Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Kalpakkam is a small town in Tamil Nadu, situated on the Coromandel Coast 70 kilometres south of Chennai. A conglomerate of two villages and a DAE township, it is about 55 kilometres from Thiruvanmiyur and 85 kilometres from Pondicherry. Kalpakkam is famous for its nuclear plants and affiliated research installations; these include the Madras Atomic Power Station, one of India's nuclear power plants, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, an affiliate of the Department of Atomic Energy. Due to increasing congestion in Kalpakkam arising from the need to accommodate more employees, a new township of Anupuram/Amaipakkam, 8 kilometres from Kalpakkam, was inaugurated in 1998; the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake generated widespread damage and resulted in 200 deaths in and around Kalpakkam. There is a tsunami memorial having a white oval plaque engraved with the names of 39 people who lost their lives in the tsunami. Kalpakkam is a well planned township.
The schools present in the township are Atomic Energy Central School, Kendriya Vidyalaya-1, Kendriya Vidyalaya-2, Govt Hr. Secondary School and Infant Jesus Matric Hr. Sec. School on Pudupattinam; the township is split into two sides: the Pudupattinam sides. There is a healthy rivalry in sports and in other activities between the two sides. Both sides have similar facilities, but Pudupattinam has more complete and bigger facilities, such as the hospital and the General Services Organization; the two sides are separated by two bridges over the canal which joins the sea nearby and well over the backwater with thousands of jellyfish moving underneath. The backwater is a visiting place by many migratory birds the seen Siberian crane in the depths of winter; the backwater can be seen through the compound walls of K. V-2 in Sadras.and Until a few years ago, the beach at Kalpakkam used to be lined with casuarina trees and only a few weeds. Nowadays, to avoid the widespread damage in case of a tsunami again, weed growth is starting to dominate, which the locals are fighting to keep in check.
A tsunami wall has been built across the seashore in case of another tsunami. The calm waters are free of sharks. Kalpakkam is very close to Mamallapuram – one of the famous tourist destinations near Chennai; the environment within the township has been maintained for over 30 years. The township contains numerous trees and various parks, various outlets for recreation, including tennis courts, dance, swimming academies and other sport activities. NESCO KRC is governed by an elected employee council, it offers various facilities for members: Movies, Volleyball, Badminton, Chess, Table Tennis and a Gym. There is a tennis court and Swimming pool where competitions are held annually. There are only a few hotels available such as BEMS Hotel near Central Bus stand, Ammavin Adupangarai, Arusuvai Virundhu and Arabian garden in ECR. There is a new cafe named Icecap for cold drinks and chat items. A few new hotels named Sahara Restaurant, Manna Restaurant etc. are opened in ECR Road, only a kilometer away from ECR Bus stand.
You can get North Indian food in Sahara Hotel. The township is well connected by road and TNSTC operates buses from Chennai, Bangalore, Trichy, Tirupathi, Tiruvannamalai Chittoor and Kanchipuram; the East Coast Road connecting Chennai and Pondicherry passes through Pudupattinam. Http://www.igcar.gov.in "Will the Kalpakkam Nuclear Establishment & the Indian Atomic Energy Commission Learn its Lessons from the December 26 Tsunami?" - An Indepth Critique Kendriya Vidyalaya-1 Kendriya Vidyalaya-2 Infant Jesus Matric Hr. Sec. School
For the fort in Alibaug, see Kolaba fortColaba or Kulābā is a part of the city of Mumbai, a Lok Sabha constituency. During Portuguese rule in the 16th century, the island was known as Candil. After the British took over the island in the late 17th century, it was known as Colio; the name Colaba comes from Kolabhat, a word in the language of Kolis, the indigenous inhabitants of the islands, before the arrival of the Portuguese. The area, now Colaba was a region consisting of two islands: Colaba and Little Colaba; the island of Colaba was one of the Seven islands of Bombay ruled by the Portuguese. The Portuguese had acquired these lands from the Sultanate of Cambay by the Treaty of Bassein; the group of islands was given by Portugal to Charles II of England as a dowry when he married Catherine of Braganza in 1661. The cession of Bombay and dependencies was resented by Portuguese officials in Goa and Bombay, who resisted transfer of possession for several years, while the English representatives were confined to the island of Anjediva while negotiations continued.
