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Nuclear technology

Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei. Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear reactors, nuclear medicine and nuclear weapons, it is used, among other things, in smoke detectors and gun sights. The vast majority of common, natural phenomena on Earth only involve gravity and electromagnetism, not nuclear reactions; this is because atomic nuclei are kept apart because they contain positive electrical charges and therefore repel each other. In 1896, Henri Becquerel was investigating phosphorescence in uranium salts when he discovered a new phenomenon which came to be called radioactivity. He, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie began investigating the phenomenon. In the process, they isolated the element radium, radioactive, they discovered that radioactive materials produce intense, penetrating rays of three distinct sorts, which they labeled alpha and gamma after the first three Greek letters. Some of these kinds of radiation could pass through ordinary matter, all of them could be harmful in large amounts.

All of the early researchers received various radiation burns, much like sunburn, thought little of it. The new phenomenon of radioactivity was seized upon by the manufacturers of quack medicine, a number of patent medicines and treatments involving radioactivity were put forward, it was realized that the radiation produced by radioactive decay was ionizing radiation, that quantities too small to burn could pose a severe long-term hazard. Many of the scientists working on radioactivity died of cancer as a result of their exposure. Radioactive patent medicines disappeared, but other applications of radioactive materials persisted, such as the use of radium salts to produce glowing dials on meters; as the atom came to be better understood, the nature of radioactivity became clearer. Some larger atomic nuclei are unstable, so decay after a random interval; the three forms of radiation that Becquerel and the Curies discovered are more understood. Alpha decay is when a nucleus releases an alpha particle, two protons and two neutrons, equivalent to a helium nucleus.

Beta decay is the release of a high-energy electron. Gamma decay releases gamma rays, which unlike alpha and beta radiation are not matter but electromagnetic radiation of high frequency, therefore energy; this type of radiation is the most difficult to block. All three types of radiation occur in certain elements, it has become clear that the ultimate source of most terrestrial energy is nuclear, either through radiation from the Sun caused by stellar thermonuclear reactions or by radioactive decay of uranium within the Earth, the principal source of geothermal energy. In natural nuclear radiation, the byproducts are small compared to the nuclei from which they originate. Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a nucleus into equal parts, releasing energy and neutrons in the process. If these neutrons are captured by another unstable nucleus, they can fission as well, leading to a chain reaction; the average number of neutrons released per nucleus that go on to fission another nucleus is referred to as k.

Values of k larger than 1 mean that the fission reaction is releasing more neutrons than it absorbs, therefore is referred to as a self-sustaining chain reaction. A mass of fissile material large enough to induce a self-sustaining chain reaction is called a critical mass; when a neutron is captured by a suitable nucleus, fission may occur or the nucleus may persist in an unstable state for a short time. If there are enough immediate decays to carry on the chain reaction, the mass is said to be prompt critical, the energy release will grow and uncontrollably leading to an explosion; when discovered on the eve of World War II, this insight led multiple countries to begin programs investigating the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb — a weapon which utilized fission reactions to generate far more energy than could be created with chemical explosives. The Manhattan Project, run by the United States with the help of the United Kingdom and Canada, developed multiple fission weapons which were used against Japan in 1945 at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

During the project, the first fission reactors were developed as well, though they were for weapons manufacture and did not generate electricity. In 1951, the first nuclear fission power plant was the first to produce electricity at the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1, in Arco, ushering in the "Atomic Age" of more intensive human energy use. However, if the mass is critical only when the delayed neutrons are included the reaction can be controlled, for example by the introduction or removal of neutron absorbers; this is. Fast neutrons are not captured by nuclei. Today, this type of fission is used to generate electricity. If nuclei are forced to collide, they can undergo nuclear fusion; this process may absorb energy. When the resulting nucleus is lighter than that of iron, energy is released; this process of fusion occurs in stars, which derive their energy from helium. They form, through stellar nucleosynthesis, the light elements as well as some of the heavy elements; the remaining abundance of he

MM code

An MM code is a "machine-readable modulated" feature, added to German debit cards during manufacture as an anti-counterfeiting measure since 1979. It was developed by "Gesellschaft für Automation und Organisation" in Munich for the German ec-Card system and MM verification devices have been added to German ATMs from 1982 onwards. If a payment card contains an MM code as well as a magnetic stripe, any fraudster who counterfeits the card but fails to read and duplicate the MM code onto the copy will be detected when trying to use the counterfeit in a German automated teller machine. Automated Teller Machines which can read the MM code contain a special MM box and sensor to read and verify the MM code; the MM box was for a long time considered a well-guarded secret. The MM code consists of two components, one stored on the magnetic stripe, one hidden inside the card's material. During MM code verification, a cryptographic operation is performed to check that the MM code on the magnetic stripe corresponds to the hidden one.

