuruppak, Ubara-Tutu became king. In 5 cities 8 kings; the flood swept over. Excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at Shuruppak and various other Sumerian cities. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to about 2900 BC, interrupts the continuity of settlement, extending as far north as the city of Kish, which took over hegemony after the flood.
Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period was discovered below the Shuruppak flood stratum. Other sites, such as Ur, Uruk and Ninevah, all present evidence of flooding. However, this evidence comes from different time periods; the Shuruppak flood seems to have been a localised event caused through the damming of the Karun River through the spread of dunes, flooding into the Tigris, simultaneous heavy rainfall in the Nineveh region, spilling across into the Euphrates. In Israel, there is no such evidence of a widespread flood. Given the similarities in the Mesopotamian flood story and the Biblical account, it would seem that they have a common origin in the memories of the Shuruppak account. Floods in the wake of the last glacial period may have inspired myths, it has been postulated that the deluge myth in North America may be based on a sudden rise in sea levels caused by the rapid draining of prehistoric Lake Agassiz at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8,400 years ago. The geography of the Mesopotamian area was changed by the filling of the Persian Gulf after sea waters rose following the last glacial period.
Global sea levels were about 120 m lower around 18,000 BP and rose until 8,000 BP when they reached curren
Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii. Its peak is 4,207.3 m above sea level. Most of the mountain is under water, when measured from its oceanic base, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world measuring over 10,000 m. Mauna Kea is about a million years old, has thus passed the most active shield stage of life hundreds of thousands of years ago. In its current post-shield state, its lava is more viscous. Late volcanism has given it a much rougher appearance than its neighboring volcanoes due to construction of cinder cones, decentralization of its rift zones, glaciation on its peak, weathering by the prevailing trade winds. Mauna Kea last is now considered dormant; the peak is about 38 m higher than its more massive neighbor. In Hawaiian mythology, the peaks of the island of Hawaii are sacred. An ancient law allowed only high-ranking aliʻi to visit its peak. Ancient Hawaiians living on the slopes of Mauna Kea relied on its extensive forests for food, quarried the dense volcano-glacial basalts on its flanks for tool production.
When Europeans arrived in the late 18th century, settlers introduced cattle and game animals, many of which became feral and began to damage the mountain's ecological balance. Mauna Kea can be ecologically divided into three sections: an alpine climate at its summit, a Sophora chrysophylla–Myoporum sandwicense forest on its flanks, an Acacia koa–Metrosideros polymorpha forest, now cleared by the former sugar industry, at its base. In recent years, concern over the vulnerability of the native species has led to court cases that have forced the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources to eradicate all feral species on the mountain. With its high elevation, dry environment, stable airflow, Mauna Kea's summit is one of the best sites in the world for astronomical observation. Since the creation of an access road in 1964, thirteen telescopes funded by eleven countries have been constructed at the summit; the Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum and comprise the largest such facility in the world.
Their construction on a landscape considered sacred by Native Hawaiians continues to be a topic of debate. Mauna Kea is one of five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaii, the largest and youngest island of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Of these five hotspot volcanoes, Mauna Kea is the fourth oldest and fourth most active, it began as a preshield volcano driven by the Hawaii hotspot around one million years ago, became exceptionally active during its shield stage until 500,000 years ago. Mauna Kea entered its quieter post-shield stage 250,000 to 200,000 years ago, is dormant. Mauna Kea does not have a visible summit caldera, but contains a number of small cinder and pumice cones near its summit. A former summit caldera may have been filled and buried by summit eruption deposits. Mauna Kea is over 32,000 km3 in volume, so massive that it and its neighbor, Mauna Loa, depress the ocean crust beneath it by 6 km; the volcano continues to slip and flatten under its own weight at a rate of less than 0.2 mm per year.
Much of its mass lies east of its present summit. Mauna Kea stands 4,207.3 m above sea level, about 38 m higher than its neighbor Mauna Loa, is the highest point in the state of Hawaii. Measured from its base on the ocean floor, it rises over 10,000 m greater than the elevation of Mount Everest above sea level. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Mauna Kea has been created as the Pacific tectonic plate has moved over the Hawaiian hotspot in the Earth's underlying mantle; the Hawaii island volcanoes are the most recent evidence of this process that, over 70 million years, has created the 6,000 km -long Hawaiian Ridge–Emperor seamount chain. The prevailing, though not settled, view is that the hotspot has been stationary within the planet's mantle for much, if not all of the Cenozoic Era. However, while Hawaiian volcanism is well understood and extensively studied, there remains no definite explanation of the mechanism that causes the hotspot effect. Lava flows from Mauna Kea overlapped in complex layers with those of its neighbors during its growth.
Most prominently, Mauna Kea is built upon older flows from Kohala to the northwest, intersects the base of Mauna Loa to the south. The original eruptive fissures in the flanks of Mauna Kea were buried by its post-shield volcanism. Hilo Ridge, a prominent underwater rift zone structure east of Mauna Kea, was once believed to be a part of the volcano; the shield-stage lavas that built the enormous main mass of the mountain are tholeiitic basalts, like those of Mauna Loa, created through the mixing of primary magma and subducted oceanic crust. They are covered by the oldest exposed rock strata on Mauna Kea, the post-shield alkali basalts of the Hāmākua Volcanics, which erupted between 250,000 and 70–65,000 years ago; the most recent volcanic flows are hawaiites and mugearites: they are the post-shield Laupāhoehoe Volcanics, erupted between 65,000 and 4,000 years ago. These changes in lava composition accompanied the slow reduction of the supply of magma to the summit, which led to weaker eruptions that gave way to isolated episodes associated with volcanic dormancy.
The Laupāhoehoe lavas are more viscous and contain more volatiles than the earlier tholeiitic basalts.