Angered by the back-tracking, Charles II leased these lands to the British East India Company for a nominal annual rent. Gerald Aungier, second Governor of Bombay, the president of the English settlement of Surat, took possession of Colaba and Old Woman's Island on behalf of the Company in 1675. Portugal continued to hold Little Colaba island for several decades more before ceding it to the English in about 1762, subject to the retention of Portuguese ownership of a house on the island, now the Blessed Sacrament Chapel in Middle Colaba; this was leased by the Portuguese Government of Goa to the Bishop of Damao, the head of the Padroado party in Bombay, as his residence. After an attempt by the Propaganda Fide party to seize the chapel, a court ruled that the house remained the property of the Government of Portugal and evicted the Propaganda Fide party. In 1743, British Colaba was leased to Richard Broughton at Rs. 200 yearly, the lease was renewed in 1764. By 1796, Colaba had become a cantonment.
Colaba was known for the variety of fishes – the bombil, halwa, crabs and lobsters. A Colaba Observatory, a meteorological observatory was established in 1826 in the part, called Upper Colaba; the Colaba Causeway was completed in 1838, thus, the remaining two islands were joined to the others. Colaba became a commercial centre, after the Cotton Exchange was opened at Cotton Green in 1844; the real estate prices in the area went up. The Colaba Causeway was widened in 1861 and 1863. Colaba became a separate municipality ward in 1872; the Sick Bungalows were built in the 19th century. The construction of the Anglican church of St. John the Evangelist began in 1847; the Church was consecrated in 1858, with the work on the steeple being concluded in 1865. The horse-drawn tram-cars were introduced in 1873 by Stearns and Kitteredge, who had their offices on the west side of the Causeway, where the Electric House now stands; the Prong's lighthouse was constructed at the southern tip of the island in 1875.
The eponymous Sassoon Docks were built by David Sassoon on reclaimed land in the same year. The BB&CI Railways established the Colaba railway station or terminus, the site of, now occupied by the Badhwar Park layout; the development of Colaba pushed the native kolis to the edges of the island. The Bombay City Improvement Trust reclaimed around 90,000 square yards on the western shore of Colaba. Eminent citizens of Mumbai, such as Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, opposed the work, fearing that the reclamation would depress prices of land. However, the reclamation work continued and was completed in 1905. There was no fall in the land prices. In 1906, a seafront road with a raised sea-side promenade was completed, named as "Cuffe Parade" after T. W. Cuffe of the Trust; the Gateway of India, the art deco style Regal Theatre, the cafes, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Royal Bombay Yacht Club, Bademiya Restaurant and Bagdadi restaurant, as well as a number of modern pubs and clubs all add to the atmosphere. The southern tip is occupied by a military cantonment, including the large Navy Nagar layout built on reclaimed land known as Holiday Camp.
The older parts of the cantonment retains its large, wooded spaces and is the only bit of green left in this otherwise congested area. In the midst of Navy Nagar lies the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, one of India's leading scientific institutions. Colaba is renowned for high-end boutiques and imitation consumer goods, is popular with tourists. Notable residents include Ratan Tata, Anil Ambani, Ravi Shastri. Colaba Causeway, or just "Causeway" as it is known in Mumbai, offers everything from bracelets to perfumes to clothes to watches, clocks, DVDs and CDs, it has an old English charm and a modern feel as well. Colaba is the art center of Mumbai, with all the major galleries and museums located in and around this area. Today, in 2019, the government has managed to preserve most of its colonial-era architectures. Colaba is home to the Cooperage Football Ground. Nearest railway stations: Churchgate Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Colaba Causeway Colaba Observatory Cowasji Jehangir Hall Ballard Estate Cathedral of the Holy Name Prong's Lighthouse Gateway of India Sassoon Docks David Sassoon Library On 26 November 2008, terrorist strikes occurred at various places in Colaba, notably the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Café and Mumbai Chabad House.
The attacks resulted in over significant damages. Co
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Cuffe Parade is the historical and most significant business district in Western India. Located at the southern end of Mumbai, it is home to a collection of commercial and office high-rises, it is bordered to the north by Nariman Point, which along with Cuffe Parade, form the greater CBD region of Mumbai. Cuffe Parade was named after T. W. Cuffe of the Bombay City Improvement Trust, which reclaimed around 75,000 m² on the western shore of Colaba. Much of Cuffe Parade was developed on reclaimed land in the 1960s, with many of the buildings over thirty storeys high. Prior to the mid 2000's, some of the tallest buildings in Asia were located in Cuffe Parade. Unlike Nariman Point to the North, Cuffe Parade's lack of proximity to major historical sites has allowed construction of towers above 150 metres of height. However, in recent years, residential towers in Parel, along with commercial towers in Bombay Central have overtaken Cuffe Parade's skyline. Cuffe Parade has been making a resurgence in recent years, with a slew of residential and commercial towers going up along the bay facing Nariman Point.
