click links in text for more info


Nucleariida is a group of amoebae with filose pseudopods, known from soils and freshwater. They are distinguished from the superficially similar vampyrellids by having mitochondria with discoid cristae. Nucleariids are opisthokonts, the group which includes animals and several smaller groups. Several studies place the nucleariids as a sister group to the fungi; the genera Rabdiophrys and Pompholyxophrys, freshwater forms with hollow siliceous scales or spines, were included in Nucleariida, but are now placed in Rhizaria. In the past, nucleariids were included among the heliozoa as the Rotosphaerida. According to a 2009 paper, Fonticula, a cellular slime mold, is an opisthokont and more related to Nuclearia than to fungi. Order Nucleariida Cavalier-Smith 1993 Genus Parvularia Lopez-Escardo & Torruella 2017 Species Parvularia atlantis Lopez-Escardo & Torruella 2017 Family Nucleariidae Cann & Page 1979 Genus Nuclearia Cienkowski 1865 Species Astrodisculus minutus Greeff 1869 Species Astrodisculus araneiformis Schewiakoff 1893 Species Astrodisculus laciniatus Penard 1904 Species Astrodisculus affinis Schouteden 1905 Species Astrodisculus marinus Kufferath 1952 Species N. conspicua West 1903 Species N. lohmanni Kufferath 1952 Species N. delicatula Cienkowski 1865 Species N. flavescens Patterson 1984 Species N. flavocapsulata Patterson 1984 Species N. leuckarti Patterson 1984 Species N. moebiusi Frenzel 1897 Species N. pattersoni Dyková et al. 2003 Species N. polypodia Schewiakoff 1863 Species N. radians Patterson 1984 Species N. simplex Cienkowsky 1865 Species N. thermophila Yoshida, Nakayama & Inouye 2009 Species N. rubra Patterson 1984 Nucleariids are small, up to about 50 μm in size


The Zentralbahn is a Swiss railway company that owns and operates two connecting railway lines in Central Switzerland and the Bernese Oberland. It was created on January 1, 2005, with the acquisition of the independently owned Luzern–Stans–Engelberg line, the Brünig line of the Swiss Federal Railways; the company has its headquarters in Stansstad. The railway owns the infrastructure of the 74 km long inter-regional Brünig line, which links Lucerne and Interlaken over the Brünig Pass, the 25 km long Luzern–Stans–Engelberg line from Hergiswil, on the Brünig line some 9 km out of Lucerne, to Engelberg. Both lines are built to the 1,000 mm metre gauge, use rack railway technology to climb their steepest gradients, although most of both lines uses conventional adhesion; the railway operates two hourly InterRegio express services, one between Lucerne and Interlaken, one between Lucerne and Engelberg. It operates two half-hourly services of the Lucerne S-Bahn, the S4 between Lucerne and Wolfenschiessen and the S5 between Lucerne and Giswil.

At the Interlaken end of the line, an hourly Regio service is operated as far as Meiringen. Only the two InterRegio services traverse the company's rack sections and require rack equipped stock; the two lines of the Zentralbahn have quite distinct histories. The Brünig line was constructed in incremental stages between 1888 and 1916; the first stages, over the Brünig Pass between Brienz and Alpnachstad were opened by the Jura–Bern–Lucerne Railway, who extended the line from Alpnachstad to Lucerne, giving connections to the rest of the Swiss railway network. Subsequently the JBL became part of the Jura–Simplon Railway in 1891, the JS became part of the Swiss Federal Railways in 1903; the SBB opened the last section of the line, from Brienz to Interlaken in 1916. As constructed, the line was operated by steam locomotives, used the Riggenbach rack system to overcome gradients of up to 12% on the approaches to each side of the Brünig Pass; the line was electrified in 1941 and 1942, using the standard Swiss main line system of 15 kV 16.7 Hz AC supplied by overhead line.

The rack sections were retained. The major part of the line to Engelberg was constructed by Stansstad–Engelberg Railway and opened in 1898; the line ran from Stansstad to Engelberg and, like the Brünig line in its early days, relied on steamship connections with the rest of the Swiss railway network. Unlike the Brünig line, the StEB line was electrified from its opening, using a three-phase alternating current overhead line supply, it used the Riggenbach rack system on its final approaches to Engleberg, but with a steep maximum gradient of 25%. In 1960 work started on connecting the Engelberg line to the Swiss railway network by constructing a new line between Stansstad and Hergiswil on the Brünig line; this involved constructing a bridge over the narrow Alpnachersee arm of Lake Lucerne, followed by the Lopper II tunnel, under a shoulder of Mount Pilatus. In order to allow Engelberg trains to run over the Brünig line into Lucerne, the whole railway was converted to the same electrical system, new rolling stock acquired.