The presence of the keyed cryptographic operation means that the correct MM code for a counterfeit cannot be calculated from the magnetic stripe information alone without knowledge of the key – it must be read from the original card itself. In order to remain effective, the MM code relied on the obscurity of the reading mechanism and the expense and difficulty of embedding a code once known. Since the arrival of the EMV chip-based payment protocols, the MM code has reduced significance in combatting card counterfeiting; the MM feature is encoded in the middle layer of an ISO/IEC 7810 card as a bar code formed by two materials with different electrical properties. A capacitive sensor head near the magstripe reader observes the changing capacitance as the card is moved past the sensor and decodes the represented number; this sensor works in a similar fashion to the magnetic read head found in a magstripe card reader, except that it senses not a change in magnetic flux, but a change in the dielectric constant of the card's material.

It reads a second data stripe that, unlike the magstripe, cannot be rewritten with off-the-shelf equipment. In addition to capacitive MM code, used in Germany since the early 1980s, a range of similar technologies have been proposed or patented, but have never been deployed in ATM cards: Angle modulation of ferromagnetic particles: A code is embedded into the magnetic stripe using read and write heads operating diagonally to the direction of swipe in the reader. With appropriate signal processing, these can read and encode a small amount of additional data, polarised in a different axis to the ISO standard tracks. Infrared barcodes: The second class concerns encoding the code onto the plastic base of the card using special inks, or reading a code, inherently embedded as part of the plastic manufacturing process for each batch; such a code may only be visible under infrared illumination. W Rankl and W Effing. Smart Card Handbook. John Wiley and Sons. Pp. 36–38. Doi:10.1002/047085670X.ch3. ISBN 0-470-85668-8.

Freimut Bodendorf and Susanne Robra-Bissantz. E-Finance: Elektronische Dienstleistungen in der Finanzwirtschaft. Oldenbourg. Pp. 49–50. ISBN 3-486-25890-7

Romsdals Budstikke

Romsdals Budstikke is a daily newspaper published in Molde, Norway. Romsdals Budstikke was established in 1843. Politically the paper is liberal and used to be a newspaper for the Liberal Party, but has been independent since 1973; the coverage area includes Molde, Vestnes, Aukra, Sandøy, Eide, Fræna. Mecom owned Romsdals Budstikke until February 2009. In the 1970s, the paper won a circulation war with Romsdal Folkeblad. In 2013 Romsdals Budstikke was named Newspaper of the Year in Norway. Romsdals Budstikke had an all-time high circulation of 19,004 in 1999. In 2008 the circulation was 18,648, its circulation was 12,632 copies and 14,903 digital subscribers in 2017 and 11,725 copies and 15,798 digital subscribers in 2019.


CoCoA is a free computer algebra system developed by the University of Genova, used to compute with numbers and polynomials. The CoCoA Library is available under GNU General Public License. CoCoA has been ported to many operating systems including Macintosh on PPC and x86, Linux on x86, x86-64 & PPC, Solaris on SPARC and Windows on x86. CoCoA is used by researchers, but can be useful for "simple" computations. CoCoA's features include: Very big integers and rational numbers using the GNU Multi-Precision Library Multivariate Polynomials Gröbner basis User interfaces: text. For example, it can compute Gröbner basis and minimal free resolutions, division, the radical of an ideal, the ideal of zero-dimensional schemes, Poincaré series and Hilbert functions, factorization of polynomials, toric ideals; the capabilities of CoCoA and the flexibility of its use are further enhanced by the dedicated high-level programming language. Its mathematical core, CoCoALib, has been designed as an open source C++ library, focussing on ease of use and flexibility.

CoCoALib is based on GNU Multi-Precision Library. CoCoALib is used by ApCoCoA and NmzIntegrate List of computer algebra systems Standard Template Library Official website ApCoCoA, an extension of CoCoA

Siege of Mora

The Siege of Mora or Siege of Moraberg, between Allied and besieged German troops, took place from August 1914 to February 1916 on and around the Mora mountain in northern Kamerun during the Kamerun Campaign of the First World War. After more than a year of siege German forces on the mountain surrendered, following the escape of many German troops to the neutral Spanish colony of Rio Muni. In early August 1914 the First World War broke out in Europe, the Allies began the task of conquering Germany's African colonies; the German West African colony of Togoland was defeated on 26 August, freeing up British and French troops for the invasion of Kamerun. In preparation, British columns had stationed themselves at various intervals along Nigeria's border with the German colony, the northernmost of which, commanded by Captain R. W. Fox, was stationed at Maiduguri, across the border from the German fort at Mora; this Nigerian detachment, consisting of one infantry and one mounted company, had entrenched itself on the frontier while awaiting orders and gathering intelligence on German forces in the region.