There are plans to greenfly the edge of the bay, allowing a seamless park/plaza between Cuffe Parade and Marine Drive. To the east is Colaba Causeway and to the west is the Arabian Sea. Among the notable residents are members of the Ambani and Husain families. Prominent businessmen living here include Subhash Chandra of Essel Group, the Goenka family, the Patni family, Nimesh Kampani of JM Financial; the skyline consists of prominent buildings like Maker Tower and Jolly Maker-1, considered to be the richest housing society in Mumbai. Cuffe Parade Resident Association is a citizen’s organisation looking after the interests of the Cuffe Parade area since 1971, it is suspected that some of the original attackers in the November Mumbai attacks disembarked from a boat in the area, according to local eyewitnesses. MVRDC World Trade Centre I is located at Cuffe Parade in Mumbai, it is 156 metres high and has 35 floors, it is a shopping complex. One of India's top media empires, that of Ronnie Screwvala, started in 1981, right here when he brought one of India's first cable TV channels to Cuffe Parade.
Taj President Hotel World Trade Centre G D Somani Memorial School BD Somani International School Maker Arcade WIRC of ICAI Colaba Woods Cuffe Parade Residents Association. Cuffe Parade at wikimapia; the Times of India
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing and distribution. Modern society consumes large amounts of fuel, the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and maintenance of society in all countries. In particular, the energy industry comprises: the petroleum industry, including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations the gas industry, including natural gas extraction, coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales the electrical power industry, including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales the coal industry the nuclear power industry the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative energy and sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power, wind power, solar power generation, the manufacture and sale of alternative fuels traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, the use of which, for cooking and heating, is common in poorer countries The use of energy has been a key in the development of the human society by helping it to control and adapt to the environment.
Managing the use of energy is inevitable in any functional society. In the industrialized world the development of energy resources has become essential for agriculture, waste collection, information technology, communications that have become prerequisites of a developed society; the increasing use of energy since the Industrial Revolution has brought with it a number of serious problems, some of which, such as global warming, present grave risks to the world. In some industries, the word energy is used as a synonym of energy resources, which refer to substances like fuels, petroleum products and electricity in general, because a significant portion of the energy contained in these resources can be extracted to serve a useful purpose. After a useful process has taken place, the total energy is conserved, but the resource itself is not conserved, since a process transforms the energy into unusable forms. Since humanity discovered various energy resources available in nature, it has been inventing devices, known as machines, that make life more comfortable by using energy resources.
Thus, although the primitive man knew the utility of fire to cook food, the invention of devices like gas burners and microwave ovens has increased the usage of energy for this purpose alone manyfold. The trend is the same in any other field of social activity, be it construction of social infrastructure, manufacturing of fabrics for covering. Production and consumption of energy resources is important to the global economy. All economic activity requires energy resources, whether to manufacture goods, provide transportation, run computers and other machines. Widespread demand for energy may encourage competing energy utilities and the formation of retail energy markets. Note the presence of the "Energy Marketing and Customer Service" sub-sector; the energy sector accounts for 4.6% of outstanding leveraged loans, compared with 3.1% a decade ago, while energy bonds make up 15.7% of the $1.3 trillion junk bond market, up from 4.3% over the same period. Since the cost of energy has become a significant factor in the performance of economy of societies, management of energy resources has become crucial.
Energy management involves utilizing the available energy resources more, with minimum incremental costs. Many times it is possible to save expenditure on energy without incorporating fresh technology by simple management techniques. Most energy management is the practice of using energy more efficiently by eliminating energy wastage or to balance justifiable energy demand with appropriate energy supply; the process couples energy awareness with energy conservation. The United Nations developed the International Standard Industrial Classification, a list of economic and social classifications. There is no distinct classification for an energy industry, because the classification system is based on activities and expenditures according to purpose. Countries in North America use the North American Industry Classification System; the NAICS sectors #21 and #22 might define the energy industry in North America. This classification is used by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission; the Global Industry Classification Standard used by Morgan Stanley define the energy industry as comprising companies working with oil, gas and consumable fuels, excluding companies working with certain industrial gases.
Add to expand this section: Dow Jones Industrial Average Government encouragement in the form of subsidies and tax incentives for energy-conservation efforts has fostered the view of conservation as a major function of the energy industry: saving an amount of energy provides economic benefits identical to generating that same amount of energy. This is compounded by the fact that the economics of delivering energy tend to be priced for capacity as opposed to average usage. One of the purposes of a smart grid infrastructure is to smooth out demand so that capacity and demand curves align more closely; some parts of the energy industry generate considerable pollution, including toxic and greenhouse gases from fuel combustion, nuclear waste from the generation of nuclear power, oil spillages as a result of petroleum extraction. Government regulations to internaliz