The line reopened in 1964, the owning company changed its name to the Luzern–Stans–Engelberg Railway. For 40 years, the ownership structure of the two lines remained unchanged, with LSE owned trains running over SBB owned tracks between Hergiswil and Lucerne. However, in June 2004, the Swiss Federal Council empowered the SBB to transfer the Brünig line to the LSE with effect from January 2005. In return the LSE issued shares to the SBB, as a result 2/3 of its shares are now owned by SBB; the LSE was subsequently renamed the Zentralbahn to reflect its much larger scale of operation. At the end of 2009, the Zentralbahn took over the operation of the 1,435 mm tracks of the Kriens-Luzern-Bahn between Lucerne and Horw. Most of these tracks were laid in a dual gauge configuration with the metre gauge tracks of the Brünig line. Since the merger several major projects have been undertaken. In 2010, the 4,043 m Grafenort to Engelberg tunnel was constructed to replace the steep final approach to Engelberg.

Whilst still rack operated, the tunnel has a maximum gradient of 10.5% as opposed to 25%. In late 2012, a new tunnel route was opened between Kriens Mattenhof station and the approaches to Lucerne station, on the stretch of the Brünig line used by Engelberg trains; the tunnel replaces a less direct surface alignment, allowing the abolition of several congested level crossings and the provision of double track. A new station, Lucerne Allmend/Messe, built within the tunnel, serves the Swissporarena. Official website

Jack Riley (rugby league)

Jack Riley was an English professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1900s. He played at representative level for England, at club level for Halifax, as a forward, during the era of contested scrums, represented England in the first international rugby league game in 1904. Jack Riley won a cap playing as a forward, i.e. number 10, for England in the 3-9 defeat by Other Nationalities at Central Park, Wigan on Tuesday 5 April 1904, in the first international rugby league match. Jack Riley played as a forward, i.e. number 8, in Halifax's 7-0 victory over Salford in the 1902–03 Challenge Cup Final during the 1902–03 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 25 April 1903, in front of a crowd of 32,507, he played as a forward, i.e. number 12, in the 8-3 victory over Warrington in the 1903–04 Challenge Cup Final during the 1903–04 season at The Willows, Salford on Saturday 30 April 1904, in front of a crowd of 17,041

Slate Hill Cemetery

Slate Hill Burying Ground is a historic cemetery in Lower Makefield Township, with most of its graves dating to 18th century Quaker settlers. It is located at Mahlon Drive. Established in 1690, it is the oldest burial ground in Bucks County; the earliest gravestone is dated 1698, but unmarked graves may be earlier. The cemetery consists of three sections: the first was given in 1690 by Thomas Janney; the Anderson grant created the first public cemetery in Lower Makefield Township. The two earlier sections are known as the Quaker section; the Quaker section has 185 marked graves out of a total of 487, most pre-dating 1800. The public section has 96 marked graves including those of six free African Americans who served in the Union Army during the American Civil War; the cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Slate Hill Cemetery at Find A Grave

List of Eastbourne Town F.C. seasons

This is a list of English football seasons played by Devonshire Park and Eastbourne Town Football Club from 1971 to the present day. Their early years which were spent playing cup and friendly games are included. Eastbourne played in the Southern Amateur Football League between 1907 and 1946 playing in the Sussex County League in 1920, before joining the Corinthian League from 1946 until it merged with the Athenian League in 1963. In 1976, Eastbourne Town re-joined the Sussex County League playing in Divisions One and Two until promotion into the Isthmian Football League in 2007 before being relegated into back into the Sussex County League in 2015. In 2015, the Sussex County Football League was renamed into the Southern Combination Football League, the divisions being renamed into Premier and Division One. In this period, Devonshire Park and Eastbourne F. C. only competed in friendly games and in the Sussex Senior Cup. In this period, Eastbourne only played in cup games before joining the Amateur Football League and the Southern Amateur League in 1907 In this period, Eastbourne remained in the Southern Amateur League, but joined the Sussex County League as a founding member, playing in two leagues for just one season.