The fort at Mora, about 100 miles south of Lake Chad, near the colony's western border with Nigeria, was guarded by a company of Schutztruppen under the command of Captain Ernst von Raben. The garrison consisted of 14 European and 125 African soldiers, most of whom were tough, well-trained Askaris. Von Raben managed to recruit 65 more men. On 13 August, the German commander relocated the garrison from the fort on the plain to positions partway up Mora mountain; this gave them a commanding view over easy access to water. Mora mountain, which would become a fortress during the siege, was 30 miles around at its base and 1,700 feet high. German forces prepared for British attack by fortifying their positions on its steep slopes. On the morning of 19 August, German sentries detected. Captain von Raben and 30 of his soldiers descended from the mountain and, after a firefight, forced the British to retreat; the German commander ordered the destruction of the fort at Sava, to prevent its use by the Allies.

British scouts continued to harass German forces in the region. On 20 August, upon receiving orders to attack Mora from Colonel C. H. P. Carter, Captain Fox sent his forces marching towards the town, they arrived on 26 August and occupied positions at Sava, about three kilometers from the German defenses on the mountain. They were joined by 16 French soldiers from French Equatorial Africa; the Allied position was on the road between Mora and Garua, thus preventing any contact between the two German garrisons. On the night of 27 August, Captain Fox led a detachment of French and British troops to the top of Mora mountain, in hopes of attacking the German trenches from above; when morning came the Allied forces began to fire down into the German trenches, but found they were beyond effective range. The Allied detachment was counter-attacked by the Germans, who forced them to retreat back down the mountain; as they made their way down a thick mist fell, causing a group to become disoriented and wander away from the main detachment.

When the fog rose, Captain Fox's soldiers saw counter-attacking German troops in the distance wearing red fezzes, mistaking them for the similarly-uniformed French troops who had gone astray, did not engage them. The German force overwhelmed the British, killing three, including a doctor, capturing one, forcing the rest to retreat back to Sava; the Germans lost one African soldier in this encounter. After returning from their first attack on the German positions, the British began building defenses on a hill near Sava, closer to Mora mountain, Captain Fox requested that artillery be brought up from Nigeria. At this time, the small French force under Captain Ferrandi returned to Fort Lamy in French Equatorial Africa; the Allied attack having made them aware of the vulnerabilities of their position on the slopes of the mountain, the Germans relocated to the summit in early September. A German force at Fort Kusseri, under Lieutenant Kallmeyer, withdrew to Mora in late September, further strengthening von Raben's defences.

Around 300 French troops under Lieutenant Colonel Brisett were freed up after the Battle of Kusseri, joined the British force at Mora, occupying several hills around the mountain. By late October 1914 the Allies had machine guns and artillery in position; the Germans prepared for the imminent siege by sending scavenging parties to gather as much food as possible, in which they were quite successful. On 29 October, Allied artillery began to pound the German positions while machine guns fired at the Schutztruppen. Two days a French Senegalese unit attempted to storm the German positions atop the mountain, was completely destroyed. Further waves of French troops continued to charge up the slopes, were cut down. One result of this action was that German troops were able to seize supplies from the Allied dead, including ammunition and machine guns. A short truce ensued for the purpose of burying those. On 4 November, artillery bombarded German forward positions on the north side of Mora. A French infantry attack followed, which resulted in the death of two German officers and three soldiers, the Allied occupation of the outpost.

The remainder of the German force withdrew, but fighting continued throughout the night, until German forces under the command of an African sergeant stormed and retook the position. As time went on German forces began to run out of supplies, the shortage of food being serious. With the Allied encirclement complete, scavenging parties could no longer venture into the c

2019 Thai League 4 Northeastern Region

The 2019 Thai League 4 Northeastern region is a region in the regional stage of the 2019 Thai League 4. A total of 13 teams located in Northeastern of Thailand will compete in the league of the Northeastern region. Notes:* The reserve of T1 and T2 teams known as team could not qualified and relegated, so that the teams in lower or upper positions would be qualified or relegated. For the Northeastern region, a total 24 matches per team competing in 2 legs. Source: Thai LeagueNote:Unk.1 Some error of T4 official match report 20 April 2019. Unk.2 Some error of T4 official match report 25 May 2019. Unk.3 Some error of T4 official match report 25 May 2019. 2019 Thai League 1 2019 Thai League 2 2019 Thai League 3 2019 Thai League 4 2019 Thailand Amateur League 2019 Thai FA Cup 2019 Thai League Cup 2019 Thailand Champions Cup Official website of Thai League