In this period, Eastbourne joined the Corinthian League. In this period, Eastbourne left the Corinthian League and joined the Athenian League renamed to Eastbourne Town and joined the Sussex County League. In this period, Eastbourne Town played in the Sussex County League. In this period, Eastbourne Town were promoted into the Isthmian League and played in the FA Trophy for the first time. Sources for League, FA Cup, FA Trophy and FA Vase statistics: Eastbourne at the Football Club History Database Eastbourne Town at the Football Club History Database

Regency of the Mexican Empire

The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire and the Second Mexican Empire. The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince. After the entry of the Trigarante Army, or the Army of the Three Guarantees on September 27, 1821, the viceregal government was dissolved and the Independence of Mexico was consumed, so on September 28, 1821, a Provisional Government Junta was installed, whose members took the oath and decreed the Act of Independence to confirm the freedom and sovereignty of Mexico. Agustin de Iturbide was unanimously elected as President of the Junta; the Junta constituted the Regency of the Mexican Empire in the night session of September 28, 1821 with 5 members, which would exercise the Executive Power, selecting Iturbide as president, secretaries to Juan O'Donojú, Manuel de la Bárcena, José Isidro Yañez and Manuel Velázquez de León, secretary of the viceroyalty.

Once the Junta realized that Agustín de Iturbide had been elected president in the Regency, Antonio Joaquín Pérez Martínez, the Bishop of Puebla was elected as the new president of the Junta, so the "Executive Power" resided in the Regency and the "Legislative Power" in the Provisional Government Junta until the formation of a Constituent Congress. The Plan of Iguala stipulated a monarchical-constitutional government by a Congress. On the night of May 18, 1822, by popular acclamation, he reached the doors of the Iturbide house, now known as the Palace of Iturbide in Mexico City, to ask him to take the throne. On May 19, 1822 the Congress met, where Agustín de Iturbide said that he would be subject to what the deputies, representatives of the people, while the people cheered; the deputies Alcocer, Gutiérrez, Terán, San Martín and others, faced the popular excitement trying that at least, the pronouncement was legalized by means of a plebiscite. The deputy Valentín Gómez Farías, supported by 46 deputies, said that once the Treaty of Córdoba and the Plan of Iguala had been broken - since they had not been accepted in Spain - it was up to the deputies to cast their vote for Iturbide to be declared Emperor of Mexico.

Gómez Farías added that he should be obliged to obey the Constitution, laws and decrees issued by the Mexican Congress. The deputies began to debate in the midst of shouts and interruptions proceeded to the vote. Iturbide was elected by 67 votes against 15; the crowd cheered the result and accompanied the generalissimo cheering him from Congress to his residence. By popular desire and by legitimate decision of the Congress, Agustin de Iturbide was proclaimed Constitutional Emperor of Mexico as Agustín I of Mexico; the principal objectives of the Plan of Iguala were called "the Three Guarantees", these were: "independence and religion of all races of the nation". A new army, called the Trigarante Army, would be in charge of carrying out this plan and would be identified with a new flag; the Plan of Iguala was an act of political agreement, intensely complex in its consequences, although simple in its phrasing, which united conservatives and liberals and realists, Creoles and Spaniards. It consisted of 23 articles, it had something for everyone: article 1, for example, declared that the religion of the nation would be the Roman Apostolic catholic, without tolerance of other religion.

Article 2, the independence of the nation and Article 3, advocated the establishment of a Mexican monarchy regulated by a constitution. Agustín de Iturbide, President Juan O'Donojú replaced after his death by Antonio Pérez Martínez y Robles Manuel de la Bárcena José Isidro Yañez y Nuño Manuel Velázquez de León y Pérez Agustín de Iturbide, President José Isidro Yañez y Nuño Miguel Valentín y Tamayo Manuel de Heras Soto Nicolás Bravo At the end of the War of Reform, President Benito Juárez decreed the suspension of all public debts on July 17, 1861 and annul any possible payment such as the Mon-Almonte Treaty, promulgated in Paris between Alejandro Mon and Juan Nepomuceno Almonte for the ratification by monetary payments to delayed debts of Spain and by the murders of Spaniards in San Vicente and San Dimas, including those contracted with the foreign nations, being a remarkable fact, because it was the determining cause of the arrival in Mexico of the representatives from England and Spain, with their respective armies to demand the payment of their respective debts, for this reason, 51 deputies asked for the resignation of Benito Juárez as president and to promote Jesús González Ortega as the new President of Mexico, but another 54 deputies asked Benito Juarez not to resign, while the War and Foreign Secretaries of Benito Juárez dismissed all the conservatives abroad on behalf of the Mexican legation just after President Miguel Miramón and his secretaries traveled to Europe to meet with the French emperor Napoleon III, among the delegates dismissed by Benito Juárez were Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and José Manuel Hidalgo.

Meanwhile and France broke relations with the liberal Mexican government of Benito Juárez, while the conservative Mexican government by José Manuel Hidalgo, Juan Nepomuceno Almonte and José María Gutiérrez